Chemistry and nutrient loading

  • Thomas D. Brock
Part of the Ecological Studies book series (ECOLSTUD, volume 55)

Abstract

Lake Mendota is a typical hard-water lake whose chemistry has been significantly modified by eutrophication. A sequence of events can be recognized in Lake Mendota which leads to an alteration in the chemistry of the lake water. This sequence will be described briefly here and will be elaborated in the rest of this chapter.

Keywords

Chlorophyll Nitrite Photosynthesis Stratification Advection 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Birge, E.A. 1910. Gases dissolved in the waters of Wisconsin lakes. Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries, 28: 1275–1294.Google Scholar
  2. Birge, E.A., and C. Juday. 1911. The inland lakes of Wisconsin. The dissolved gases of the water and their biological significance. Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey, Bulletin No. 22, Madison.Google Scholar
  3. Bortleson, G.C. 1970. The chemical investigation of recent lake sediments from Wisconsin lakes and their interpretation. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Wisconsin, Madison.Google Scholar
  4. Brezonik, P.L. 1968. The dynamics of the nitrogen cycle in natural waters. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Wisconsin, Madison.Google Scholar
  5. Brezonik, P.L., and G.F. Lee. 1968. Denitrification as a nitrogen sink in Lake Mendota, Wisconsin. Environmental Science and Technology, 2: 120–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brock, T.D., D.R. Lee, D. Janes, and D. Winek. 1982. Groundwater seepage as a nutrient source to a drainage lake: Lake Mendota, Wisconsin. Water Research, 16: 1255–1263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cornett, R.J. and F.H. Rigler. 1980. The areal hypolimnetic oxygen deficit: an empirical test of the model. Limnology and Oceanography, 25: 672–679.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Delfino, J.J., G.C. Bortelson, and G.F. Lee. 1969. Distribution of Mn, Fe, P, Mg, K, Na, and Ca in the surface sediments of Lake Mendota, Wisconsin. Environmental Science and Technology, 3: 1189–1192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Delfino, J.J., and G.F. Lee. 1968. Chemistry of manganese in Lake Mendota, Wisconsin. Environmental Science and Technology, 2: 1094–1100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Delfino, J.J., and G.F. Lee. 1969. Colorimetric determination of manganese in lake waters. Environmental Science and Technology, 3: 761–764.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Delfino, J.J., and G.F. Lee. 1971. Variation of manganese, dissolved oxygen and related chemical parameters in the bottom waters of Lake Mendota, Wisconsin. Water Research, 5: 1207–1217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dillon, T.J., and F.H. Rigler. 1974. The phosphorous-chlorophyll relationship in lakes. Limnology and Oceanography, 19: 767–773.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Doyle, R.W. 1968. Identification and solubility of iron sulfide in anaerobic lake sediment. American Journal of Science, 266: 980–994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Edmondson, W.T. 1969. Eutrophication in North America. pp. 124–149, In: Eutrophication: Causes, Consequences, Correctives. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  15. Fallon, R.D. 1978. The planktonic cyanobacteria: their sedimentation and decomposition in Lake Mendota, Wisconsin. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Wisconsin, Madison.Google Scholar
  16. Fallon, R.D. and T.D. Brock. 1980. Planktonic blue-green algae: production, sedimentation, and decomposition in Lake Mendota, Wisconsin. Limnology and Oceanography, 25: 72–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Goering, J.J. and J.C. Neess. 1965. Nitrogen fixation in two Wisconsin lakes. Limnology and Oceanography, 9: 530–539.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hasler, A.D. 1947. Eutrophication of lakes by domestic drainage. Ecology, 28: 383–395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hasler, A.D. 1963. Wisconsin 1940-1961. pp. 55–93, In: Limnology in North America. (Frey, D.G., Editor), University of Wisconsin Press, Madison.Google Scholar
  20. Hawley, J.E. 1967. Calcium carbonate equilibrium in Lake Mendota. M. Sc. Thesis, University of Wisconsin, Madison.Google Scholar
  21. Hoffmann, M.R., and S.J. Eisenreich. 1981. Development of a computer-generated equilibrium model for the variation of iron and manganese in the hypolimnion of Lake Mendota. Environmental Science and Technology, 15: 339–344.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Holdren, G.C., D.E. Armstrong, and R.F. Harris. 1977. Interstitial inorganic phosphorous concentrations in Lakes Mendota and Wingra. Water Research, 11: 1041–1047.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hutchinson, G.E. 1938. On the relation between the oxygen deficit and the productivity and typology of lakes. International Revue gesamten Hydrobiologie, 36: 336–355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hutchinson, G.E. 1957. A treatise on limnology, Vol. 1. John Wiley and Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  25. Konrad, J.G., D.R. Keeney, G. Chesters, and K.-L. Chen. Nitrogen and carbon distribution in sediment cores of selected Wisconsin lakes. Journal Water Pollution Control Federation, 42: 2094–2101.Google Scholar
  26. Lackey, J.V., and C.N. Sawyer. 1945. Plankton productivity of certain southeastern Wisconsin lakes as related to fertilization. I. Surveys. Sewage Works Journal, 17: 573–585.Google Scholar
  27. Lathrop, R.C. 1979. Dane County water quality plan. Appendix B: water quality conditions; Appendix H: lake management. Dane County Regional Planning Commission, Madison, Wisconsin.Google Scholar
  28. Lerman, A. 1979. Geochemical processes: Water and sediment environments. John Wiley and Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  29. Lillie, R.A., and J.W. Mason. 1983. Limnological characteristics of Wisconsin lakes. Technical Bulletin No. 138, Department of Natural Resources, Madison, Wisconsin.Google Scholar
  30. Murray, R.C. 1956. Recent sediments of three Wisconsin lakes. Bulletin of the Geological Society of America, 67: 883–910.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Neess, J.C., R.C. Dugdale, V.A. Dugdale, and J.J. Goering. 1963. Nitrogen metabolism in lakes. I. Measurement of nitrogen fixation with N15. Limnology and Oceanography, 7: 163–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Nriagu, J.O. 1968. Sulfur metabolism and sedimentary environment: Lake Mendota, Wisconsin. Limnology and Oceanography, 13: 430–439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Nriagu, J.O., and C.J. Bowser. 1969. Magnetic spherules in sediments in Lake Mendota, Wisconsin. Water Research, 3: 833–842.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Peterson, R.B., E.E. Frieberg, and R.H. Bums. 1977. Diurnal variation in N2 fixation and photosynthesis by aquatic blue-green algae. Plant Physiology, 59: 74–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Sawyer, C.N. 1947. Fertilization of lakes by agricultural and urban drainage. New England Waterworks Association, 61: 109–127.Google Scholar
  36. Sawyer, C.N. 1954. Factors involved in disposal of sewage effluents to lakes. Sewage and Industrial Wastes, 26: 317–325.Google Scholar
  37. Shukla, S.S., J.K. Syers, J.D.H. Williams, D.E. Armstrong, and R.F. Harris. Sorption of inorganic phosphate by lake sediments. Soil Science Society of America Proceedings, 35: 244–249.Google Scholar
  38. Sonzogni, W.C., and G.F. Lee. 1974. Nutrient sources for Lake Mendota-1972. Transactions Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters, 62: 133–164.Google Scholar
  39. Sonzogni, W.C., G.P.Fitzgerald, and G.F. Lee. 1975. Effects of wastewater diversion on the lower Madison lakes. Journal of the Water Pollution Control Federation, 47: 535–542.Google Scholar
  40. Sonzogni, W.C. and G.F. Lee. 1975. Phosphorus sources for the lower Madison lakes. Transactions of the Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts, and Letters, 63: 162–175.Google Scholar
  41. Stauffer, R.E. 1974. Thermocline migration-algal bloom relationships in stratified lakes. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Wisconsin, Madison.Google Scholar
  42. Stauffer, R.E. 1981. Sampling strategies for estimating the magnitude and importance of internal phosphorus supplies in lakes. Environmental Protection Agency Publication EPA-600/3-81-015, April 1981, 89 pp. Environmental Research Laboratory, Corvallis, Oregon.Google Scholar
  43. Stauffer, R. E. 1985. Relationships between phosphorus loading and trophic state in calcareous lakes of southeast Wisconsin. Limnology and Oceanography, 30: 123–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Stewart, K.M. 1976. Oxygen deficits, clarity, and eutrophication in some Madison lakes. International Revue gesamten Hydrobiologie, 61: 563–579.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Torrey, M.S. 1972. Biological nitrogen fixation in Lake Mendota. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Wisconsin, Madison.Google Scholar
  46. Torrey, M.S. and G.F. Lee. 1976. Nitrogen fixation in Lake Mendota, Madison. Limnology and Oceanography, 21: 365–378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Trelease, W. 1889. The “working” of the Madison lakes. Transactions of the Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, 7: 121–129.Google Scholar
  48. Twenhofel, W.H. 1933. The physical and chemical characteristics of the sediments of Lake Mendota, a freshwater lake of Wisconsin. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, 3: 68–76.Google Scholar
  49. Vanderhoef, L.N. 1976. Nitrogen fixation in Lake Mendota, 1972-1973. Hydrobiologia, 49: 53–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Vanderhoef, L.N., P.J. Leibson, R.J. Musil, C.-Y. Huang, R.E. Fiehweg, J.W. Williams, D.L. Wackwitz, and K.T. Mason. 1975. Diurnal variation in algal acetylene reduction (nitrogen fixation) in situ. Plant Physiology, 55: 273–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Vigon, Bruce, W. 1976. The role of silica and the vernal diatom bloom in controlling the growth of nuisance algal populations in lakes. M.Sc. Thesis (Water Chemistry), University of Wisconsin, Madison.Google Scholar
  52. Vollenweider, R.A. 1976. Advances in defining critical loading levels for phosphorous in lake eutrophication. Memorie dell’ Istituto Italiano di Idrobiologia, 33: 53–83.Google Scholar
  53. Williams, J.D.H., J.K. Syers, and R.F. Harris. 1970. Adsorption and desorption of inorganic phosphorous by lake sediments in a 0.1 M NaCl system. Environmental Science and Technology, 4: 517–519.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thomas D. Brock
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BacteriologyUniversity of Wisconsin-MadisonMadisonUSA

Personalised recommendations