Mental Retardation

  • Cynthia L. Miller-Loncar
  • Jamie M. Winter
  • Thomas L. Whitman


Individuals who are mentally retarded have been viewed in a variety of ways over the centuries. In Greek writings, mental retardation was mentioned as early as 1500 B.C. Later, in 500 B.C., Hippocrates wrote about skull deformities associated with retardation. During the Middle Ages, persons who were mentally retarded were viewed as fools, favored as“innocents of God,” persecuted as witches, or considered possessed. In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, legal definitions were offered, and in the nineteenth century more sophisticated attempts were made to differentiate mental retardation from mental illness (Scheerenberger, 1987).


Mental Retardation Developmental Disability Intelligence Test Severe Mental Retardation Maple Syrup Urine Disease 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cynthia L. Miller-Loncar
    • 1
  • Jamie M. Winter
    • 2
  • Thomas L. Whitman
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Pediatrics, Infant Development CenterWomen & Infants’ HospitalProvidenceUSA
  2. 2.Department of Psycho1ogyUniversity of Notre DameNotre DameUSA

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