Case Study: Watershed Analysis (Hydrology)

  • Rainer Brüggemann
  • Ganapati P. Patil
Part of the Environmental and Ecological Statistics book series (ENES)


Twenty-one watersheds were characterized and ranked on the basis of two multiple indicator systems, level 1 (least expensive) and level 2 (expensive). Furthermore, level 3 indicators are defined which need investigations in the field and are pretty expensive and only six watersheds are characterized.

Composite indicators are defined on the basis of level 1 indicators, called LSI, and level 2 indicators, called SWR. LSI and SWR are thought of as two different means to rank the watersheds with respect to the environmental health. The indicators on the three levels are considered as proxies to describe the abstract and not measurable concept of “environmental health.”


  1. Brooks, R.P., McKinney-Easterling, M., Brinson, M., Rheinhardt, R., Havens, K., O’Brien, D., Bishop, J., Rubbo, J., Armstrong, B. and Hite, J. (2007). A Stream–Wetland–Riparian (SWR) index for assessing condition of aquatic ecosystems in small watersheds along the Atlantic Slope of the eastern U.S. (Manuscript).Google Scholar
  2. Patil, G.P. (2001). Penn state environmetrics and ecometrics, cross-disciplinary classroom notes. University Park, PA: Center for statistical Ecology and Environmental Statistics, Penn State University.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of EcohydrologyLeibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland FisheriesSchöneicheGermany
  2. 2.Center for Statistical Ecology and Environmental StatisticsPennsylvania State UniversityUniversity ParkUSA

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