Covariant Evolution Operator and Green’s Operator

  • Ingvar LindgrenEmail author
Part of the Springer Series on Atomic, Optical, and Plasma Physics book series (SSAOPP, volume 63)


The third method we shall consider for numerical QED calculation on bound states is the covariant-evolution-operator (CEO) method, developed during the last decade by the Gothenburg group [9]. This procedure is based upon the nonrelativistic time-evolution operator, discussed in Chap. 8, but it is made covariant in order to be applicable in relativistic calculations. Later, we shall demonstrate that this procedure forms a convenient basis for a covariant relativistic many-body perturbation procedure, including QED as well as correlational effects, which for two-electron systems is fully compatible with the Bethe–Salpeter equation. This question will be the main topic of the rest of the book.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PhysicsUniversity of GothenburgGöteborgSweden

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