Electronically Excited States and Transport Properties of Thermal Plasmas

  • Mario Capitelli
  • Domenico Bruno
  • Annarita Laricchiuta
Part of the Springer Series on Atomic, Optical, and Plasma Physics book series (SSAOPP, volume 74)


In this chapter we try to elucidate the role of electronically excited states (EES) in affecting the transport properties of high-temperature high-pressure thermal plasmas. This topic started many years ago when one of us showed the dependence of transport coefficients on the cutoff criterion used in truncating the electronic partition function of atomic species with large consequences in the equilibrium composition and thermodynamic properties to be inserted in the transport equations (Capitelli 1972). Soon after it was recognized that electronically excited states affect the transport properties not only acting on the plasma composition but also through their transport cross sections, dramatically depending on the principal quantum number.


Excited State Electronically Excite State Hydrogen Plasma Principal Quantum Number Collision Integral 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Aubreton J, Elchinger MF, Fauchais P (1998) New method to calculate thermodynamic and transport properties of a multi-temperature plasma: application to N2 plasma. Plasma Chem Plasma P 18(1):1–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Brokaw RS (1960) Thermal conductivity of gas mixtures in chemical equilibrium. II. J Chem Phys 32(4):1005–1006CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  3. Bruno D, Capitelli M, Catalfamo C, Laricchiuta A (2007a) Transport of internal electronic energy in atomic hydrogen thermal plasmas. Phys Plasmas 14:072308CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  4. Bruno D, Laricchiuta A, Capitelli M, Catalfamo C (2007b) Effect of electronic excited states on transport in magnetized hydrogen plasma. Phys Plasmas 14:022303CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  5. Bruno D, Capitelli M, Catalfamo C, Laricchiuta A (2008) Cutoff criteria of electronic partition functions and transport properties of atomic hydrogen thermal plasmas. Phys Plasmas 15:112306CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  6. Bruno D, Colonna G, Laricchiuta A, Capitelli M (2012) Reactive and internal contributions to the thermal conductivity of local thermodynamic equilibrium nitrogen plasma: The effect of electronically excited states. Phys Plasmas 19: 122309CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  7. Butler JN, Brokaw RS (1957) Thermal conductivity of gas mixtures in chemical equilibrium. J Chem Phys 26(6):1636–1643CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  8. Capitelli M (1972) Cut-off criteria of electronic partition functions and transport properties of thermal plasmas. J Plasma Phys 7:99–106CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  9. Capitelli M (1974) The influence of excited states on the reactive thermal conductivity of an LTE hydrogen plasma. Zeitschrift für Naturforschung A (Astrophysik, Physik und Physikalische Chemie) 29:953–954Google Scholar
  10. Capitelli M (1975) Charge transfer from low-lying excited states: effects on reactive thermal conductivity. J Plasma Phys 14(2):365–371CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  11. Capitelli M (1977) Transport coefficients of partially ionized gases. Journal de Physique Supplemént Colloque C3 (Paris) 38(8):C3 227– C3 237Google Scholar
  12. Capitelli M, Lamanna U (1974) Collision integrals of electronically excited states and transport coefficients of thermal plasmas. J Plasma Phys 12:71–79CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  13. Capitelli M, Guidotti C, Lamanna U (1974) Potential energy curves and excitation transfer cross sections of excited hydrogen atoms. J Phys B: Atomic Mol Phys 7(13):1683CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  14. Capitelli M, Celiberto R, Gorse C, Laricchiuta A, Minelli P, Pagano D (2002) Electronically excited states and transport properties of thermal plasmas: the reactive thermal conductivity. Phys Rev E 66(1):016403/1–8Google Scholar
  15. Capitelli M, Laricchiuta A, Pagano D, Traversa P (2003) Electronically excited states and transport properties of thermal plasmas: the viscosity. Chem Phys Lett 379:490–494CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  16. Capitelli M, Celiberto R, Gorse C, Laricchiuta A, Pagano D, Traversa P (2004) Transport properties of local thermodynamic equilibrium hydrogen plasmas including electronically excited states. Phys Rev E 69(2):026412CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  17. Capitelli M, Colonna G, D’Angola A (2011) Fundamental aspects of plasma chemical physics: Thermodynamics. Springer series on atomic, optical, and plasma physics, vol 66. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  18. Capitelli M, Armenise I, Bisceglie E, Bruno D, Celiberto R, Colonna G, D’Ammando G, De Pascale O, Esposito F, Gorse C, Laporta V, Laricchiuta A (2012) Thermodynamics, transport and kinetics of equilibrium and non-equilibrium plasmas: a state-to-state approach. Plasma Chem Plasma P 32(3):427–450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. D’Angola A, Colonna G, Gorse C, Capitelli M (2008) Thermodynamic and transport properties in equilibrium air plasmas in a wide pressure and temperature range. Eur Phys J D 46(1):129–150CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  20. Devoto RS (1967a) Simplified expressions for the transport properties of ionized monatomic gases. Phys Fluids 10(10):2105–2112CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  21. Devoto RS (1967b) Transport coefficients of partially ionized argon. Phys Fluids 10(2):354–364CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  22. Devoto RS (1968) Transport coefficients of partially ionized hydrogen. J Plasma Phys 2(4):617–631CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  23. Eletskii AV, Capitelli M, Celiberto R, Laricchiuta A (2004) Resonant charge exchange and relevant transport cross sections for excited states of oxygen and nitrogen atoms. Phys Rev A 69(4):042718/1–8Google Scholar
  24. Ferziger JH, Kaper HG (1972) Mathematical theory of transport processes in gases. North-Holland, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  25. Hirschfelder JO, Curtiss CF, Bird RB (1966) Molecular theory of gases and liquids. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  26. Ignjatović LJM, Mihajlov AA (1997) Interaction of electrons with atoms in ground and excited states; potential of interaction, momentum transfer cross-sections. Contrib Plasm Phys 37(4):309–326CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  27. Kolesnikov AF, Tirskiy GA (1984) The Stefan-Maxwell equations for diffusion fluxes in a magnetic field. Fluid Dynamics (translated from Russian) Plenum 19:643Google Scholar
  28. Kosarim AV, Smirnov BM, Capitelli M, Celiberto R, Laricchiuta A (2006) Resonant charge exchange involving electronically excited states of nitrogen atoms and ions. Phys Rev A 74(6):062707CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  29. Kosarim AV, Smirnov BM, Laricchiuta A, Capitelli M (2012) Resonant charge-exchange involving excited helium atoms and reactive transport of LTE helium plasma. Phys Plasmas 19(6):062309CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  30. Kustova EV, Puzyreva LA (2009) Transport coefficients in nonequilibrium gas-mixture flows with electronic excitation. Phys Rev E 80:046407CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  31. Meador, Jr WE, Staton LD (1965) Electrical and thermal properties of plasmas. Phys Fluids 8(9):1694–1703CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  32. Murphy AB (1995) Transport coefficients of air, argon-air, nitrogen-air, and oxygen-air plasmas. Plasma Chem Plasma P 15(2):279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Nagnibeda E, Kustova E (2009) Non-equilibrium reacting gas flows: kinetic theory of transport and relaxation processes. Springer series heat and mass transfer. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  34. Sharma R, Singh G, Singh K (2011) Higher-order contributions to transport coefficients in two-temperature hydrogen thermal plasma. Phys Plasmas 18(6):063504MathSciNetCrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  35. Singh G, Sharma R, Singh K (2008) Effect of excited states on higher-order contributions to electron transport in hydrogen thermal plasmas. J Phys D: Appl Phys 41(22):225203CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  36. Singh K, Singh G, Sharma R (2010) Role of electronic excitation on thermodynamic and transport properties of argon and argon-hydrogen plasmas. Phys Plasmas 17(7):072309CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  37. Wang WZ, Rong MZ, Yan JD, Murphy AB, Spencer JW (2011) Thermophysical properties of nitrogen plasmas under thermal equilibrium and non-equilibrium conditions. Phys Plasmas 18(11):113502CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  38. Wang WZ, Rong MZ, Yan JD, Wu Y (2012) The reactive thermal conductivity of thermal equilibrium and non-equilibrium plasmas: application to nitrogen. IEEE T Plasma Sci DOI 10.1109/TPS.2012. 2185717Google Scholar
  39. Wilke CR (1950) A viscosity equation for gas mixtures. J Chem Phys 18(4):517–519CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mario Capitelli
    • 1
  • Domenico Bruno
    • 2
  • Annarita Laricchiuta
    • 2
  1. 1.University of BariBariItaly
  2. 2.IMIP CNRBariItaly

Personalised recommendations