Optical Regenerators for Novel Modulation Schemes

Chapter
Part of the Optical and Fiber Communications Reports book series (OFCR, volume 7)

Abstract

Optical signals propagating along fibers are impaired by various causes. The impairments can be classified into two different types: deterministic and stochastic impairments. The sources of deterministic signal impairments include chromatic dispersion, polarization-mode dispersion, intrachannel nonlinearities caused by Kerr effects in fibers, and narrowband filtering brought about by networking elements such as add-drop multiplexers. In addition to these impairments, signals are contaminated by stochastic noise emitted by optical amplifiers that are used in most systems to compensate for losses of transmission fibers and other passive optical elements. Data-dependent signal distortion caused by interchannel nonlinearities is also taken as stochastic when the data carried by other channels are unknown to the channel of interest. The deterministic signal distortions can, in principle, be compensated for by optical elements, such as dispersion compensating fibers (DCFs) for chromatic dispersion compensation, for example, and/or signal processing in the electrical domain. The stochastic noise whose effects remain after such compensations are performed determines the ultimate performance of the transmission systems. In the presence of nonlinearity of the transmission fiber, the effect of noise is often enhanced [1].

Keywords

Microwave Attenuation Soliton Coherence Bismuth 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The author thanks K. Sanuki, H. Sakaguchi, and Y. Morioka for their assistance in the experiments of (D)BPSK signal transmission and regeneration. This work was supported in part by Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B) 20360171 and for Scientific Research on Priority Areas 18040006 and 19023005.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Graduate School of EngineeringOsaka UniversityOsakaJapan

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