Advertisement

A Process Model of Desire

  • Dharm P. S. Bhawuk
Chapter
Part of the International and Cultural Psychology book series (ICUP)

Abstract

Psychologists have argued about the primacy of cognition and emotion for decades without any resolution. Deriving ideas from the bhagavadgItA, in this chapter, cognition, emotion, and behavior are examined by anchoring them in desire. The model presented here posits that cognition, emotion, and behavior derive significance when examined in the context of human desires, and starting with perception and volition, cognition emerges when a desire crystallizes. Desires lead to behaviors, and the achievement or nonachievement of a desire causes positive or negative emotions. Through self-reflection, contemplation, and the practice of karmayoga desires can be better managed, which can help facilitate healthy management of emotions. It is hoped that insights provided by this model would stimulate research for further examination of the role of desire in understanding and predicting cognition, emotion, and behavior.

Keywords

Behavioral Intention Plan Behavior Material World Psychological Construct Indian Literature 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, 179–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Archer, J. (1979). Behavioral aspects of fear. In W. Sluckin (ed.), Fear in animals and man (pp. 56–85). New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold.Google Scholar
  3. Bagozzi, R. P. (1992). The self-regulation of attitudes, intentions, and behavior. Social Psychology Quarterly, 55, 178–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barker, R. (1968). Ecological psychology: Concepts and methods for studying the environment of human behavior. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Bharati J. (Ed.) (1982). The essence of Yogavaasishtha. Chennai, India: Samata Books.Google Scholar
  6. Bhawuk, D. P. S. (1999). Who Attains Peace: An Indian Model of Personal Harmony. Indian Psychological Review, 52 (2 & 3), 40–48.Google Scholar
  7. Bhawuk, D. P. S. (2003a). Culture’s Influence on Creativity: The Case of Indian Spirituality. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 27 (1), 1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bhawuk, D. P. S. (2008a). Science of Culture and Culture of Science: Worldview and Choice of Conceptual Models and Methodology. The Social Engineer, 11 (2), 26–43.Google Scholar
  9. Blanchard, D. C. & Blanchard, R. J. (1984). Affect and aggression: An animal model applied to human behavior. In R. J. Blanchard & D. C. Blanchard (eds.), Advances in the study of aggression (pp. 1–58). New York, NY: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  10. Cook, T. D., & Campbell, D. T. (1979). Quasi-experimentation: Design and analysis issues for field settings. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company.Google Scholar
  11. Damasio, A. R. (1999). The feeling of what happens: Body and emotion in the making of consciousness. London: Heinemann.Google Scholar
  12. Diener, E., (2008). Myths in the science of happiness, and directions for future research. In M. Eid & R. J. Larsen, (Eds.). The science of subjective well-being (pp. 493–514). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  13. Fishbein, M., & Ajzen, I. (1975). Belief, Attitude, Intention, and Behavior: An Introduction to Theory and Research. Reading, MA: Addison-WesleyGoogle Scholar
  14. Gollowitzer, P. M., Heckhausen, H., & Steller, B. (1990). Deliberative and implemental mind-sets: Cognitive tuning toward congruous thought and information. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59, 1119–1127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hochschild, A. R. (1998). The sociology of emotion as a way of seeing. In G. Bendelow and S. J. Williams (eds.), Emotions in social life: Critical themes and contemporary issues, pp. 3–15. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  16. Izard, C. E. (1972). Patterns of emotions: A new analysis of anxiety and depression. New York, NY: Academic.Google Scholar
  17. James, W. (1890). Principles of psychology. New York, NY: Holt.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Leavitt, J. (1996). Meaning and feeling in the anthropology of emotions. American Ethnologist, 23 (3), 514–539.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Locke, E. A. (Ed.) (1986). Generalizing from laboratory to field settings. Lexington, MA: Lexington books.Google Scholar
  20. Lucey, M. (1996) Stay Negative Please.” What’s So Difficult About That? Theorizing Desire in the Time of AIDS. Paper presented at the opening plenary of Managing Desire: HIV Prevention Strategies for the 21st Century, April 9, 1996. Berkeley, California. http://www.managingdesire.org/ConferencePapersIndex.html.
  21. Lupton, D. (1998). The emotional self: A sociocultural exploration. London, UK: Sage.Google Scholar
  22. Lyon, M. (1998). The limitations of cultural constructionism in the study of emotion. In G. Bendelow and S. J. Williams (eds.), Emotions in social life: Critical themes and contemporary issues (pp. 39–59). New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  23. Markus, H. R., & Kitayama, S. (1991). Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation. Psychological Review, 98, 224–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Marsella, A. J. (1985). Culture, self, and mental disorder. In Marsella, A. J., DeVos, G., & Hsu, F. L. K. (Eds). Culture and self: Asian and western perspectives. New York, NY: Tavistock Publications.Google Scholar
  25. Marsella, A. J. (1994). The measurement of emotional reactions to work: Conceptual, methodological, and research issues. Work and Stress, 8 (2), 153–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. McClelland, D. C. (1961). The achieving society. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  27. Milton, K. (2005). Emotion. Australian Journal of Anthropology, 16 (2), 198–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Mischewski, A., (1996). Does Desire Displace Knowledge? (Re)Doing HIV Prevention. Paper presented at the Managing Desire: HIV Prevention Strategies for the 21st Century, April 9, 1996. Berkeley California. http://www.managingdesire.org/ConferencePapersIndex.html.
  29. Parkinson, B. (1995). Ideas and realities of emotion. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  30. Perugini, M., & Bagozzi, R. P. (2001). The role of desires and anticipated emotions in goal-directed behaviors: Broadening and deepening the theory of planned behavior. British Journal of Social Psychology, 40, 79–98.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Plutchik, R. & Kellerman, H. (1986). Emotion: Theory, research, and experience vol III: Biological foundations of emotion. New York, NY: AcademicGoogle Scholar
  32. Shweder, R. A. (1993). The cultural psychology of emotions. In M. Lewis and J. Hovland (Eds.), Handbook of emotions. New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  33. Svare, B. (ed.) (1983). Hormones and aggressive behavior. New York, NY: Plenum.Google Scholar
  34. Swami Abhedananda, (1967). Yoga psychology. Kolkata, India: Ramakrishna Vedanata Math.Google Scholar
  35. Swami Prabhavananda (2005). Patanjali yoga sutras. Chennai, India: Sri Ramakrishna Math.Google Scholar
  36. Triandis, H. C. (1972). The analysis of subjective culture. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  37. Tricks, H. (2005). Happiness begins with a wealth of experience. The Financial Times, November 6, p. 1.Google Scholar
  38. Wentworth, W. M., & Yardley, D. (1994). Deep sociality: A bioevolutionary perspective on the sociology of human emotions. In W. M. Wentworth and J. Ryan (eds.), Social perspectives on emotion, pp. 21–55. Volume 2, Greenwich, CT: Jai Press Inc.Google Scholar
  39. Williams, S. (2001). Emotion and social theory. London, UK: Sage.Google Scholar
  40. Wilson, E. O. (1984). Biophilia: The human bond with other species. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Shidler College of BusinessUniversity of Hawaii at ManoaHonoluluUSA

Personalised recommendations