Advertisement

Behavioural, Biopsychosocial, and Cognitive Models of Autism Spectrum Disorders

Chapter
Part of the Autism and Child Psychopathology Series book series (ACPS)

Abstract

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) comprises a range of developmental disorders including autistic disorder, Asperger’s disorder, and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified/atypical autism, each of which is characterized by a triad of impairments in social interaction, communication, and restricted, repetitive behaviours and interests (RRBIs) (American Psychiatric Association, 2000; World Health Organization, 1993). ASD was originally identified and described in 1943 by Kanner, who believed the disorder to be biologically based. However, in the following decades, psychosocial explanations for ASD began to gain influence. Most notably, Bettelheim (1967) attributed the development of ASD as a response to emotionally “cold” parenting. Although this theory was influential for a significant period of time, it has not received empirical support, and it is now widely agreed that ASD is a biologically based disorder. Twin studies have consistently indicated that ASD is a highly heritable disorder (e.g. Bailey et al., 1995; Folstein & Rutter, 1977; Steffenburg, Hellgren, Gillberg, Jakobsen, & Bohman, 1989). Furthermore, although molecular genetic studies have not yet established a set of necessary and sufficient genes that cause the disorder, they have begun to identify a set of genes that are reliably associated with ASD (International Molecular Genetic Study of Autism Consortium, 1998, 2001, 2005).

Keywords

Autism Spectrum Disorder Autism Spectrum Disorder Executive Dysfunction Visual Illusion Wisconsin Card Sort Test 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Ambery, F. Z., Russell, A. J., Perry, K., Morris, R., & Murphy, D. G. (2006). Neuropsychological functioning in adults with Asperger syndrome. Autism, 10, 551–564.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text revision). New York: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
  3. Austin, E. J. (2005). Personality correlates of the broader autism phenotype as assessed by the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ). Personality and Individual Differences, 38, 451–460.Google Scholar
  4. Auyeung, B., Baron-Cohen, S., Wheelwright, S., & Allison, C. (2005). The Autism Spectrum Quotient: Children’s version (AQ-Child). Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38, 1230–1240.Google Scholar
  5. Baddeley, A. (2000). The episodic buffer: A new component of working memory? Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 4, 417–423.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bailey, A., LeCouteur, A., Gottesman, I., Bolton, P., Simonoff, E., Yuzda, E., et al. (1995). Autism as a strongly genetic disorder: Evidence from a British twin study. Psychological Medicine, 25, 63–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Baron-Cohen, S., Leslie, A. M., & Frith, U. (1985). Does the autistic child have a theory of mind? Cognition, 21, 37–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Baron-Cohen, S., Wheelwright, S. J., Skinner, R., Martin, J., & Clubley, E. (2001). The autism-spectrum quotient (AQ): Evidence from Asperger syndrome/high-functioning autism, males and females, scientists and mathematicians. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 31, 5–17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bennetto, L., Pennington, B. F., & Rogers, S. J. (1996). Intact and impaired memory functions in autism. Child Development, 67, 1816–1835.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Bettelheim, B. (1967). The empty fortress: Infantile autism and the birth of self. New York: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  11. Bishop, D. V. M. (1989). Autism, Asperger’s syndrome and semantic-pragmatic disorder: Where are the boundaries? International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders, 24, 107–121.Google Scholar
  12. Bishop, D. V. M. (2006). Developmental cognitive genetics: How psychology can inform genetics and vice versa. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 59, 1153–1168.Google Scholar
  13. Bishop, D. V. M., Bishop, S. J., Bright, P., James, C.,Delaney, T., & Tallal, P. (1999). Different origin of auditory and phonological processing problems in children with language impairment: Evidence from a twin study. Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research, 42, 155–168.Google Scholar
  14. Bodfish, J. W., Symons, C. S., & Lewis, M. H. (1999). The Repetitive Behavior Scales (RBS). Western Carolina Center Research Reports.Google Scholar
  15. Bölte, S., Holtman, M., Poustka, F., Scheurich, A., & Schmidt, L. (2007). Gestalt perception and local-global processing in high-functioning autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37, 1493–1507.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Boucher, J. (2006). Is the search for a unitary explanation of autistic spectrum disorders justified? Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 36, 289.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Bowler, D. M. (1992). ‘Theory of mind’ in Asperger’s syndrome. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 33, 877–893.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Boyd, B. A., McBee, M., Holtzclaw, T., Baranek, G. T., & Bodfish, J. W. (2009). Relationships among repetitive behaviors, sensory features, and executive functions in high functioning autism. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 3, 959–966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Brock, J., Brown, C. C., Boucher, J., & Rippon, G. (2002). The temporal binding deficit hypothesis of autism. Development and Psychopathology, 14, 209–224.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Cambridge Cognition. (1996). CANTAB®. Cambridge: Cambridge Cognition Limited.Google Scholar
  21. Caron, M. J., Mottron, L., Berthiaume, C., & Dawson, M. (2006). Cognitive mechanisms, specificity and neural underpinnings of visuospatial peaks in autism. Brain, 129, 1789–1802.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Caron, C., & Rutter, M. (1991). Comorbidity in child psychopathology: Concepts, issues and research strategies. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 32, 1063–1080.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Carrington, S. J., & Bailey, A. J. (2009). Are there theory of mind regions in the brain? A review of the neuroimaging literature. Human Brain Mapping, 30, 2313–2335.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Castelli, F., Frith, C., Happe, F., & Frith, U. (2002). Autism, Asperger syndrome and brain mechanisms for the attribution of mental states to animated shapes. Brain, 125, 1839–1849.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Christ, S. E., Holt, D. D., White, D. A., & Green, L. (2007). Inhibitory control in children with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37, 1155–1165.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Constantino, J. N. (2002). The social responsiveness scale. Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services.Google Scholar
  27. Constantino, J. N., Gruber, C. P., Davis, S., Hayes, S., Passanante, N., & Przybeck, T. (2004). The factor structure of autistic traits. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45, 719–726.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Constantino, J., Przybeck, J., Freisen, D., & Todd, R. D. (2000). Reciprocal social behavior in children with and without pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 21, 2–11.Google Scholar
  29. Constantino, J. N., & Todd, R. D. (2003). Autistic traits in the general population: A twin study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 60, 524–530.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Damasio, A. R., & Maurer, R. G. (1978). Neurological model for childhood autism. Archives of Neurology, 35, 777–786.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. David, N., Gawronski, A., Santos, N. S., Huff, W., Lehnardt, F., Newen, A., & Vogeley, K. (2008). Dissociation between key processes of social cognition in autism: Impaired mentalizing but intact sense of agency. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38, 593–605.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Dawson, G., Meltzoff, A. N., Osterling, J., & Rinaldi, J. (1998). Neuropsychological correlates of early symptoms of autism. Child Development, 69, 1276–1285.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Dawson, G., Munson, J., Estes, A., Osterling, J., McPartland, J., Toth, K., Carver, L., & Abbott, R. (2002). Neurocognitive function and joint attention ability in young children with autism spectrum disorder versus developmental delay. Child Development, 73, 345–358.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Di Martino, A., Ross, K., Uddin, L. Q., Sklar, A. B., Castellanos, F. X., & Milham, P. (2009). Functional brain correlates of social and nonsocial processes in autism spectrum disorders: An activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis. Biological Psychiatry, 65, 63–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Diamond, A., & Goldman-Rakic, P. (1989). Comparison of human infants and rhesus monkeys on Piaget’s A not B task: Evidence for dependence on dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Experimental Brain Research, 74, 24–40.Google Scholar
  36. Dichter, G. S., & Belger, A. (2007). Social stimuli interfere with cognitive control in autism. Neuroimage, 35, 1219–1230.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Dichter, G. S., Radonovich, K. J., Turner-Brown, L. M., Lam, K. S. L., Holtzclaw, Y. N., & Bodfish. J. W. (2009). Performance of children with autism spectrum disorders on the dimension-change card sort task. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1007/s10803-009-0886–1.Google Scholar
  38. Drewe, E. (1975). Go-no go learning after frontal lobe lesions in humans. Cortex, 11, 8–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Dumontheil, I., Burgess, P. W., & Blakemore, S. J. (2008). Development of rostral prefrontal cortex and cognitive and behavioural disorders. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 50, 168–181.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Dworzynski, K., Happé, F., Bolton, P., & Ronald, A. (2009). Relationship between symptom domains in autism spectrum disorders: A population based twin study. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39, 1197–1210.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Edgin, J., & Pennington, B. (2005). Spatial cognition in autism spectrum disorders: Superior, impaired, or just intact? Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 35, 729–745.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Fisher, N., Happé, F., & Dunn, J. (2005). The relationship between vocabulary, grammar, and false belief task performance in children with autistic spectrum disorders and children with moderate learning difficulties. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46, 409–419.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Folstein, S., & Rutter, M. (1977). Infantile autism: A genetic study of 21 twin pairs. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 18, 297–321.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Fombonne, E., Siddons, F., Achard, S., Frith, U., & Happé, F. (1994). Adaptive behaviour and theory of mind in autism. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 3, 176–186.Google Scholar
  45. Frith, U. (1989). Autism: Explaining the enigma. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  46. Frith, U. (2003). Autism: Explaining the enigma (2nd ed.). Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  47. Frith, U., Happé, F., & Siddons, F. (1994). Autism and theory of mind in everyday life. Social Development, 2, 108–124.Google Scholar
  48. Frith, U., & Hermelin, B. (1969). The role of visual and motor cues for normal, subnormal and autistic children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 10, 153–163.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Frith, U., & Snowling, M. (1983). Reading for meaning and reading for sound in autistic and dyslexic children. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 1, 329–342.Google Scholar
  50. Gallagher, H. L., Happé, F., Brunswick, N., Fletcher, P. C., Frith, U., & Frith, C. D. (2000). Reading the mind in cartoons and stories: An fMRI study of ‘theory of mind’ in verbal and nonverbal tasks. Neuropsychologia, 38, 11–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Geurts, H., Begeer, S., & Stockmann, L. (2009). Brief report: Inhibitory control of socially relevant stimuli in children with high functioning autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39, 1603–1607.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Gilbert, S. J., Bird, G., Brindleya, R., Frith, C., & Burgess, P. W. (2008). Atypical recruitment of medial prefrontal cortex in autism spectrum disorders: An fMRI study of two executive function tasks. Neuropsychologia, 46, 2281–2291.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Gioia, G. A., Isquith, P. K., Guy, S., & Kenworthy, L. (2000). BRIEF: The behavior rating inventory of executive function. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar
  54. Goodman, R. (1989). Infantile autism: A syndrome of multiple primary deficits? Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 19, 409–424.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Griffith, E. M., Pennington, B. F., Wehner, E. A., & Rogers, S. J. (1999). Executive functions in young children with autism. Child Development, 70, 817–832.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Happé, F. G. E. (1995). The role of age and verbal ability in the theory of mind task performance of subjects with autism. Child Development, 66, 843–855.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Happé, F. G. E. (1996). Studying weak central coherence at low levels: Children with autism do not succumb to visual illusions. A research note. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 37, 873–877.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Happé, F. G. E. (1997). Central coherence and theory of mind in autism: Reading homographs in context. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 15, 1–12.Google Scholar
  59. Happé, F. (1999). Autism: Cognitive deficit of cognitive style. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 3, 216–222.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Happé, F. G. E., Booth, R., Charlton, R., & Hughes, C. (2006). Executive function deficits in autism spectrum disorders and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Examining profiles across domains and ages. Brain and Cognition, 61, 25–39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Happé, F. G. E., & Frith, U. (2006). The weak coherence account: Detail-focused cognitive style in autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 36, 5–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Happé, F., & Ronald, A. (2008). The ‘fractionable autism triad’: A review of evidence from behavioural, genetic, cognitive and neural research. Neuropsychological Review, 18, 287–304.Google Scholar
  63. Happé, F., Ronald, A., & Plomin, R. (2006). Time to give up on a single explanation for autism. Nature Neuroscience, 9, 1218–1220.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Haviland, J. M., & Lelwica, M. L. (1987). The induced affect response: 10 week-old infants’ responses to three emotional expressions. Developmental Psychology, 23, 97–104.Google Scholar
  65. Heaton, R. K. (1981). Wisconsin card sorting test manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar
  66. Hill, E. L. (2004). Evaluating the theory of executive dysfunction in autism. Developmental Review, 24, 189–233.Google Scholar
  67. Hobson, R. P. (1989). Beyond cognition: A theory of autism. In G. Dawson (Ed.), Autism: Nature, diagnosis and treatment (pp. 22–48). New York: Guildford.Google Scholar
  68. Hobson, R. P. (1993). Autism and the development of mind. Oxford University Press: Oxford.Google Scholar
  69. Hobson, R. P. (2002). The cradle of thought: Exploring the origins of thinking. London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  70. Hockey, A., & Geffen, G. (2004). The concurrent validity and test-retest reliability of a visuospatial working memory task. Intelligence, 32, 591–605.Google Scholar
  71. Hoekstra, R. A., Bartels, M., Cath, D. C., & Boomsma, D. I. (2008). Factor structure, reliability and criterion validity of the autism spectrum quotient (AQ): A study in Dutch population and patient groups. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38, 1555–1566.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Hogrefe, G. -J., Wimmer, H., & Perner, J. (1986). Ignorance versus false belief: A developmental lag in attribution of epistemic states. Child Development, 57, 567–582.Google Scholar
  73. Hoy, J. A., Hatton, C., & Hare, D. (2004). Weak central coherence: A cross-domain phenomenon specific to autism? Autism, 8, 267–281.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Hughes, C. H., & Russell, J. (1993). Autistic children’s difficulties with mental disengagement from an object: Its implications for theories of Autism. Developmental Psychology, 29, 498–510.Google Scholar
  75. Hughes, C., Russell, J., & Robbins, T. W. (1994). Evidence for executive dysfunction in autism. Neuropsychologia, 32, 477–492.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Hurst, R. M., Mitchell, J. T., Kimbrel, N. A., Kwapil, T. K., & Nelson-Gray, R. O. (2007). Examination of the reliability and factor structure of the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) in a non-clinical sample. Personality and Individual Differences, 43, 1938–1949.Google Scholar
  77. International Molecular Genetic Study of Autism Consortium. (1998). A full genome screen for autism with evidence for linkage to a region on chromosome 7q. Human Molecular Genetics, 7, 571–578.Google Scholar
  78. International Molecular Genetic Study of Autism Consortium. (2001). Further characterization of the autism susceptibility locus AUTS1 on chromosome 7q. Human Molecular Genetics, 10, 973–982.Google Scholar
  79. International Molecular Genetic Study of Autism Consortium. (2005). Analysis of IMGSAC autism susceptibility loci: Evidence for sex limited and parent origin specific effects. Journal of Medical Genetics, 42, 132–137.Google Scholar
  80. Jarrold, C. (2003). A review of research into pretend play in autism. Autism, 7, 379–390.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Jarrold, C., Gilchrist, I. D., & Bender, A. (2005). Embedded figures detection in autism and typical development: Preliminary evidence of a double dissociation in relationships with visual search. Developmental Science, 8, 344–351.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Jolliffe, T., & Baron-Cohen, S. (1997). Are people with autism and Asperger syndrome faster than normal on the embedded figures test. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 38, 527–534.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Jolliffe, T., & Baron-Cohen, S. (1999). A test of central coherence theory: Linguistic processing in high-functioning adults with autism or Asperger syndrome: Is local coherence impaired? Cognition, 71, 149–185.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Jurado, M., & Rosselli, M. (2007). The elusive nature of executive functions: A review of our current understanding. Neuropsychology Review, 17, 213–233.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Just, M. A., Cherkassky, V. L., Keller, T. A., Kana, R. K., & Minshew, N. J. (2007). Functional and anatomical cortical underconnectivity in autism: Evidence from an fMRI study of an executive function task and corpus callosum morphometry. Cerebral Cortex, 17, 951–961.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Just, M. A., Cherkassky, V. L., Keller, T. A., & Minshew, N. J. (2004). Cortical activation and synchronization during sentence comprehension in high-functioning autism: Evidence of underconnectivity. Brain, 127, 1811–1821.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Kaland, N., Mortensen, E. L., & Smith, L. (2007). Disembedding performance in children and adolescents with Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism. Autism, 11, 81–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Kana, R. K., Keller, T. A., Cherkassky, V. L., Minshew, N. J., & Just, M. A. (2009). Atypical frontal-posterior synchronization of theory of mind regions in autism during mental state attribution. Social Neuroscience, 4, 135–152.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Kana, R. K., Keller, T. A., Minshew, N. J., & Just, M. A. (2007). Inhibitory control in high-functioning autism: Decreased activation and underconnectivity in inhibition networks. Biological Psychiatry, 62, 198–206.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Kanner, L. (1943). Autistic disturbances of affective contact. Nervous Child, 2, 217–250.Google Scholar
  91. Klin, A., Jones, W., Schultz, R., & Volkmar, F. (2003). The enactive mind, or from actions to cognition: Lessons from autism. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences, 358, 345–360.Google Scholar
  92. Koshino, H., Carpenter, P. A., Minshew, N. J., Cherkassky, V. L., Keller, T. A., & Just, M. A. (2005). Functional connectivity in an fMRI working memory task in high-functioning autism. Neuroimage, 24, 810–821.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Lam, K. S. L., & Aman, M. G. (2007). The repetitive behavior scale-revised: Independent validation in individuals with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37, 855–866.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Landa, R. J., & Goldberg, M. C. (2005). Language, social, and executive functions in high functioning autism: A continuum of performance. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 35, 557–573.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Leslie, A. M. (1987). Pretense and representation: The origins of theory of mind. Psychological Review, 94, 412–426.Google Scholar
  96. Leslie, A. M., & Frith, U. (1990). Prospects for a cognitive neuropsychology of autism: Hobson’s choice. Psychological Review, 97, 122–131.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Leslie, A. M., & Happé, F. (1989). Autism and ostensive communication: The relevance of metarepresentation. Development and Psychopathology, 1, 205–212.Google Scholar
  98. Leslie, A. M., & Roth, D. (1993). What autism teaches us about metarepresentation. In S. Baron-Cohen, H. Tager-Flusberg, & D. Cohen (Eds.), Understanding other minds: Perspectives from autism (pp. 83–111). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  99. Lind, S. E., & Bowler, D. M. (2009). Language and theory of mind in autism spectrum disorder: The relationship between complement syntax and false belief task performance. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39, 929–937.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Lind, S. E., & Bowler, D. M. (2010). Impaired performance on see-know tasks amongst children with autism: Evidence of specific difficulties with theory of mind or domain general task factors? Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 40, 479–484.Google Scholar
  101. López, B., & Leekam, S. R. (2003). Do children with autism fail to process information in context? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 44, 285–300.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Lopez, B. R., Lincoln, A. J., Ozonoff, S., & Lai, Z. (2005). Examining the relationship between executive functions and restricted, repetitive symptoms of autistic disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 35, 445–460.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Loveland, K. A. (1991). Social affordances and interaction II: Autism and the affordances of the human environment. Ecological Psychology, 3, 99–119.Google Scholar
  104. Luna, B., Minshew, N. J., Garver, K. E., Lazar, N. A., Thulborn, K. R., Eddy, W. F., et al. (2002). Neocortical system abnormalities in autism: An fMRI study of spatial working memory. Neurology, 59, 834–840.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Mandy, W. P. L., & Skuse, D. H. (2008). What is the association between the social-communication element of autism and repetitive interests, behaviours and activities? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 49, 795–808.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. McEvoy, R., Rogers, S. J., & Pennington, B. F. (1993). Executive function and social communication deficits in your autistic children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 34, 563–578.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Morgan, B., Maybery, M., & Durkin, K. (2003). Weak central coherence, poor joint attention, and low verbal ability: Independent deficits in early autism. Developmental Psychology, 39, 646–656.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Morton, J., & Frith, U. (1995). Causal modeling: A structural approach to developmental psychopathology. In D. Cicchetti & D. J. Cohen (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology, volume 1, theory and methods (pp. 357–390). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  109. Mottron, L., & Burack, J. A. (2001). Enhanced perceptual functioning in the development of autism. In J. A. Burack, T. Charman, N. Yirmiya, & P. R. Zelazo (Eds.), The development of autism: Perspectives from theory and research (pp. 131–148). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  110. Mottron, L., Dawson, M., Soulieres, I., Hubert, B., & Burack, J. A. (2006). Enhanced perceptual functioning in autism: An update, and eight principles of autistic perception. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 36, 27–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Owen, A. M., McMillan, K. M., & Laird, A. R. (2005). N-back working memory paradigm: A meta-analysis of normative functional neuroimaging studies. Human Brain Mapping, 25, 46–59.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Ozonoff, S., & Jensen, J. (1999). Brief report: Specific executive function profiles in three neurodevelopmental disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 29, 171–177.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Ozonoff, S., Pennington, B. F., & Rogers, S. J. (1991). Executive functioning deficits in high-functioning autistic individuals: Relationship to theory of mind. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 32, 1081–1105.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Ozonoff, S., & Strayer, D. L. (2001). Further evidence of intact working memory in autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 31, 257–263.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Pellicano, E. (2007). Links between theory of mind and executive function in young children with autism: Clues to developmental primacy. Developmental Psychology, 43, 974–990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Pellicano, E., Maybery, M., Durkin, K., & Maley, A. (2006). Multiple cognitive capabilities/deficits in children with an autism spectrum disorder: “Weak” central coherence and its relationship to theory of mind and executive control. Development and Psychopathology, 18, 77–98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Pennington, B. F., & Ozonoff, S. (1996). Executive functions and developmental psychopathology. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 37, 51–87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Peterson, C. C., Peterson, J. L., & Webb, J. (2000). Factors influencing the development of a theory of mind in blind children. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 18, 431–447.Google Scholar
  119. Peterson, C. C., & Seigal, M. (1995). Deafness, conversation and theory of mind. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 36, 459–474.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Peterson, C. C., Wellman, H. M., & Lui, D. (2005). Steps in theory-of-mind development for children with deafness or autism. Child Development, 76, 502–517.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Premack, D., & Woodruff, G. (1978). Does the chimpanzee have a theory of mind? Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 1, 515–526.Google Scholar
  122. Ropar, D., & Mitchell, P. (1999). Are individuals with autism and Asperger’s syndrome susceptible to visual illusions? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 40, 1283–1293.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Ropar, D., & Mitchell, P. (2001). Susceptibility to illusions and performance on visuospatial tasks in individuals with autism. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 42, 539–549.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Rumsey, J. M. (1985). Conceptual problem-solving in highly verbal, nonretarded autistic men. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 15, 23–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Russell, J. (1996). Agency: Its role in mental development. Hove: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates/Taylor and Francis.Google Scholar
  126. Russell, J., & Hill, E. L. (2001). Action monitoring and intention reporting in children with autism. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 42, 317–328.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Schlooz, W. A. J. M., Hulstijn, W., van den Broek, P. J. A., van der Pijll, A. C. A. M., Gabreëls, F., van der Gaag, R. J., et al. (2006). Fragmented visuospatial processing in children with pervasive developmental disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 36, 1025–1037.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Schmitz, N., Rubia, K., Daly, E., Smith, A., Williams, S., & Murphy, D. G. M. (2006). Neural correlates of executive function in autistic spectrum disorders. Biological Psychiatry, 59, 7–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Senju, A., Southgate, V., White, S., & Frith, U. (2009). Mindblind eyes: An absence of spontaneous theory of mind in Asperger syndrome. Science, 325, 883–885.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Shah, A., & Frith, U. (1983). An islet of ability in autism: A research note. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 24, 613–620.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Shah, A., & Frith, U. (1993). Why do autistic individuals show superior performance on the block design task? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 34, 1351–1364.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Shallice, T. (1982). Specific impairments in planning. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B, 298, 199–209.Google Scholar
  133. Siegal, M., & Beattie, K. (1991). Where to look first for children’s knowledge of false beliefs. Cognition, 38, 1–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Sinzig, J., Morsche, P. A., Bruning, N., Schmidt, M. H., & Lehmkuhl, G. (2008). Inhibition, flexibility, working memory and planning in autism spectrum disorders with and without comorbid ADHD-symptoms. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, 2, 4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. SLI Consortium. (2004). Highly significant linkage to the SLI1 locus in an expanded sample of individuals affected by specific language impairment. American Journal of Human Genetics, 74, 1225–1238.Google Scholar
  136. Sodian, B., & Frith, U. (1992). Deception and sabotage in autistic, retarded and normal children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 33, 591–605.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. South, M., Ozonoff, S., & McMahon, W. M. (2007). The relationship between executive functioning, central coherence, and repetitive behaviors in the high-functioning autism spectrum. Autism, 11, 437–451.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Steele, S. D., Minshew, N. J., Luna, B., & Sweeney, J. A. (2007). Spatial working memory deficits in autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37, 605–612.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Steffenburg, S., Hellgren, L. A. L., Gillberg, I. C., Jakobsen, G., & Bohman, M. (1989). A twin study of autism in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 30, 405–416.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Stewart, M. E., & Austin, E. J. (2009). The structure of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ): Evidence from a student sample in Scotland. Personality and Individual Differences, 47, 224–228.Google Scholar
  141. Stewart, M. E., Watson, J., Allcock, A. –J., & Yaqoob, T. (2009). Autistic traits predict performance on the block design. Autism, 13, 133–142.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Stroop, J. R. (1935). Studies of interference in serial verbal reactions. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 18, 613–662.Google Scholar
  143. Stuss, D. T., Alexander, M. P., Floden, D., Binns, M. A., Levine, B., McIntosh, A. R., et al. (2002). Fractionation and localization of distinct frontal lobe processes: Evidence from focal lesions in humans. In D. T. Stuss & R. T. Knight (Eds.), Principles of frontal lobe function (pp. 392–407). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  144. Surian, L., & Leslie, A. M. (1999). Competence and performance in false belief understanding: A comparison of autistic and normal 3-year-old children. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 17, 141–155.Google Scholar
  145. Szatmari, P., Merrette, C., Bryson, S. E., Thivierge, J., Roy, M. A., Cayer, M., et al. (2002). Quantifying dimensions in autism: A factor-analytic study. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 41, 467–474.Google Scholar
  146. Teunisse, J. -P., Cools, A. R., van Spaendonck, K. P. M., Aerts, F. H., & Berger, H. J. (2001). Cognitive styles in high-functioning adolescents with autistic disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 31, 55–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Turner, M. (1999). Repetitive behaviour in autism: A review of psychological research. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 40, 839–849.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Wechsler, D. (2004). Wechsler intelligence scale for children (4th UK ed.). London: Harcourt Assessment.Google Scholar
  149. Wellman, H., Cross, D., & Watson, J. (2001). Meta-analysis of theory of mind development: The truth about false belief. Child Development, 72, 655–684.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Williams, D. L., Goldstein, G., Carpenter, P. A., & Minshew, N. J. (2005). Verbal and spatial working memory in autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 35, 747–756.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Williams, D. M., & Happé, F. (2009a). What did I say? versus What did I think?: Attributing false beliefs to self amongst children with and without autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39, 865–873.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Williams, D., & Happé, F. (2009b). Pre-conceptual aspects of self-awareness in autism spectrum disorder: The case of action monitoring. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39, 251–259.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Williams, D. M., & Happé, F. (2010). Representing intentions in self and others: Studies of autism and typical development. Developmental Science, 13, 307–319.Google Scholar
  154. Williams, D. M. (2010). Theory of own mind in autism: Evidence of a specific deficit in self-awareness? Autism, 14, 474–494.Google Scholar
  155. Williams, D. M., Lind, S. E., & Happé, F. G. E. (2009). Metacognition may be more impaired than mindreading in autism. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 32, 162–163.Google Scholar
  156. Wimmer, H., & Perner, J. (1983). Beliefs about beliefs: Representation and constraining function of wrong beliefs in young children’s understanding of deception. Cognition, 13, 103–128.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Wing, L., & Gould, J. (1979). Severe impairments of social interaction and associated abnormalities in children: Epidemiology and classification. Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 9, 11–29.Google Scholar
  158. Witkin, H. A., Oltman, P. K., Raskin, E., & Karp, S. (1971). A manual for the embedded figures test. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.Google Scholar
  159. Wolpert, D. M., Ghahramani, Z., & Jordan, M. I. (1995). An internal model for sensorimotor integration. Science, 269, 1880–1882.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. World Health Organization. (1993). International classification of diseases (10th ed.). Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
  161. Yirmiya, N., Erel, O., Shaked, M., & Solomonica-Levi, D. (1998). Meta-analyses comparing theory of mind abilities of individuals with autism, individuals with mental retardation, and normally developing individuals. Psychological Bulletin, 124, 283–307.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Zilbovicius, M., Meresse, I., Chabane, N., Brunelle, F., Samson, Y., et al. (2006). Autism, the superior temporal sulcus and social perception. Trends in Neuroscience, 29, 359–366.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyDurham UniversityDurhamUK

Personalised recommendations