Advertisement

Litigation in Infections of Obstetrics and Gynecology

  • I. W. FongEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Emerging Infectious Diseases of the 21st Century book series (EIDC)

Abstract

A 28-year-old female Native American Indian, in her third trimester of pregnancy (34 weeks), presented to an isolated, stand-alone medical center serving the local community (Indian Reservation) at 6 p.m. on a Sunday evening. This center serves the dual purpose of medical clinic and emergency facility. Available teleconsultation and transportation to a tertiary care center via air ambulance were accessible 24 h/day. Normally, air ambulance transfer to a distant tertiary care hospital can be accomplished within 3–4 h after notification by phone.

Keywords

Sore Throat Bacterial Vaginosis Necrotizing Fasciitis Acute Pyelonephritis Asymptomatic Bacteriuria 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Kass EH, (1960), Bacteriuria and pyelonephritis of pregnancy. Arch Intern Med. 105: 194–198.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kass EH, (1960), The role of asymptomatic bacteriuria in the pathogenesis of pyelonephritis. In: Quinn EL, Kass EH (eds); Biology of pyelonephritis. Little, Brown, Boston, p399–412.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Elder HA, Kass EH, (1965), Renal function in bacteriuria of pregnancy: its relationship to prematurity, acute pyelonephritis and excessive weight gain. In: Kass EH (ed) Progress in Pyelonephritis, FA Davis, Philadelphia, p81–86.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Elder HA, Santamarina BA, Smith S, Kass EH, (1971), The natural history of asymptomatic bacteriuria during pregnancy: the effect of tetracycline on the clinical course and the outcome of pregnancy. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 111: 441–462.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sweet RL, Gibbs (ed), (1985), Urinary tract infection. In: Infectious diseases of the female genital tract. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, p293–313.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bryant RE, Windom RE Vineyard JP Jr, Sanford JP, (1964), Asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy and its association with prematurity. J. Lab. Clin. med. 63: 224–231.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kincaid-Smith P, Bullen M, (1965), Bacteriuria in pregnancy. Lancet. 1: 395–399.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Little PJ, (1966), The incidence of urinary infection in 5000 pregnant women. Lancet. 2: 925–928.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kass EH, (1970), Pregnancy, pyelonephritis and prematurity. Clin. Obstet. Gynecol. 13: 239–254.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Cunningham FG, Morris GB, Mickal A, (1973), Acute pyelonephritis of pregnancy: A clinical review. Obstet. Gynecol. 42: 112–117.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Cunningham FG, Leveno KJ, Bloom SL, Hauth JC, Gilstrap III LC, Weinstein KD (eds), (2005), Renal and urinary tract disorders. In: Williams Obstetrics, 22nd Edition, MacGraw-Hill, New York, p1093–1110.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hill JB, Sheffield JS, McIntire DD, Wendel Jr GD, (2005), Acute pyelonephritis in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 105: 18–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Scott CL, Chavez GF, Atrash HK, Taylor DJ, Shah RS, Rowley D, (1997), Hospitalizations for severe complications of pregnancy, 1987–1992. Obstet. Gynecol. 90: 225–229.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gazmararian JA, Petersen R, Jamieson DJ, Schild L, Adams MM, Deshpande AD, Franks AL, (2002), Hospitalizations during pregnancy among managed care enrollees. Obstet. Gynecol. 100: 94–100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mabie WC, Barton JR, Sibai B, (1997), Septic shock in pregnancy. Obstet. Gynecol. 90: 553–561.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Zeeman GG, Wendel GD Jr, Cunningham FG, (2003), A blueprint for obstetric critical care. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 188: 532–536.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Harris RE, (1979), The significance of eradication of bacteriuria during pregnancy. Obstet. Gynecol. 53: 71–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Gilstrap III LC, Cunningham FG, Whalley PJ, (1981), Acute pyelonephritis in pregnancy: an anterospective study. J. AM. Coll. Obstet. Gynecol. 57: 409–413.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Freeman CD, Nicolau DP, Belliveau PP, Nightingale CH, (1997), Once-daily dosing of aminoglycosides: review and recommendations for clinical practice. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 39: 677–686.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Cunningham EF, Levens KJ, Bloom SL, Hauth JC, Gilstrap LC III, Wenstrom KD (eds), (2005), Parturition In: Williams Obstetrics, 22nd Edition, McGraw-Hill, New York, p131–186.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Cunningham EF, Levens KJ, Bloom SL, Hauth JC, Gilstrap LC III, Wenstrom KD (eds), (2005), Puerperal Infection. In: Williams Obstetrics, 22nd edition, McGraw-Hill, New York, p711–724.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gonçalves LF, Chaiworapongsa T, Romero R, (2002), Intrauterine infection and prematurity. Mental Retard Develop. Disabilities Res. Rev. 8: 3–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Owen J, Andrews WW, (1994), Wound complications after cesarean sections. Clin. Obstet. Gynecol. 37: 842–855.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Gallup DG, Freedman MA, Meguiar RV, Freedman SN, Nolan TE, (2002), Necrotizing fasciitis in gynecologic and obstetric patients: a surgical emergency. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 187: 305–311.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Goepfert AR, Guinn DA, Andrews WW, Hauth JC, (1997), Necrotizing fasciitis after cesarean delivery. Obstet. Gynecol. 89: 409–412.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Schorge JO, Granter SR, Lerner LH, Feldman S, (1998), Postpartum and vulvar necrotizing fasciitis. Early clinical diagnosis and histopathologic correlation. J. Reprod. Med. 43: 586–590.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Stephenson H, Dotters DJ, Katz V, Droegemueller W, (1992), Necrotizing fasciitis of the vulva. Am. J. Obstet Gynecol. 166: 1324–1327.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Wall DB, Klein SR, Black S, de Virgilio C, (2000), A simple model to help distinguish necrotizing fasciitis from nonnecrotizing soft tissue infection. J. Am. Coll. Surg. 191: 227–231.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Fisher JR, Conway MJ, Takeshita RT, Sandoval MR, (1979), Necrotizing fasciitis. Importance of roentgenographic studies for soft-tissue gas. JAMA. 241: 803–806.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Rogers JM, Gibson JV, Farrar WE, Schabel SI, (1984), Usefulness of computerized tomography in evaluating necrotizing fasciitis. South. Med. J. 77: 782–783.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Schmid MR, Kossmann T, Duewell S, (1998), Differentiation of necrotizing fasciitis and cellulitis using MR imaging. Am. J. Roentgenol. 170: 615–620.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Majeski J, Majeski E, (1997), Necrotizing fasciitis: improved survival with early recognition by tissue biopsy and aggressive surgical treatment. South. Med. J. 90: 1065–1068.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Wilson B, (1952), Necrotizing fasciitis. Am. Surg. 18: 416–431.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Thompson CD, Brekken AL, Kutteh WH, (1993), Necrotizing fasciitis: a review of management guidelines in a large obstetrics and gynecology teaching hospital. Infect. Dis. Obstet. Gynecol. 1: 16–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Rea WJ, Wyrick WJ Jr, (1970), Necrotizing fasciitis. Ann. Surg. 172: 957–964.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Sudarsky LA, Laschinger JC, Coppa GF, Spencer FC, (1987), Improved results from a standardized approach in treating patients with necrotizing fasciitis. Ann. Surg. 206: 661–665.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Treatment Guidelines from The Medical Letter, (2006), Antimicrobial prophylaxis for surgery. Med. Letter; 4: 83–88.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologist, (2003), Prophylactic antibiotics in labor and delivery. AGOG practice bulletin; no47. National Guideline Clearing house. www.guideline.gov
  39. 39.
    Smaill F, Hofmeyr GJ, (2000), Antibiotic prophylaxis for cesarean section. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. CD000933Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Chelmow D, Ruehli MS, Huang E, (2001), Prophylactic use of antibiotics for nonlaboring patients undergoing cesarean delivery with intact membranes: a meta-analysis. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 184: 656–661.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    French L, (2003), Prevention and treatment of postpartum endometritis. Curr. Womens Health Rep. 3: 274–279.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Vosti KL (1982). Streptococcal diseases. In: Hoeprich PD (ed.) Infectious Diseases, 2nd Edition, Harper & Row, Hagerstown, MD: p235–246.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Bisno AL, Stevens DC (2005). Streptococcus pyogenes. IN: Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolin R (eds). Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, 6th Edition, Churchill Livingstone, Philadelphia PA, p2362–2399.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Assanasen S, Bearman GML (2007). Group A Streptococcal diseases. IN: Wallace RB, Kohatsu N, Last JM (eds) Wallace/Maxcy-Rossenau-Last; Public Health & Preventive Medicine, 15th Edition, McGraw Hill, New York, p237–245.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    McIntyre DM (1968). An epidemic of Streptococcus pyogenes puerperal and postoperative sepsis with an unusual carrier site – the anus. Am J Obstet Gynecol 103: 308–310Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Grysha PF, O’Dea AE (1990). Postoperative streptococcal wound infection. JAMA 213: 1189–1191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Schappert SM (1998). Ambulatory Care Visits To Physician Offices, Hospital Outpatient Departments, And Emergency Departments: United States, 1996. National Center for Health Statistics, Hyattsville, MD.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Bourbeau PP (2003). Role of the microbiology laboratory in diagnosis and management of pharyngitis. J Clin Microbiol 41: 3467–3472.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Huovinen P, Lahtonen R, Ziegler T, Meurman O, Hakkarainen K, Miettinen A, Artila P, Eskola J, Saikku P (1989). Pharyngitis in adults: the presence and coexistence of viruses and bacterial organisms. Ann Intern Med 110: 612–616.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Centor, RM (2009). Expand the pharyngitis paradigm for adolescents and young adults. Ann Intern Med 151: 812–815.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Centor RM, Witherspoon JM, Dalton HP, Brody CE, Link K (1981). The diagnosis of strep throat in adults in the emergency room. Med Decis Making 1: 239–246.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Bisno AL, Peter G, Kaplan EL (2002). Diagnosing of strep throat in adults: are clinical criteria really good enough? Clin Infect Dis 35: 126–129.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Bisno AL (2003). Diagnosing strep throat in the adult: do clinical criteria really suffice? Ann Intern Med 39: 150–151.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    McIsaac WJ, Kellner JD, Aufricht P, Vanjaka A, Low DE (2004). Empirical validation of guidelines for the management of pharyngitis in children and adults. JAMA 291: 1587–1595.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Bisno AL, Gerber MA, Gwaltney JM Jr, Kaplan EL, Schwartz RH (2002). Practice guidelines for the management of group A streptococcal pharyngitis. Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis 35: 113–125.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Dajani A, Taubert K, Ferrieri P, Peter G, Shulman ST. Committee on Rheumatic Fever, Endocarditis, & Kawasaki Disease of the Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young & American Heart Association (1995). Treatment of acute streptococcal pharyngitis and prevention of rheumatic fever: a statement for health professionals. Pediatrics 96: 758–764.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Neuner JM, Hamel MB, Phillips R, Bona K, Aronson MD (2003). Diagnosis and management of adults with pharyngitis: a cost-effectiveness analysis. Ann Intern Med 139: 113–122.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Jacoby DB, Hirshman CA (1991). General anesthesia in patients with viral respiratory infections: an unsound sleep? J Anesthesiol 74: 969–972.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Tait AR, Malvuja S, Voepel-Lewis T, Munro HM, Stewart M, Pandit UA (2001). Risk factors for perioperative adverse events in respiratory tract infections. Anesthesiology 95: 291–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Malvuja S, Voepel-Lewis T, Stewart M, Pandit U, Riegger LQ, Tait AR (2003). Risk factors for adverse postoperative outcomes in children presenting for cardiac surgery with upper respiratory tract infections. Anesthesiology 98: 628–632.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Mangram AJ, Horan TC, Pearson ML, Silver LC, Jarvis WR. The Hospital Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (1999). Guidelines for prevention of surgical site infection. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 20: 247–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Valentine RJ, Weigelt JA, Dryer R, Rodgers C (1986). Effect of remote infections on clean wound infection rates. Am J Infect Control 14: 64–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Cotë C (2001). The upper respiratory tract infection (URI) dilemma: fear of a complication and litigation? Anesthesiology 95: 283–285.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.St. Michael’s HospitalUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada

Personalised recommendations