Various Methods of Averaging
The design of engineering systems and the ability to predict their performance depend on the availability of experimental data and conceptual models that can be used to describe a physical process with a required degree of accuracy. From both a scientific and a practical point of view, it is essential that the various characteristics and properties of such conceptual models and processes are clearly formulated on rational bases and supported by experimental data. For this purpose, specially designed experiments are required which must be conducted in conjunction with and in support of analytical investigations. It is well established in continuum mechanics that the conceptual models for single-phase flow of a gas or of a liquid are formulated in terms of field equations describing the conservation laws of mass, momentum, energy, charge, etc. These field equations are then complemented by appropriate constitutive equations such as the constitutive equations of state, stress, chemical reactions, etc., which specify the thermodynamic, transport and chemical properties of a given constituent material, namely, of a specified solid, liquid or gas.
KeywordsConvection Helium Kalinin
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