A Service Systems Perspective of E-Government Development

  • Chee Wei Phang
  • Atreyi Kankanhalli
Part of the Service Science: Research and Innovations in the Service Economy book series (SSRI)


There have been increasing efforts by governments worldwide to innovate public service delivery, one of the means being through e-government. However, the mixed success of e-government initiatives highlights the need to better understand citizens’ requirements and engage them in the development of e-government service offerings. In response to this need, we propose a service systems perspective to analyze a participatory e-government service system based on the key resources of people, organizations, shared information, and technologies. By doing so, this study bridges the gap in existing research that has separately examined the different resources without considering their inter-relationships in a systematic manner. For practitioners, the resulting framework provides a tool to understand how the key resources as well as stakeholders of the e-government service system inter-relate, which allows more comprehensive strategies to be formulated for improving e-government service offerings.


Service science service systems e-government development e-participation 


  1. Accenture (2006). Leadership in customer service: Building the trust. Accessed 15 May 2008.
  2. Akintoye, A., and Li, B. (2003). Public private partnership: Managing risks and opportunities, an overview of public private partnership. Oxford: Blackwell Science.Google Scholar
  3. Anthopoulos, L. G., Siozos, P., and Tsoukalas, I. A. (2007). Applying participatory design and collaboration in digital public services for discovering and re-designing e-government ­services. Government Information Quarterly, 24(2), 353–376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barber, B. (1984). Strong democracy: Participatory politics for a new age. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  5. Bonnie A. N., and O’Day, V. L. (1999). Information ecologies: Using technology with heart. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  6. Campbell, A., Gurin, G., and Milner, W. (1954). The voter decides. Evanston, IL: Row Peterson & Co.Google Scholar
  7. Chase, R. B., and Apte, U. M. (2007). A history of research in service operations: What’s the big idea? Journal of Operations Management, 25, 375–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chesbrough, H., and Spohrer, J. (2006). A research manifesto for services science. Communications of the ACM, 49(7), 35–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Demirkan, H., Kauffman, R. J., Vayghan, J. A., Fill, H.-G., Karagiannis, D., and Maglio, P. P. (2008). Service-oriented technology and management: Perspectives on research and practice for the coming decade. Electronic Commerce Research and Application, 7, 356–376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Fulk, J., Flanagin, A. J., Kalman, M. E., Monge, P. R., and Ryan, T. (1996). Connective and communal public goods in interactive communication systems. Communication Theory, 6(1), 60–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Glass, J. J. (1979). Citizen participation in planning: The relationship between objectives and techniques. American Planning Association Journal, 45(1), 180–189.MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Green, D., and Shapiro, I. (1994). Pathologies of rational choice theory. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Gronlund, A. (2002). Emerging infrastructures for e-democracy: In search of strong inscriptions. e-Service Journal, 2(1), 62–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Heeks, R. (1999). Reinventing government in the information age: IT enabled public sector reform. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. IfM and IBM. (2008). Succeeding through service innovation: A service perspective for education, research, business and government. Cambridge: University of Cambridge Institute for Manufacturing.Google Scholar
  16. Irvin, R. A., and Stansbury, J. (2004). Citizen participation in decision making: Is it worth the effort? Public Administration Review, 64(1), 55–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kumar, N., and Benbasat, I. (2002). Para-social presence and communication capabilities of a web site. e-Service Journal, 1(3), 5–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kumar, N., and Vragov, R. (2005). The citizen participation continuum: Where does the US stand? In Proceedings of the Eleventh Americas Conference on Information Systems, Milwaukee, WI: Omnipress, pp. 1984–1990.Google Scholar
  19. Langford, J., and Harrison, Y. (2001). Partnering for e-government: Challenges for public administrators. Canadian Public Administration, 44(4), 393–416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Macintosh, A., and Whyte, A. (2008). Towards an evaluation framework for eParticipation. Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy, 2(1). 16–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Maglio, P. P., and Spohrer, J. (2008). Fundamentals of service science. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 36(1), 18–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Marwell, G., and Oliver, P. (1993). The critical mass in collective action: A micro-social theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Mills, P. K., and Moberg, D. J. (1982). Perspectives on the technology of service operations. Academy of Management Review, 7(3), 467–478.Google Scholar
  24. Monge, P., Fulk, J., Kalman, M., Flanagin, A., Parnassa, C., and Rumsey, S. (1998). Production of collective action in alliance-based interorganizational communication and information systems. Organization Science, 9(3), 411–433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Morelli, N. (2002). Designing product/service systems: A methodological exploration. Design Issues, 18(3), 3–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. O’Donnell, D., McCusker, P., Fagan, C. H., Newman, D. R., Stephens, S., and Murray, M. (2007). Navigating between utopia and dystopia in the public sphere through eParticipation: Where is the value? Presented at the International Critical Management Studies Conference, Manchester.Google Scholar
  27. Olphert, W., and Damodaran, L. (2007). Citizen participation and engagement in the design of e-Government services: The missing link in effective ICT design and delivery. Journal of the Associations for Information Systems, 8(9), 491–507.Google Scholar
  28. Olson, M. (1965). The logic of collective action: Public goods and the theory of groups. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  29. Pattie, C., Syed, P., and Whiteley, P. (2002). Citizenship and civic engagement: Attitudes and behavior. Presented at the Political Studies Association Annual Conference, University of Aberdeen, UK, 5–7 April.Google Scholar
  30. Phang, C. W., and Kankanhalli, A. (2008). A framework of ICT exploitation for e-participation initiatives. Communications of the ACM, 51(12), 128–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Phang C. W., Kankanhalli, A., and Ang, C. Z. (2008). Investigating organizational learning in eGovernment projects: A multi-theoretic approach. Journal of Strategic Information Systems, 17(2), 99–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Phippen A., and Lacohée H. (2006). E-government – issues in citizen engagement. BT Technology Journal, 24(2), 205–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Piven, F. F., and Cloward, R. A. (1989). Why Americans don’t vote. New York: Pantheon.Google Scholar
  34. Rubenson, D. (2000). Participation and politics: Social capital, civic voluntarism, and institutional context. Presented at the Political Studies Association-UK 50th Annual Conference, London, UK, 10–13 April.Google Scholar
  35. Samuelson, P. A. (1954). The pure theory of public expenditure. Review of Economics and Statistics, 36, 387–389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Seyd, P., and Whiteley, P. (2002). New labor’s grass roots: The transformation of the labor party membership. London: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  37. Snabe, J. H. (2005). Public private partnerships. The Bimonthly Magazine on E-Governance, pp. 6–8.Google Scholar
  38. Spohrer, J., Maglio, P. P., Bailey, J., and Gruhl, D. (2007). Steps towards a science of service systems. IEEE Computer, 40(1), 70–77.Google Scholar
  39. Verba, S., and Nie, N. (1972). Participation in America: Political democracy and social equality. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  40. Verba, S., Schlozman, K., and Brady, H. (1995). Voice and equality: Civic voluntarism in American politics. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  41. Wojcik, S. (2007). How does eDeliberation work? A study of French local electronic forums. In A. Avdic, K. Hedström, J. Rose, and A. Gronlund (Eds.), Understanding eParticipation: Contemporary PhD eParticipation research in Europe (pp. 153–165). Örebro: Örebro Univer­sity Library.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer US 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chee Wei Phang
    • 1
  • Atreyi Kankanhalli
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Information Management and Information Systems, School of ManagementFudan UniversityShanghaiChina
  2. 2.Department of Information Systems, School of ComputingNational University of Singapore, Computing 1SingaporeSingapore

Personalised recommendations