Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery-FLS

  • Ian Choy
  • Allan Okrainec


Ever since Erich Muhe performed the first laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) in 1985, training laparoscopic surgery to new and established surgeons has been a major and complex issue. Spurred on by industry, patient demand, physician competition, and hospital administrations, the rapid adoption of laparoscopic surgery preceded many of the studies of its efficacy and safety. However, as reports of increased rates of complications and steeper than expected learning curves started to appear in the literature, the surgical community began to develop a greater awareness of the distinctiveness of the knowledge and skills necessary to safely incorporate laparoscopy into practice.

Selected Readings

  1. 1.
    Peters JH, Fried GM, Swanstrom LL, et al. Development and validation of a comprehensive program of education and assessment of the basic fundamentals of laparoscopic surgery. Surgery. 2004;135(1):21–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Fried GM, Feldman LS, Vassiliou MC, et al. Proving the value of simulation in laparoscopic surgery. Ann Surg. 2004;240:518–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Scott DJ, Ritter EM, Tesfay ST, Pimentel EA, Nagji A, Fried GM. Certification pass rate of 100% for fundamentals of laparoscopic surgery skills after proficiency-based training. Surg Endosc. 2008;22(8):1887–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sroka G, Feldman LS, Vassiliou MC, Kaneva PA, Fayez R, Fried GM. Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery simulator training to proficiency improves laparoscopic performance in the operating room – a randomized controlled trial. Am J Surg. 2010;199(1):115–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Surgery, Centre for Minimal Access SurgerySt Joseph’s Healthcare HamiltonHamiltonCanada
  2. 2.Advanced Medicine and SurgeryUniversity Health NetworkTorontoCanada

Personalised recommendations