Advertisement

The Measurement of Oceanic Ambient Noise

  • William M. Carey
  • Richard B. Evans
Chapter
Part of the Underwater Acoustics book series (UA)

Abstract

Ambient noise investigations constitute one of the largest sections of the Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. Urick (1984) has summarized a good many of these experimental papers and his report is valuable as it updates and extends the work of Wenz (1972. In this chapter the discussion focuses on the key aspects of ambient noise by interpreting the experimental observations in light of the fundamental production mechanisms of ambient noise. The theoretical treatments of these source mechanisms can be found in Chapter 3, with the appendices containing detailed derivations. The source mechanisms are used in this chapter as part of our overview of the characteristics of measured ambient noise. Since the measurements span some 60 years, the following question arises: What was measured and how do these measurements compare with those currently performed?

Keywords

Wind Speed Ambient Noise Wave Breaking Noise Field Sound Channel 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References and Suggested Readings

Introduction

  1. Berlincourt, B. (1981). “Piezoelectric ceramics: Characteristics and applications.” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 70(6): 1586–1595.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Goodmann, R. (2004). A brief history of underwater acoustics in ASA at 75. Acoustical Society of America, Melville, New York, NY: pp. 204–227.Google Scholar
  3. Knudsen, V. O., R. S. Alford, et al. (1948). “Underwater ambient noise.” J. Marine Res. 7: 410–429.Google Scholar
  4. Mason, W. P. (1981). “Piezoelectricity, its history and its applications.” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 70(6): 1561–1566.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Spitzer, L. (1945). Physics of Sound in the Sea. Peninsula Publishing, Los Altos, CA (1981).Google Scholar
  6. Urick, R. J. (1984). Ambient Noise in the Sea. Undersea Warfare Technology Office, NAVSEA, D.O.N., Washington, DC (Also available from Peninsula Publishing, Los Altos, CA, 1986).Google Scholar
  7. Wenz, G. (1962). “Acoustic ambient noise in the ocean: Spectra and sources.” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 34(12): 1936–1956.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Noise Measurement

  1. Bendat, J. S. and A. G. Piersol (1966). Measurement and Analysis of Random Data. John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY.MATHGoogle Scholar
  2. Dyer, I. (1970). “Statistics of sound propagation in the ocean.” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 48(1, pt 2): 337–345.MathSciNetADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Horton, C. W. (1968). Signal Processing of Underwater Acoustic Waves. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (LOCC No.: 74-603409).Google Scholar
  4. Middleton, D. (1987). An Introduction to Statistical Communication Theory. Peninsula Publishing, Los Altos, CA.Google Scholar
  5. Pierce, A. D. (1981). Acoustics: An Introduction to its Physical Principles and Applications. Acoustical Society of America, Woodbury, NY.Google Scholar
  6. Whalen, A. D. (1971). Detection of Signals in Noise. Academic Press, New York, NY.Google Scholar

Infrasonic Noise

  1. Brekhovskikh, L. M. (1967). “Generation of sound waves in a liquid by surface waves.” Sov. Phys. Acoust. 12(3): 323–350.Google Scholar
  2. Cato, D. H. (1991a). “Sound generation in the vicinity of the sea surface: Source mechanisms and coupling to the received sound field.” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 89(3): 1076–1095.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cato, D. H. (1991b). “Theoretical and measured underwater noise from surface orbital wave motion.” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 89(3): 1096–1112.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Goncharov, V. V. (1970). “Sound generation in the ocean by the interaction of surface waves and turbulence.” Izv., Atmos. Ocean. Phys. 6(11): 1189–1196.Google Scholar
  5. Hughes, B. (1976). “Estimates of underwater sound (and infrasound) produced by nonlinearly interacting ocean waves.” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 60(5): 1032–1039.ADSMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Isakovich, M. A. and B. F. Kur’yanov (1970). “Theory of low frequency noise in the ocean.” Sov. Phys. Acoust. 16(1): 49–58.Google Scholar
  7. Kibblewhite, A. C. and K. C. Ewans (1985). “Wave-wave interactions, microseisms, and infrasonic ambient noise in the ocean.” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 78(3): 981–994.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Kibblewhite, A. C. and C. Y. Wu (1989a). “The generation of infrasonic ambient noise in the ocean by nonlinear interaction of ocean surfaces waves.” J . Acoust. Soc. Am. 85: 1935.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Kibblewhite, A. C. and C. Y. Wu (1989b). “A reexamination of the role of wave-wave interaction in ocean noise generation.” J . Acoust. Soc. Am. 85: 1946.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Latham, G. V. and A. A. Nowroozi (1968). “Waves, weather, and ocean bottom microseisms.” J. Geo. Res. 73(12): 3945–3956.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Lloyd, S. P. (1981). “Underwater sound from surface waves according to the Lighthill-Ribner Theory.” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 69(2): 425–435.MathSciNetADSMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Longuet, M. S. (1950). “A theory of the origins of microseisms.” Trans. Roy. Soc. A 243: 1–35.ADSMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Nichols, R. H. (1981). “Infrasonic ambient noise measurements: Eleuthera.” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 69(4): 974–981.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Urick, R. J. (1984). Ambient Noise in the Sea. U.S.G.P.O., Washington, DC (Peninsula Publishing, Los Altos, CA (1986)), pp. 456–963.Google Scholar
  15. Wilson, J. H. (1979). “Very low frequency (VLF) wind-generated noise produced by turbulent pressure fluctuations in the atmosphere near the ocean surface.” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 66(5): 1499–1507 [Cato, D. H. (1981) “Comments on.......” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 70(6): 1783–1784 and Wilson, J. H. (1981) “Rebuttal to......” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 70(6): 1785–1786.].ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Phenomenological Observations of Ambient Noise

  1. Anderson, D. et al. (1972). VLAM Data Analysis-Site 3, Bermuda, Naval Ocean Systems Center, San Diego, CA.Google Scholar
  2. Anderson, V. C. (1979). “Variation of the vertical directionality of noise with depth in the North Pacific.” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 66: 1446–1452.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arase, E. M. and T. Arase (1965). “Correlation of ambient sea noise.” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 40(1): 205–210.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Axelrod, E., B. Schoomer, et al. (1965). “Vertical directionality of ambient noise in the deep ocean of a site near Bermuda.” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 36(11): 77–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bannister, R. W. (1986). “Deep sound channel noise from high-latitude winds.” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 79(1): 41–48.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bannister, R. W., R. N. Denham, et al. (1981). Measurement of the Low-Frequency Wind-Generated Ambient Noise in the Deep Ocean, Naval Underwater Systems Center, TD 6565 (Available DTIC A65005).Google Scholar
  7. Buckingham, M. and J. Potter (1995). Sea Surface Sound’94. World Scientific, Singapore, 1995.Google Scholar
  8. Burgess, A. S. and Kewley, D. J. (1983). “Wind-generated surface noise source levels in deep water east of Australia.” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 73(1): 201–210.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Carey, W. M. and D. G. Browning (1988). Low-frequency ocean ambient noise, measurement and theory. Sea Surface Sound. B. R. Kerman (Ed.), Kluwer Press, Boston, MA, pp. 361–376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Carey, W. M., R. B. Evans, et al. (1990). “Deep-ocean noise directionality.” IEEE J. Ocean. Eng. 15: 324–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Carey, W. M. and E. C. Monahan (1990). “Guest Editorial “Special Issue” on sea surface-generated ambient noise: 20-2000 Hz.” IEEE J. Ocean. Eng. 15(4): 265–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Carey, W. M. and R. A. Wagstaff (1986). “Low-frequency noise fields.” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 80(5): 1523–1526.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cato, D. H. (1976). “Ambient sea noise in waters near Australia.” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 60(2): 320–328.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chapman, N. R. and J. W. Cornish (1993). “Wind dependence of deep ocean ambient noise at low frequencies.” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 98: 782–789.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cox, H. (1973). “Spatial correlation in arbitrary noise fields with application to ambient sea noise.” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 54(5): 1289–1301.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cron, B. F., B. C. Hassell, et al. (1965). “Comparison of theoretical and experimental values of spatial correlation.” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 37(3): 523–529.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cron, B. F. and C. H. Sherman (1962). “Spatial-correlation functions for various noise models.” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 34(11): 1732–1736.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Edelblute, D. J., J. M. Fisk, and G. L. Kinnison (1966). “Criteria for optimum signal-detection theory for arrays.” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 41: 199–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fox, G. E. (1964). “Ambient-noise directivity measurements.” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 36: 1537–1540.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Franz, G. J. (1959). “Splashes as sources of sounds in liquids.” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 31(8): 1080–1096.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Furduev, A. V. (1966). “Undersurface cavitation as a source of noise in the ocean.” Atmos. Ocean. Phys. 2(235): 314–320.Google Scholar
  22. Garabed, E. P. and R. A. Finkelman (2005). “Measured vertical noise directionality at five sites in the western North Atlantic.” IEEE J. Ocean. Eng. 30(2) (Special Issue, Archival Papers): 282–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hollett, R. D. (1992). Observation of Underwater Sound at Frequencies Below 1500 Hz from Breaking Waves at Sea SACLANTCEN Rpt. 183, SACLANT Undersea Research Centre, 19138 San Bartolomeo, Italy.Google Scholar
  24. Hollinberger, D. E. and D. W. Bruder (1990). “Ambient noise data Logger Buoy.” IEEE J. Ocean. Eng. 15(4): 286–291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kennedy, R. and T. Goodnow (1990). “Measuring the vertical directional spectra caused by sea surface sound.” IEEE J. Ocean. Eng. 15(4).Google Scholar
  26. Kerman, B. R. (1984). “Underwater sound generation by breaking waves.” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 75(1): 149–165.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kerman, B. R. (1988). Sea Surface Sound. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, MA.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kerman, B. R. (1993). Natural Physical Sources of Underwater Sound. Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kibblewhite, A. C. (1984). “Attenuation of low frequency sound in the sea, Vol. II.” J . Acoust. Soc. Am. 75: 645.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kibblewhite, A. C. and K. C. Ewans (1985). “Wave-wave interactions, microseisms, and infrasonic ambient noise in the ocean.” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 78(3): 981–994.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kibblewhite, A. C., J. A. Shooter, et al. (1976). “Examination of attenuation at very low frequencies using deep water ambient noise field.” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 60: 1040.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kibblewhite, A. C. and C. Y. Wu (1989a). “The generation of infrasonic ambient noise in the ocean by nonlinear interaction of ocean surfaces waves.” J . Acoust. Soc. Am. 85: 1935.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kibblewhite, A. C. and C. Y. Wu (1989b). “A reexamination of the role of wave–wave interaction in ocean noise generation.” J . Acoust. Soc. Am. 85: 1946.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Knudsen, V. O., R. S. Alford, et al. (1948). “Underwater ambient noise.” J. Marine Res. 7: 410–429.Google Scholar
  35. Nystuen, J. A. (1986). “Rainfall measurements using underwater ambient noise.” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 79(4): 972–982.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Perrone, A. (1969). “Deep-ocean ambient noise spectra in the Northeast Atlantic.” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 46(3): 762–770.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Perrone, A. (1976). Summary of a One Year Ambient Noise Measurement Program Off Bermuda, Naval Underwater Systems Center, New London Laboratory, NUSC T.R. 4979 (Available DTIC).Google Scholar
  38. Piggott, C. L. (1964). “Ambient sea noise at low frequencies in the shallow water of the Scotian Shelf.” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 36(1): 2152–2163.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Shang, E. C. and V. C. Anderson (1986). “Surface-generated noise under low wind speed at Kilohertz frequencies.” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 79(4): 964–971.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Shooter, J., T. DeMary, et al. (1990). “Depth dependence noise resulting from ship traffic and wind.” IEEE J. Ocean. Eng. 15(4): 292–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Shooter, J. and M. Gentry (1981). “Wind generated noise in the Pareca Vela Basin.” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 70(6): 1757–1761.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Talham, R. J. (1964). “Ambient-sea-noise model.” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 36: 1541–1544.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Urick, R. J. (1984). Ambient Noise in the Sea. U.S.G.P.O., Washington, DC (Peninsula Publishing, Los Altos, CA (1986)), pp. 456–963.Google Scholar
  44. Wagstaff, R. A. (1978). “Interactive techniques for ambient noise horizontal directionality estimation from towed line-array data.” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 63: 863–869.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Wagstaff, R. A. (1981). “Low-frequency ambient noise in the deep sound channel – the missing component.” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 69: 1009–1014.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Wagstaff, R. A. (2005). “An ambient noise model for the Northeast Pacific Basin.” IEEE J. Ocean. Eng. 30(2) (Special Issue Archival Papers): 245–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Wales, S. C. and O. I. Diachok (1981). “Ambient noise vertical directionality in the Northwest Atlantic.” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 70: 577–582.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Wenz, G. (1962). “Acoustic ambient noise in the ocean: Spectra and sources.” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 34(12): 1936–1956.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Wenz, G. M. (1972). “Review of underwater acoustics research: Noise.” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 51(2 pt 3): 1010–1024.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Wille, P. C. and D. Geyer (1984). “Measurements on the origin of wind dependent noise variability in shallow water.” J . Acoust. Soc. Am. 71(4): 173–195.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Wittenborn, A. F. (1976). Ambient Noise and Associated Propagation Factors as a Function of Depth-Wind-Speed in the Deep Ocean, Tracor Rept. T76RV5060, DTIC (AD 006902), Alexandria, VA.Google Scholar
  52. Worley, R. D. and R. A. Walker (1982). “Low-frequency ambient noise ans sound transmission over a thinly sedimented rock bottom.” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 71(4): 863–870.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Rain Noise

  1. Bom, N. (1969). “Effect of rain on underwater noise level.” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 45(1): 150–156.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Fitzpatrick, H. M. and M. Strasberg (1956). Hydrodynamic Sources of Sound. In Naval Hydrodynamics. F. S. Sherman (Ed.), National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council Pub 515, LC-57-60045, pp. 241–280.Google Scholar
  3. Franz, G. J. (1959). “Splashes as sources of sounds in liquids.” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 31(8): 1080–1096.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Guo, Y. P. and J. E. FFowcs-Williams (1991). “A theoretical study of drop impact sound and rain noise.” J. Fluid Mech. 227: 345–355.MathSciNetADSMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Heindsman, T. E., R. H. Smith, et al. (1955). “Effect of rain upon underwater noise levels.” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 27: 378–379.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Minnaert, M. (1933). “Musical air-bubbles and sounds of running water.” Phil. Mag. XVI (7th Series): 235–249.Google Scholar
  7. Nystuen, J. A. (1986). “Rainfall measurements using underwater ambient noise.” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 79(4): 972–982.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Nystuen, J. A. (1993). An explanation of the sound generated in light in the presence of wind. In Natural Physical Sources of Underwater Sound. B. R. Kerman (Ed.), Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, pp. 659–668.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Pumphrey, H. C. (1989). “Sources of Ambient Noise in the Ocean: An Experimental Investigation.” University of Mississippi, University, MS [Dissertation (NCPA LC.01-1989, Available DTIC)].Google Scholar
  10. Pumphrey, H. C. and L. A. Crum (1989). “Underwater sound produced by individual drop impacts and rainfall.” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 85: 1518–1526.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Pumphrey, H. C. and L. A. Crum (1990). “Free oscillations of near surface bubbles as sources of underwater rain noise.” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 87: 142.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Pumphrey, H. C. and P. A. Elmore (1990). “The entrainment of bubbles by drop impacts.” J. Fluid Mech. 220: 539–567.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Arctic Noise

  1. Diachok, O. I. and R. S. Winokur (1974). “Spatial variability of underwater ambient noise at the Arctic ice-water boundary.” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 56(4): 750–753.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Dyer, I. (1983). Song of sea ice and other Arctic ocean melodies. In Arctic Technology and Policy. I. Dyer and C. Chryssostomidis (Eds.), Hemisphere Publishing Corporation, New York, NY, pp. 11–37, ISBN 0-89116-361-1.Google Scholar
  3. Dyer, I. and C. Chryssostomidis (1983). Arctic Technology and Policy. Hemisphere Publishing Corporation, New York, NY, ISBN 0-89116-361-1.Google Scholar
  4. Ganton, J. H. and A. R. Milne (1965). “Temperature- and wind-dependent ambient noise under midwinter pack ice.” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 36: 406–411.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Greene, C. R. and B. B. Buck (1964). “Arctic ocean ambient noise.” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 36(6): 1218–1220.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Hunkins, K. (1962). “Waves on the Arctic ocean.” J. Geophys. Res. 67: 2477–2489.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Keenan, R. E. and I. Dyer (1984). “Noise from Arctic earthquakes.” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 75(3): 819–825.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Macpherson, J. D. (1962). “Some under-ice acoustic ambient noise measurements.” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 34(8): 1149–1150.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Makris, N. C. and I. Dyer (1986). “Environmental correlates of pack ice noise.” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 79(5): 1434–1440.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Mellen, R. H. and H. W. Marsh (1965). Underwater sound in the Arctic ocean. In Scientific and Engineering Studies: Underwater Acoustics in the Arctic, 1958–1984. W. A. Von Winkle (Ed.), Naval Underwater Systems Center (Now the Naval Undersea Warfare Center) Newport, RI.Google Scholar
  11. Milne, A. R. (1965). “Statistical description of noise under shore-fast sea ice in winter.” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 39(6): 1174–1182.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Milne, A. R. (1967). Sound propagation and ambient noise under sea ice. In Underwater Acoustics, Vol. 2. V. M. Albers (Ed.), Plenum Press, New York, NY, pp. 103–138.Google Scholar
  13. Milne, A. R. and J. H. Ganton (1964). “Ambient noise under Arctic sea ice.” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 36(5): 855–863.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Shepard, G. W. (1979). Arctic ocean ambient noise. Ocean Engineering. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  15. Urick, R. J. (1984). Ambient Noise in the Sea. U.S.G.P.O., Washington, DC (Peninsula Publishing, Los Altos, CA(1986)), pp. 456–963.Google Scholar
  16. VonWinkle, W. A. (1963). “Vertical directionality of deep-ocean noise.” J . Acoust. Soc. Am. 35: 1884.ADSGoogle Scholar
  17. Von Winkle, W. A. (Ed.) (1984). Scientific and Engineering Studies: Underwater Acoustics in the Arctic, 1958–1984. Naval Underwater Systems Center (Now the Naval Undersea Warfare Center) Newport, RI.Google Scholar
  18. Yang, T. C., G. R. Giellis, et al. (1987). “Acoustic properties of ice edge noise in the Greenland sea.” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 82(3): 1034–1038.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© William M. Carey and Richard B. Evans 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringBoston UniversityOld LymeUSA
  2. 2.North StoningtonUSA

Personalised recommendations