Theoretical Background

Part of the Springer Theses book series (Springer Theses)


All known fundamental particles are classified as either quarks, leptons or gauge bosons. The quarks and leptons are spin-1/2 fermions and constitute the building blocks of matter. They are grouped into three generations, where the lightest particles are found in the first generation, and the heaviest in the third generation. Each generation contains a charged lepton, a charge-neutral neutrino, and an up-type and a down-type quark with charges


Gauge Group Gauge Boson Colour Charge 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Carleton UniversityOttawaCanada

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