Development and Application of Advanced Thermal Management Materials

Chapter
Part of the Springer Series in Advanced Microelectronics book series (MICROELECTR., volume 30)

Abstract

As the demand for ease and access-speed increase, managing the thermal issues of the advanced electronic packaging would pose significant challenges. Each customer premise has its own special requirements that may complicate the required cooling scheme. The cooling constraints associated with customer premises impose stringent necessities on the component, board and system level power dissipation and cooling options. Together, these constraints create a set of opportunities and challenges that will dictate the thermal management requirements for the products for the next generation. In response to these needs, there have been revolutionary advances in thermal management materials and cooling approaches, such as low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), low-density materials with thermal conductivities up to 1,700 W/m K; increased reliability; reduced junction temperatures, reduced cost and weight; low CTE, thermally conductive printed circuit boards (PCBs), potentially eliminating the need for underfill; CTE matching allows direct attach with hard solders. There are a large and increasing number of microelectronic and optoelectronic applications with advanced thermal management technology, including: PCBs and PCB cold plates; heat sinks; microprocessor, RF (Radio Frequency) and power modules; heat spreaders and sinks; laser diode and light-emitting diode (LED) modules; thermoelectric coolers (TECs); plasma and liquid crystal displays (LCDs); detectors; and photovoltaics. This chapter covers the development roadmap of advanced thermal management materials, the growing array of applications, and future trends.

Keywords

Fatigue Microwave Graphite Manifold Lithium 

References

  1. Arik M, Weaver S (2004) Chip scale thermal management of high brightness LED packages. http://lib.semi.ac.cn:8080/tsh/dzzy/wsqk/SPIE/vol5530/5530–214.pdf. Accessed on 06 June 2010.
  2. Armstrong MK (2004) Advanced PCB design and layout for EMC – Part 2: Segregation and interface suppression. EMC & Compliance Journal 3: 32–42. http://www.compliance-club.com/keith_armstrong.asp. Accessed on 07 July 2010.
  3. Biber C (2008) LED light emission as a function of thermal conditions. http://www.biberthermal.com/Reference_Links/Publications_List/LED_Light_Emission_protected.doc. Accessed on 11 July 2010.
  4. Burke KA (2008) Advanced fuel cell system thermal management for NASA exploration missions. Sixth International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference and Exhibit (IECEC) sponsored by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Cleveland, Ohio, July 28–30, 2008.Google Scholar
  5. Burns LD, McCormick JB, Barroni-Bird CE (2002) Vehicles of change. Scientific American 287(4): 64–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chen X et al (2002) A thermally re-mendable cross-linked polymeric material. Science 295: 1698–1702.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Christodolou L, Venables JD (2003) Multifunctional material systems: The first generation. JOM – The Member Journal of the Minerals, Metals & Materials Society 55(12): 39–45.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. DOD (2010) Improved thermal management for high power and /or small form factor (SFF) tactical radios. http://www.dodsbir.net/Sitis/archives_display_topic.asp?Bookmark=28080. Accessed on 03 July 2010.
  9. Dutta I et al (2004) Development of a novel adaptive lead-free solder containing reinforcements displaying the shape-memory effect. Journal of Electronic Materials 33: 258–270.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. English G (2007) Combined board level EMI shielding and thermal management. US Patent 7262369.Google Scholar
  11. Equitech et al (2009) A comprehensive national energy policy based on integrated and advanced renewable energy systems and citizen cooperative land ownership. http://www.cesj.org/homestead/strategies/community/Equitech-ExecutiveSummary.pdf. Accessed on 12 July 2010.
  12. Garbincius PH (2006) RDR cost estimating instructions & standards. http://www-ilcdcb.fnal.gov/RDR_Cost_Estimating_Instructions_23may06.pdf. Accessed on 05 July 2010.
  13. Garimella SV et al (2008) Thermal challenges in next-generation electronic systems. IEEE Transactions on Components and Packaging Technologies 31(4): 801–815.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hannafin J (2002) A novel approach to thermal management and EMI shielding via a metallic conformal coating on a plastic housing. Proceedings of the IMAPS, Telecom Hardware Solutions Conference, May 2002. http://vendor.parker.com/Groups/Seal/Divisions/Chomerics/Chomerics%20Product%20Library.nsf/05eb61a92fc220c78525695800744d42/5102fa16a41dd41d85256bc1004c61d2/$FILE/Article_ECOPLATE.pdf. Accessed on 08 July 2010.
  15. Horng RH, Horng RH et al (1997) Thermal management design from chip to package for high power InGaN/sapphire LEDs applications. http://www.electrochem.org/meetings/scheduler/abstracts/214/2252.pdf. Accessed on 09 July 2010.
  16. ITRS (2009) International technology roadmap for semiconductors – Modeling and simulation. http://public.itrs.net/Links/2009ITRS/2009Chapters_2009Tables/2009_Modeling.pdf. Accessed on 06 July 2010.
  17. ITRS (2009a) International technology roadmap for semiconductors – Design. http://www.itrs.net/Links/2009ITRS/2009Chapters_2009Tables/2009_Design.pdf Accessed 06 July 2010.
  18. ITRS (2009b) International technology roadmap for semiconductors – Factory integration. http://public.itrs.net/Links/2009ITRS/2009Chapters_2009Tables/2009_Factory.pdf. Accessed on 06 July 2010.
  19. Johnson RN (2009) Thermally conductive EMI shield. US patent 7,608,326.Google Scholar
  20. Khan Z (2008) New materials and techniques tackle PCB thermal management. http://rtcmagazine.com/magazine/articles/view/100944/pg: 1 Accessed on 03 July 2010.
  21. Lunaraccents (2001) LED thermal management. http://www.lunaraccents.com/educational-LED-thermal-management.html. Accessed on 09 July 2010.
  22. Luxeon (2006) Thermal design using LUXEON power light sources App Brief AB05 (6/06). http://www.philipslumileds.com/pdfs/AB05.pdf Accessed on 04 July 2010.
  23. Matic P (2003) Overview of multifunctional materials. In Smart Structures and Materials 2003: Active Materials: Behaviors and Mechanics, D.C. Lagoudas, ed. Proceedings of SPIE Volume 5053, pp. 61–69.Google Scholar
  24. Momoda LA (2005) The future of engineering materials: Multifunction for performance-tailored structures. http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=11220&page=47 Accessed on 05 July 2010.
  25. Najarian M, Garnett E (2006) Thermoelectrics and photovoltaics: Integration challenges and benefits. http://kammen.berkeley.edu/C226/5r.pdf Accessed on 06 July 2010.
  26. Optek (2006) Thermal management of visible LEDs. http://www.optekinc.com/pdf/App%20Bulletin%20228.pdf. Accessed on 12 July 2010.
  27. Pan Y-F (2002) Integrated thermal design and optimization study for active integrated power electronic modules (IPEMs). Master thesis. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg.Google Scholar
  28. Pesaran AA (2001) Battery thermal management in EVs and HEVs issues and solutions. Advanced Automotive Battery Conference, Las Vegas, Nevada, Feb. 6–8, 2001.Google Scholar
  29. Pesaran AA, Burch S, Keyser M (1999) An approach for designing thermal management systems for electric and hybrid vehicle battery packs. Fourth Vehicle Thermal Management Systems Conference and Exhibition, London, UK, May 24–27, 1999.Google Scholar
  30. Quarshie R (2005) Smart materials and related structures. http://www.berr.gov.uk/files/file18875.pdf. Accessed on 06 July 2010.
  31. Saffa R (2007) Thermal management considerations for visible LEDs in general illumination and signage applications. http://www.ledjournal.com/images/Archived%20Articles/ Thermal%20Management%20Considerations%20for%20Visible%20LEDs%20in%20General%20Illumination%20and%20Signage%20Applications.pdf. Accessed on 08 July 2010.
  32. Saums D et al (2005) Implementation of diamond pins as thermal vias for high heat flux spreading in CTE-compatible lids and baseplates for semiconductor packaging. IMAPS Advanced Technology Workshop on Thermal Management 2005. http://www.sp3inc.com/pdf/dia_pins.pdf. Accessed on 01 July 2010.
  33. Satoh Y (1986) Challenge to the Quality Revolution. NEC Corporation, Tokyo.Google Scholar
  34. Sigmund O, Torquato S (1999) Design of smart composite materials using topology optimization. Smart Materials and Structures 8(9): 365–379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Standford (2000) NLC general cost estimate guidance. http://www-project.slac.stanford.edu/lc/local/notes/dr/cost-contin.pdf. Accessed on 05 July 2010.
  36. Tong XC (2009) Advanced Materials and Design for Electromagnetic Shielding. CRC Press, Boca Raton, USA.Google Scholar
  37. Tsao JY (2002) Light emitting diodes (LEDs) for general illumination. http://apps1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/publications/pdfs/ssl/report_led_november_2002a_1.pdf. Accessed on 12 July 2010.
  38. Viswanath R, Wakharkar V, Watwe A, Lebonheur V (2000) Thermal performance challenges from silicon to systems. Intel Technologies Journal Q3: 2000. http://www.intel.com/technology/itj/q32000/pdf/thermal_perf.pdf. Accessed on 03 June 2010.
  39. Wang DG, Knighten JL, Muller PK (2002) An integrated vent, heatsink and EMI shield. IEEE 18th Annual Symposium on Semiconductor Thermal Measurement and Management, 12–14 March, 2002, pp. 125–131.Google Scholar
  40. Wax SG, Fisher GM, Sands RR (2003) The past, present and future of DARPA’s investment strategy in smart materials. JOM – The Member Journal of the Minerals, Metals & Materials Society 55(11): 17–23.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Welwyn (2010) The use of Anotherm in power LED lighting applications. http://www.hg-electronics.de/produktpartner/tt-electronics/downloads/Anotherm_HLfLLED.pdf. Accessed on 12 July 2010.
  42. Young R et al (2006) Developments and trends in thermal management technologies – A mission to the USA. http://www.lboro.ac.uk/research/iemrc/documents/.../CB2007.pdf. Accessed on 26 February 2010.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laird TechnologiesSchaumburgUSA

Personalised recommendations