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Chicken Models of Retroviral Insertional Mutagenesis

  • Vladimír Pečenka
  • Petr Pajer
  • Vít Karafiát
  • Michal Dvořák
Chapter

Abstract

The concept of transposon tagging or insertional mutagenesis as a strategy for fishing out genes connected with the phenotype of interest was emerging since the early 1980s. Study of genetic basis of tumorigenesis is one of the fields where insertional mutagenesis proved to be exceptionally powerful. Crucial elements of this experimental approach have been retroviruses whose unique properties have revolutionized the work in the field of oncogenesis. Retroviruses contributed to our knowledge of tumor formation in two ways. First, some of them transduce oncogenes—mutants of normal cellular genes with an oncogenic potential. And it was the comparison of viral and cellular alleles of these genes that allowed comprehending the principles of oncogenic activation of genes. Second, retroviruses not carrying oncogenes can induce tumors by affecting host genes. Through integration of their proviral DNA into chromosomes they can activate tumorigenic potential of oncogenes or inactivate tumor suppressor genes. The mechanism is referred to as oncogenesis by insertional mutagenesis. The insertional mutagenesis by retroviruses is very efficient. Perhaps each locus of a host genome can be hit by the provirus insertion in many cells of an infected tissue. If any of these insertions or their combinations incites malignant transformation, the touched cell outgrows and can give rise to a tumor. Affected host gene loci can be easily identified since they are tagged by integrated proviral sequences.

Keywords

Long Terminal Repeat Cancer Gene Insertional Mutagenesis Avian Leukosis Virus Transcriptional Orientation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vladimír Pečenka
    • 1
  • Petr Pajer
    • 1
  • Vít Karafiát
    • 1
  • Michal Dvořák
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Molecular VirologyInstitute of Molecular GeneticsPragueCzech Republic

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