Antecedents of the Western Tradition

Chapter

Abstract

As general sources of information on the science of this area, we strongly recommend the following: George Sarton’s A History of Science, Vol. I: Ancient Science through the Golden Age of Greece and Vol. II: Hellenistic Science and Culture in the Last Three Centuries b.c., 1952/1970; Bartel L. van der Waerden’s Science Awakening II: The Birth of Astronomy, 1974; and several works by Otto Neugebauer (Exact Sciences in Antiquity, 1959/1967; Astronomy in History: Selected Essays, 1983, and for Mesopotamian data, Astronomical Cuneiform Texts I, II, and III, 1955/1983).

Keywords

Clay Europe Selene Calcite Turkey 

References

  1. Adamson, K.M.H. 1988. Iconography of Isˇtar. Ph.D. dissertation. (Calgary: University of Calgary).Google Scholar
  2. Aldred, C. 1988. Akhenaten, King of Egypt. (London: Thames and Hudson).Google Scholar
  3. Arndt, W.F., and Gingrich, F.W. 1952/1957. A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature. Translation and adaptation of W. Bauer’s Griechisch-Deutsches Wörterbuch zu den Schriften des Neuen Testaments und der übrigen urchristlichen Literatur (4th ed. 1952). (Chicago: University of Chicago Press).Google Scholar
  4. Athreya, A., and Gingerich, O. 1996–1997. “An Analysis of Kepler’s Rudolphine Tables and Implications for the Reception of His Physical Astronomy,” Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society for 1996, 28, 4, 189th Annual Meeting, Toronto, Ontario, 1997.Google Scholar
  5. Aveni, A.F., and Mizrachi, Y. 1998. “The Geometry and Astronomy of Rujm al-Hiri, A Megalithic Site in the Southern Levant.” Journal of Field Archaeology 25, 475–496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Avey, A.A. 1954/1958. Handbook in the History of Philosophy. (New York: Barnes & Noble, Inc.)Google Scholar
  7. Beck, R. 1994a. “In the Place of the Lion, Mithras in the Tauroctony,” in J.R. Hinnells, ed., Studies in Mithraism. (Rome: L’ERMA di Bretschneider), pp. 29–50.Google Scholar
  8. Beer, A. 1970. Review of “Die Goldhöner von Gallehus,” by Willy Hartner, 1969 (Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner Verlag) in Journal for the History of Astronomy 1, 139–143.MathSciNetADSGoogle Scholar
  9. Bierbrier, M.L. 1975. The Late New Kingdom in Egypt (c. 1300–664 b . c .). (Warminster, UK: Avis and Phillips, Ltd.).Google Scholar
  10. Blegen, C.W., and Rawson, M. 1966. The Palace of Nestor at Pylos in Western Messenia, I, part I. (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press).Google Scholar
  11. Boll, F. 1903/1967. Sphaera (Neue griechische Texte und Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der Sternbilder). (Leipzig: B.G. Teubner; Hildesheim: George Olms Verlags Buchhandlung).Google Scholar
  12. Bottero, J. 1992. Mesopotamia: Writing, Reasoning, and the Gods. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press).Google Scholar
  13. Bultmann, R., and Kundsin, K. 1934/1962. Form Criticism: Two Essays on New Testament Research. (New York: Harper; earlier ed., Willett, Clark & Co.).Google Scholar
  14. Campbell, J. 1970. The Masks of God: Occidental Mythology. 3 vols. (New York: Viking Press) (Orig. ed. 1964).Google Scholar
  15. Castledon, R. 1990. Minoans: Life in Bronze Age Crete. (London and New York: Routledge).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chadwick, H., ed. 1953/1965. Origen: Contra Celsum. (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press).Google Scholar
  17. Chase, M.E. 1962. Psalms for the Common Reader. (New York: Nortons). 208 pp.Google Scholar
  18. Cullens, L., and Tuman, V.S. 1986. “Immortality Etched in Stones,” Griffith Observer 50(1), 10–19.Google Scholar
  19. Dicks, D.R. 1970. Early Greek Astronomy to Aristotle. (Ithaca: Cornell University Press). (Reviews by V. Thoren: Isis 61, 541–542, 1970; G. Toomer: Gnomon, Bd 44, 212–216, 1972; A. Wasserstein: Journal for the History of Astronomy 3, 212, 1972).Google Scholar
  20. Gardiner, A. 1966. Egypt of the Pharaohs: An Introduction. (Oxford: Oxford University Press).Google Scholar
  21. Gingerich, O. 1993. The Eye of Heaven: Ptolemy, Copernicus, Kepler. (New York: American Institute of Physics). (Review by J.D. North: J. Hist. Astron. 9, 243–244.)Google Scholar
  22. Ginzel, F.K. 1906. Handbuch der Mathematischen und Technischen Chronologie. 3 vols. (Leipzig: J.C. Hinrichs).Google Scholar
  23. Goldstein, B.R. 1994. “Historical Perspectives on Copernicus’s Account of Precession.” Journal for the History of Astronomy 25, 189–197.MathSciNetADSGoogle Scholar
  24. Goodenough, W.H. 1953. Native Astronomy in the Carolines. Museum Monograph (Philadelphia: The University of Pennsylvania Museum).Google Scholar
  25. Hayes, W.C. 1971. “The Middle Kingdom in Egypt,” in Cambridge Ancient History, Vol. I: 2a. ch. 17. 3rd ed. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).ADSGoogle Scholar
  26. Hostetter, H.C. 1979a. “The Bowl of Ishtar,” Griffith Observer 43(7), 14.Google Scholar
  27. Hostetter, H.C. 1988. “The Days of the Scorpion,” Griffith Observer 52(3), 6–10, 16–19.Google Scholar
  28. Hostetter, H.C. 1991. Star Trek to Hawa-i’i. (San Luis Obispo, CA: Diamond Press).Google Scholar
  29. Humphrey, J.W. 1990. “A Note on στ¿διον in Cassius Dio.” The Ancient History Bulletin 4.1, 17–22.Google Scholar
  30. Humphreys, C.J. and Waddington, W.G. 1983. “Dating the Crucifixion,” Nature 306, 743–746.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Humphreys, C.J. and Waddington, W.G. 1990. “Crucifixion Date,” Nature 348, 684.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Jacobsen, T. 1939. The Sumerian King List: The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, Assyriological Studies, No. 11 (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press).Google Scholar
  33. Jaki, S.L. 1972/1975. The Milky Way: An Elusive Road for Science. (New York: Science History Publishers, Neale Watson Academic Publishers). 352 pp.Google Scholar
  34. Jeremias, J. 1966. The Eucharistic Words of Jesus. Tr. by N. Perrin. (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons) from 3rd. German ed., Die Abendsmahlworte Jesu (Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht), 1964.Google Scholar
  35. Jones, G. 1964/1986. The Norse Atlantic Saga. (Oxford: Oxford University Press).Google Scholar
  36. Kennedy, E.S. 1966. “Late Medieval Planetary Theory,” Isis 57, 365–378.MATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kuniholm, P.I., Kromer, B., Manning, S.W., Newton, M., Latini, C.E., and Bruce, M.J. 1996. “Anatolian Tree Rings and the Absolute Chronology of the Eastern Mediterranean 2220 to 718 b.c.” Nature 381, 780–783.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Lindsay, J. 1971. Origins of Astrology. (London: Frederick Muller).Google Scholar
  39. Liu, B.-L., and Fiala, a.d. 1992. Canon of Lunar Eclipses: 1500 b . c .– a . d. 3000. (Richmond, VA: Willmann-Bell, Inc.).Google Scholar
  40. Lockyer, J.N. 1894/1973. The Dawn of Astronomy. 2nd P.B. ed. 432 pp. (Orig. ed., 1894.) (Cambridge: The M.I.T. Press).Google Scholar
  41. Luckenbill, D.D. 1929. Ancient Records of Assyria and Babylonia. II. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press).Google Scholar
  42. Maunder, E.W. 1908/1909. The Astronomy of the Bible. (1908: London: T. Sealey Clark & Company) (1909: London: Hodder and Stoughton).Google Scholar
  43. Mercier, R. 1977. “Studies in the Medieval Conception of Precession,” Archives internationales d’histoire des sciences xxvii, 33–71.MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  44. Metzger, B.M., and Coogan, H.D., eds. 1993. The Oxford Companion to the Bible. (New York: Oxford University Press).Google Scholar
  45. Morelon, R., ed., & tr. 1987. Tha¯bit Ibn Qurra: Oeuvres d’Astronomie. (Paris: Les Belles Lettres). (Review by F.J. Ragep: JHA 23, pt. 1, 61–63).Google Scholar
  46. Morgenstern, J. 1935. Supplementary Studies in the Calendar of Ancient Israel, Hebrew Union College Annual 10, 1–148 (Cincinnati).Google Scholar
  47. Murschel, A. 1995. “The Structure and Function of Ptolemy’s Physical Hypotheses of Planetary Motion,” Journal for the History of Astronomy 26, 33–61.MathSciNetADSGoogle Scholar
  48. Neugebauer, O. 1938. “Die Bedeutungslosigkeit der ‘Sothisperiode’ für die älteste ägyptische Chronologie,” Acta Orientalia 17, 169–195. Reprinted in O. Neugebauer, 1983, 169–195.Google Scholar
  49. Neugebauer, O. 1939. Isis 30, 140.Google Scholar
  50. Neugebauer, O. 1955/1983. Astronomical Cuneiform Texts. Babylonian Ephemerides of the Seleucid Period for the Motion of the Sun, the Moon, and the Planets. 3 vols. 1955 ed. (London: Lund Humphries). 1983 ed. (New York: Springer-Verlag).Google Scholar
  51. Neugebauer, O. 1959. “The Equivalence of Eccentric and Epicyclic Motion According to Apollonius,” Scripta Mathematica 24, 5–21. (Reprinted in O. Neugebauer, 1983, 335–351.)MATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  52. Neugebauer, O. 1957/1969. The Exact Sciences in Antiquity. (New York: Dover). (Orig. ed. pub. by Brown University, 1957.)MATHGoogle Scholar
  53. Neugebauer, O. 1983. Astronomy and History. Selected Essays. (New York: Springer-Verlag).MATHGoogle Scholar
  54. Nevalainen, J. 1996. “The Accuracy of the Ecliptic Longitude in Ptolemy’s Mercury Model,” Journal for the History of Astronomy 27, 147–160.MathSciNetADSGoogle Scholar
  55. Newton, R.R. 1977. The Crime of Claudius Ptolemy. (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press). (Reviews by O. Gingerich, 1981; C. Wilson: Journal for the History of Astronomy 15, 37–47, 1984.)Google Scholar
  56. North, J.D. 1988. Chaucer’s Universe. (Oxford: Oxford University Press). [Reviewed by Eckhardt, C.D., 1991 Speculum 66, 928–930.]Google Scholar
  57. O’Neil, W.M. 1975. Time and the Calendars. (Manchester: University Press). (Review by O. Gingerich: Journal for the History of Astronomy 9, 221, 1978).Google Scholar
  58. von Oppolzer, T.R. 1887/1962. Kanon der Finsternisse. English ed. Tr. by O. Gingerich: Canon of Eclipses. 1962 (New York: Dover, 1962).Google Scholar
  59. Ovenden, M.W. 1966. “The Origin of Constellations,” The Philosophical Journal 3, 1–18.Google Scholar
  60. Pannekoek, A. 1961/1989. A History of Astronomy. (London: George Allen and Unwin Ltd.; New York: Dover). Originally published in 1951 as De groei van ons wereldbeeld. (Amsterdam: Wereld Bibliotheek).Google Scholar
  61. Patrinacos, N.D. 1992. A Dictionary of Greek Orthodoxy. (Pleasantville, N.Y.: Hellenic Heritage Publications).Google Scholar
  62. Pedley, J.G. 1993. Greek Art and Archaeology. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall International, Inc.). 2nd ed., 1998; 3rd ed., 2002. (London: Laurence King).Google Scholar
  63. Percival, H.R., ed. 1899. The Seven Ecumenical Councils of the Undivided Church: Their Canons and Dogmatic Decrees. (Grand Rapids: Wm.B. Eerdmans). Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church. XIV, Ser. 2.Google Scholar
  64. Pingree, D. 1968. The Thousands of Abu Ma’shar. (London: Warburg Institute, University of London). Studies of the Warburg Institute, Vol. 30.Google Scholar
  65. Pingree, D. 1981. Jyotihsastra: Astral and Mathematical Literature. (Wiesbaden: O. Harrassowitz).Google Scholar
  66. Poebel, A. 1942. “The Assyrian King List from Khorsabad,” Journal of Near Eastern Studies 1, 247-306; 460-492.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Poebel, A. 1943. “The Assyrian King List from Khorsabad,” Journal of Near Eastern Studies 2, 56-90.Google Scholar
  68. Pritchard, J.B. 1955. Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament. 2nd ed. (Princeton: University Press). [1st ed., 1950; 3rd ed. and supplement, 1969.]Google Scholar
  69. Pritchard, J.B. 1975. The Ancient Near East. A New Anthology of Text and Pictures, vol. II. (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press).Google Scholar
  70. Reiner, E., and Pingree, D. 1975. “Babylonian Planetary Omens: Part 1, Enu-ma Anu Enlil, Tablet 63: The Venus Tablet of Ammisaduqa,” Biblioteca Mesopotamica 2(1). (Malibu: Undena Publications). (Reviewed by A. Aaboe: Archaeoastronomy 7, 136–137, 1984.)ADSGoogle Scholar
  71. Rohl, D.M. 1996. Pharaohs and Kings: A Biblical Quest. (New York: Crown).Google Scholar
  72. Sachau, E.C. 1910. Alberuni’s India. (London: Kegan, Paul, Trench, Trubner and Company, Ltd.).Google Scholar
  73. Sachs, A., and Hunger, H. 1988. Astronomical Diaries and Related Texts. Vol. I Diaries from 652 b . c. to 262 b . c . (Vienna: Austrian Academy of Science). 377 pp. [by A. Sachs, completed and edited by H. Hunger]Google Scholar
  74. Santillana, G. de, and Dechend, H. von. 1969. Hamlet’s Mill. An Essay on Myth and the Frame of Time. (New York: MacMillan).Google Scholar
  75. Schaefer, B.E. 2002. “The Latitude and Epoch for the Formation of the Southern Greek constellations,” Journal for the History of Astronomy 33, 314-350.ADSGoogle Scholar
  76. Schlosser, W., Schmidt-Kaler, T., and Milone, E.F. 1991/1994. Challenges of Astronomy: Hands-On Experiments for the Sky and Laboratory. (New York: Springer-Verlag).Google Scholar
  77. Schoch, K. 1927. Planeten-Tafeln für Jedermann für Berechnung der geozentrischen Örter der grossen Planeten (und des Mondes) für den Zeitraum von 3400 v. Chr. bis 2600 n. Chr. ohne Anwendung der Logarithmen und trigonometrischen Funktionen bis auf ein Zehntel Grad unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Babylonischen Astronomie. (Berlin Pan Kow: Linzer).Google Scholar
  78. Schonfield, H.J. 1962. A History of Biblical Literature. (New York: Mentor). 223 pp.Google Scholar
  79. Scott, A. 1991. Origen and the Life of the Stars. (Oxford: Clarendon Press).Google Scholar
  80. Shevchenko, M. 1990. “An Analysis of Errors in the Star Catalogues of Ptolemy and Ulugh-Beg,” Journal of the History of Astronomy 21(2), 187–201.MathSciNetADSGoogle Scholar
  81. Solla Price, D.J. de. 1967. “The Tower of the Winds,” National Geographic 131(4), 586–596.Google Scholar
  82. Stephenson, B. 1987. Kepler’s Physical Astronomy. (New York: Springer-Verlag).MATHGoogle Scholar
  83. Stephenson, F.R. 1997. Historical Eclipses and Earth’s Rotation. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).MATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Stephenson, F.R., and Clark, D.H. 1978. Applications of Early Astronomical Records (New York: Oxford University Press). 114 pp.Google Scholar
  85. Swerdlow, N.M., and Neugebauer, O. 1984. Mathematical Astronomy in Copernicus’s De Revolutionibus”. Parts 1 and 2. (New York: Springer-Verlag).Google Scholar
  86. Thompson, R.C. 1900. The Reports of the Magicians and Astrologers at Nineveh in the British Museum. Vols. 1 and 2. (London: Lucas). Reprinted in 1977 (New York: AMS Press).Google Scholar
  87. Tuman, V.S. 1983. “The Cerberus Slab of Hatra May Represent Important Astronomical Events,” Quarterly Journal of Royal Astronomical Society 24, 14–23.ADSGoogle Scholar
  88. Tuman, V.S. 1987. “Astronomical Dating of Esarhaddon’s Stela,” Griffith Observer 51, 10–19.Google Scholar
  89. Tuman, V.S., and Hoffman, R. 1987–1988. “Rediscovering the Past: Application of Computers to the Astronomical Dating of Kudurru SB22 of The Louvre Museum,” Archaeoastronomy: The Journal of the Center for Archaeoastronomy 10, 124–138. (College Park, MD: The Center for Archaeoastronomy).Google Scholar
  90. Ulansey, D. 1989. The Origins of the Mithraic Mysteries. (Oxford: University Press).Google Scholar
  91. Ungnad, A. 1943. “Die Grundlagen der vorderasiatischen Chronologie,” Wiener Prähistorische Zeitschrift 30, 109–125. (Vienna, Austria).Google Scholar
  92. Van Brummelen, G. 1994. “Lunar and Planetary Interpolation Tables in Ptolemy’s Almagest,” Journal for the History of Astronomy 25, 297–311.MathSciNetADSGoogle Scholar
  93. Waerden, B.L. van der. 1965/1968. Die Anfänge der Astronomie. (1965: Groningen: Noordhoff; 1968: Basel: Birkhäuser).Google Scholar
  94. Waerden, B.L. van der. 1974. Science Awakening II. The Birth of Astronomy. (Leyden: Noordhoff).Google Scholar
  95. Warner, Jr., R., tr. 1954/1972. “Fall of the Roman Republic: SixLives” by Plutarch. (Baltimore: Penguin Books, Inc.) (Harmondsworth, Middle sex: Penguin Books Ltd.).Google Scholar
  96. Webb, E.J. 1952. The Names of the Stars. (London: Nisbet & Co., Ltd.) (tr. Spanish by F. Gonzalez Aramburo, 1957, Mexico: Fondo de Cultura Economica).Google Scholar
  97. Wilson, R.R. 1977. Genealogy and History in the Biblical World (New Haven, London: Yale University Press).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ArchaeologyThe University of CalgaryCalgaryCanada
  2. 2.Department of Physics and AstronomyThe University of CalgaryCalgaryCanada

Personalised recommendations