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Illicit Drugs: Contaminants in the Environment and Utility in Forensic Epidemiology

  • Christian G. Daughton
Chapter
Part of the Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology book series (RECT, volume 210)

Abstract

The spectrum of chemicals recognized as contributing to widespread contamination of the environment was extended to pharmaceutical ingredients as early as the 1970s. The topic, however, did not begin to attract broader scientific attention until the mid-1990s (Daughton 2009a). Occurring generally at levels below 1 μg/L (1 part per billion) in ambient waters, recognition of the near-ubiquitous presence of pharmaceuticals in a wide variety of environmental compartments serves as a stunning measure of the advancements in analytical chemistry and of our still-emerging understanding of the scope and complexity of xenobiotic occurrence in the environment.

Keywords

Illicit drugs Drugs of abuse Environmental contamination Sewer epidemiology Sewer forensics 

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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Environmental Chemistry Branch, National Exposure Research LaboratoryU.S. Environmental Protection AgencyLas VegasUSA

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