Illicit Drugs: Contaminants in the Environment and Utility in Forensic Epidemiology

  • Christian G. Daughton
Part of the Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology book series (RECT, volume 210)


The spectrum of chemicals recognized as contributing to widespread contamination of the environment was extended to pharmaceutical ingredients as early as the 1970s. The topic, however, did not begin to attract broader scientific attention until the mid-1990s (Daughton 2009a). Occurring generally at levels below 1 μg/L (1 part per billion) in ambient waters, recognition of the near-ubiquitous presence of pharmaceuticals in a wide variety of environmental compartments serves as a stunning measure of the advancements in analytical chemistry and of our still-emerging understanding of the scope and complexity of xenobiotic occurrence in the environment.


Illicit drugs Drugs of abuse Environmental contamination Sewer epidemiology Sewer forensics 


  1. Aaron R, Lewis P (1987) Cocaine residues on money. Crime Lab Dig 14: 18.Google Scholar
  2. AMA (2009) Use of cannabis for medicinal purposes. Council on Science and Public Health (CSAPH), American Medical Association, CSAPH Report 3,
  3. Armenta S, de la Guardia M (2008) Analytical methods to determine cocaine contamination of banknotes from around the world. Trends Anal Chem 27: 344–351.Google Scholar
  4. ATSDR (2009) Exposure-dose reconstruction program (EDRP). Web Page maintained by agency for toxic substances and disease registry (ATSDR), DHS, Atlanta, GA. Scholar
  5. Balducci C, Nervegna G, Cecinato A (2009) Evaluation of principal cannabinoids in airborne particulates. Anal Chim Acta 641: 89–94.Google Scholar
  6. Banta-Green CJ, Field JA, Chiaia AC, Sudakin DL, Power L, de Montigny L (2009) The spatial epidemiology of cocaine, methamphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) use: a demonstration using a population measure of community drug load derived from municipal wastewater. Addiction 104: 1874–1880.Google Scholar
  7. Barker SA (2008) Drug contamination of the equine racetrack environment: a preliminary examination. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 31: 466–471.Google Scholar
  8. Barron L, Havel J, Purcell M, Szpak M, Kelleher B, Paull B (2009) Predicting sorption of pharmaceuticals and personal care products onto soil and digested sludge using artificial neural networks. Analyst 134: 663–670.Google Scholar
  9. Bartelt-Hunt SL, Snow DD, Damon T, Shockley J, Hoagland K (2009) The occurrence of illicit and therapeutic pharmaceuticals in wastewater effluent and surface waters in Nebraska. Environ Pollut 157: 786–791.Google Scholar
  10. Batt AL, Kostich MS, Lazorchak JM (2008) Analysis of ecologically relevant pharmaceuticals in wastewater and surface water using selective solid–phase extraction and UPLC-MS/MS. Anal Chem 80: 5021–5030.Google Scholar
  11. BfR (2009) No health risk from the cocaine content in Red Bull Simply Cola [Kein Gesundheitsrisiko durch den Cocaingehalt in Red Bull Simply Cola]. Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR: Bundesinstitut für Risikobewertung), BfR Health Assessment No. 020/2009, Berlin, Germany, 7 pp;
  12. Bijlsma L, Sancho JV, Pitarch E, Ibáñez M, Hernández F (2009) Simultaneous ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry determination of amphetamine and amphetamine-like stimulants, cocaine and its metabolites, and a cannabis metabolite in surface water and urban wastewater. J Chromatogr 1216: 3078–3089.Google Scholar
  13. Bohannon J (2007) Hard data on hard drugs, grabbed from the environment: fieldwork in new and fast-growing areas of epidemiology requires wads of cash and a familiarity with sewer lines. Science 316: 42–44.Google Scholar
  14. Boleda MR, Galceran MT, Ventura F (2007) Trace determination of cannabinoids and opiates in wastewater and surface waters by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr 1175: 38–48.Google Scholar
  15. Boleda MR, Galceran MT, Ventura F (2009) Monitoring of opiates, cannabinoids and their metabolites in wastewater, surface water and finished water in Catalonia, Spain. Water Res 43: 1126–1136.Google Scholar
  16. Boles TH, Wells MJM (2010) Analysis of amphetamine and methamphetamine as emerging pollutants in wastewater and wastewater-impacted streams. J Chromatogr 1217: 2561–2568.Google Scholar
  17. Bones J, Thomas KV, Paull B (2007a) Using environmental analytical data to estimate levels of community consumption of illicit drugs and abused pharmaceuticals. J Environ Monit 9: 701–707.Google Scholar
  18. Bones J, Macka M, Paull B (2007b) Evaluation of monolithic and sub 2 μm particle packed columns for the rapid screening for illicit drugs – application to the determination of drug contamination on Irish euro banknotes. Analyst 132: 208–217.Google Scholar
  19. Boxall AB, Johnson P, Smith EJ, Sinclair CJ, Stutt E, Levy LS (2006a) Uptake of veterinary medicines from soils into plants. J Agric Food Chem 54: 2288–2297.Google Scholar
  20. Boxall ABA et al. (2006b) Targeted monitoring study for veterinary medicines in the environment. Environment Agency, SC030183/SR, Bristol, England, Scholar
  21. Burton F (1995) A study of the background levels of a range of controlled substances on Sterling banknotes in general circulation in England and Wales, Masters Dissertation, University of Bristol, Bristol, 121 pp.Google Scholar
  22. Cai R, Crane E, Poneleit K, Paulozzi L (2010) Emergency department visits involving nonmedical use of selected prescription drugs—United States, 2004–2008. Morb Mortal Weekly Rep 59: 705–709.Google Scholar
  23. Calisto V, Esteves VI (2009) Psychiatric pharmaceuticals in the environment. Chemosphere 77: 1257–1274.Google Scholar
  24. Carter JF, Sleeman R, Parry J (2003) The distribution of controlled drugs on banknotes via counting machines. Forensic Sci Int 132: 106–112.Google Scholar
  25. Castiglioni S, Zuccato E, Crisci E, Chiabrando C, Fanelli R, Bagnati R (2006) Identification and measurement of illicit drugs and their metabolites in urban wastewater by liquid chromatography – tandem mass spectrometry. Anal Chem 78: 8421–8429.Google Scholar
  26. Castiglioni S, Zuccato E, Chiabrando C, Fanelli R, Bagnati R (2007) Detecting illicit drugs and metabolites in wastewater using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Spectrosc Eur 19: 7–9.Google Scholar
  27. Castiglioni S, Zuccato E, Chiabrando C, Fanelli R, Bagnati R (2008) Mass spectrometric analysis of illicit drugs in wastewater and surface water. Mass Spectrom Rev 27: 378–394.Google Scholar
  28. Cecinato A, Balducci C (2007) Detection of cocaine in the airborne particles of the Italian cities Rome and Taranto. J Sep Sci 30: 1930–1935.Google Scholar
  29. Cecinato A, Balducci C, Nervegna G (2009a) Occurrence of cocaine in the air of the World’s cities: An emerging problem? A new tool to investigate the social incidence of drugs? Sci Total Environ 407: 1683–1690.Google Scholar
  30. Cecinato A, Balducci C, Nervegna G, Tagliacozzo G, Allegrini I (2009b) Ambient air quality and drug aftermaths of the Notte Bianca (White Night) holidays in Rome. J Environ Monit 11: 200–204.Google Scholar
  31. Cecinato A, Balducci C, Budetta V, Pasini A (2010) Illicit psychotropic substance contents in the air of Italy. Atmos Environ 44: 2358–2363.Google Scholar
  32. Chapman S (2009) Consolidated Index of Drugs and Substances. Web Page maintained by Isomer Design, Toronto, Ontario. Scholar
  33. Chen H, Gamez G, Zenobi R (2009) What can we learn from ambient ionization techniques? J Am Soc Mass Spectrom 20: 1947–1963.Google Scholar
  34. Chiaia AC, Banta-Green C, Field J (2008) Eliminating solid phase extraction with large-volume injection LC/MS/MS: Analysis of illicit and legal drugs and human urine indicators in US wastewaters. Environ Sci Technol 42: 8841–8848.Google Scholar
  35. Chiuminatto U et al. (2010) Automated online solid phase extraction ultra high performance liquid chromatography method coupled with tandem mass spectrometry for determination of forty-two therapeutic drugs and drugs of abuse in human urine. Anal Chem 82: 5636–5645.Google Scholar
  36. Christensen AM, Markussen B, Baun A, Halling-Sørensen B (2009) Probabilistic environmental risk characterization of pharmaceuticals in sewage treatment plant discharges. Chemosphere 77: 351–358.Google Scholar
  37. Coetsier CM, Spinelli S, Lin L, Roig B, Touraud E (2009) Discharge of pharmaceutical products (PPs) through a conventional biological sewage treatment plant: MECs vs PECs? Environ Int 35: 787–792.Google Scholar
  38. Cohen K, Sanyal N, Reed G (2007) Methamphetamine production on public lands: Threats and responses. Soc Nat Resour 20: 261–270.Google Scholar
  39. Courtheyn D et al. (2002) Recent developments in the use and abuse of growth promoters. Anal Chim Acta 473: 71–82.Google Scholar
  40. Crain SM, Shen K-F (1995) Ultra-low concentrations of naloxone selectively antagonize excitatory effects of morphine on sensory neurons, thereby increasing its antinociceptive potency and attenuating tolerance/dependence during chronic cotreatment. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 92: 10540–10544.Google Scholar
  41. Cunningham RT et al. (2009) Feasibility of a clinical chemical analysis approach to predict misuse of growth promoting hormones in cattle. Anal Chem 81: 977–983.Google Scholar
  42. Daughton CG (2001a) Pharmaceuticals and personal care products in the environment: Overarching issues and overview. In: Daughton CG, Jones-Lepp TL (eds) Pharmaceuticals and personal care products in the environment: Scientific and regulatory issues. ACS Symposium Series 791, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC,  Chapter 1, pp 2–38; doi:10.1021/bk-2001–0791.ch001; Scholar
  43. Daughton CG (2001b) Literature forensics? Door to what was known but now forgotten. Environ Forensics 2: 277–282.Google Scholar
  44. Daughton CG (2001c) Illicit drugs in municipal sewage: Proposed new non-intrusive tool to heighten public awareness of societal use of illicit/abused drugs and their potential for ecological consequence. In: Daughton CG, Jones-Lepp T (eds) Pharmaceuticals and personal care products in the environment: Scientific and regulatory issues. ACS Symposium Series 791, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, Chapter 20, pp 348–364; doi:10.1021/bk-2001-0791.ch020; Scholar
  45. Daughton CG (2001d) Commentary on illicit drugs in the environment: a tool for public education – societal drug abuse and its aiding of terrorism. USEPA, NERL, Las Vegas, NV, 23 October, Scholar
  46. Daughton CG (2004) Non-regulated water contaminants: emerging research. Environ Impact Assess Rev 24: 711–732.Google Scholar
  47. Daughton CG (2009a) Chemicals from the practice of healthcare: challenges and unknowns posed by residues in the environment. Environ Toxicol Chem 28: 2490–2494.Google Scholar
  48. Daughton CG (2009b) Peering into the shadows of chemical space. Emerging contaminants and environmental science: is either being served by the other? Paper presented at 2nd International Conference on Occurrence, Fate, Effects, and Analysis of Emerging Contaminants in the Environment (EmCon09), opening address 4–7 August 2009, Fort Collins, CO;
  49. Daughton CG (2010) Pharmaceutical ingredients in drinking water: overview of occurrence and significance of human exposure. In: Halden R (ed) Emerging contaminants: Pharmaceuticals, personal care products. ACS Symposium Series 791. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC; see:
  50. Daughton CG (2011) Illicit drugs and the environment. In: Castiglioni S, Zuccato E (eds) Mass spectrometric analysis of illicit drugs in the environment, Wiley; ISBN 978-0-470-52954-6. Chapter1; see:
  51. Daughton CG, Ruhoy IS (2008) The afterlife of drugs and the role of pharmEcovigilance. Drug Saf 31: 1069–1082.Google Scholar
  52. Daughton CG, Ruhoy IS (2009) Environmental footprint of pharmaceuticals – the significance of factors beyond direct excretion to sewers. Environ Toxicol Chem 28: 2495–2521.Google Scholar
  53. Daughton CG, Ruhoy IS (2010) Reducing the ecological footprint of pharmaceutical usage: linkages between healthcare practices and the environment. In: Kümmerer K, Hempel M (eds) Green and sustainable pharmacy. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg, Germany, Chapter 6, pp 77–103; doi:10.1007/978-3-642-05199-9_6; Scholar
  54. Daughton CG, Ternes TA (1999) Pharmaceuticals and personal care products in the environment: Agents of subtle change? Environ Health Perspect 107: 907–938.Google Scholar
  55. Domènech X, Peral J, Muñoz I (2009) Predicted environmental concentrations of cocaine and benzoylecgonine in a model environmental system. Water Res 43: 5236–5242.Google Scholar
  56. Ebejer KA, Brereton RG, Carter JF, Ollerton SL, Sleeman R (2005) Rapid comparison of diacetylmorphine on banknotes by tandem mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 19: 2137–2143.Google Scholar
  57. Ebejer KA, Lloyd GR, Brereton RG, Carter JF, Sleeman R (2007) Factors influencing the contamination of UK banknotes with drugs of abuse. Forensic Sci Int 171: 165–170.Google Scholar
  58. Ekedahl A, Lindberg G (2005) Differences between drug utilisation estimates based on pharmacy sales and on purchases by the resident population. Pharm World Sci 27: 469–471.Google Scholar
  59. EMCDDA (2007) In aquae veritas? First European meeting on drugs and their metabolites in waste water. European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, Lisbon, Portugal, April–June, Scholar
  60. EMCDDA (2009a) Illicit consumption of drugs and the law – Situation in the EU Member States. Web Page maintained by European monitoring centre for drugs and drug addiction (EMCDDA), Lisbon, Portugal. Scholar
  61. EMCDDA (2009b) Classification of controlled drugs. Web Page maintained by European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA), Lisbon, Portugal. Scholar
  62. EMCDDA (2010) Action on new drugs. Web Page maintained by European monitoring centre for drugs and drug addiction, Lisbon, Portugal. Scholar
  63. Everts S (2010) Fake pharmaceuticals: Those fighting against counterfeit medicines face increasingly sophisticated adversaries. Chem Eng News 88: 27–29.Google Scholar
  64. Felix JR, Hammer R, Gardner EA (2008) Cocaine contamination of currency in Birmingham AL. Inquiro (University of Alabama, Birmingham) 2: 50–62.Google Scholar
  65. Felman F (2009) Big pharma facing brandjacking battle: Study confirms that sales of questionable drugs in illicit online pharmacies and B2B exchange sites continue to rise, putting supply chains and consumers at risk. Pharmaceutical Processing January: 2–4;
  66. Fick J, Lindberg RH, Parkkonen J, Arvidsson B, Tysklind M, Larsson DGJ (2010) Therapeutic levels of levonorgestrel detected in blood plasma of fish: results from screening rainbow trout exposed to treated sewage effluents. Environ Sci Technol 44: 2661–2666.Google Scholar
  67. Freye E (2009) History of designer drugs. In: Freye E, Levy JV (eds) Pharmacology and abuse of cocaine, amphetamines, ecstasy and related designer drugs: A comprehensive review on their mode of action, treatment of abuse and intoxication. Springer, The Netherlands, Chapter 16, pp 183–189; doi: Scholar
  68. Frost N, Griffiths P (2008) Assessing illicit drugs in wastewater: potential and limitations of a new monitoring approach, Insights Series No. 9, European monitoring centre for drugs and drug addiction (EMCDDA), Lisbon, Portugal 100 pp.Google Scholar
  69. Gagne F, Blaise C, Fournier M, Hansen PD (2006) Effects of selected pharmaceutical products on phagocytic activity in Elliptio complanata mussels. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 143: 179–186.Google Scholar
  70. Gardner G (1989) Illegal drug laboratories: a growing health and toxic waste problem. Pace Environmental Law Review, Pace University School of Law, 7, 193–212 pp; Scholar
  71. Ghasemi J, Niazi A (2005) Two- and three-way chemometrics methods applied for spectrophotometric determination of lorazepam in pharmaceutical formulations and biological fluids. Anal Chim Acta 533: 169–177.Google Scholar
  72. Gheorghe A et al. (2008) Analysis of cocaine and its principal metabolites in waste and surface water using solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-ion trap tandem mass spectrometry. Anal Bioanal Chem 391: 1309–1319.Google Scholar
  73. Glassmeyer ST et al. (2009) Disposal practices for unwanted residential medications in the United States. Environ Int 35: 566–572.Google Scholar
  74. González-Mariño I, Quintana JB, Rodríguez I, Rodil R, González-Peñas J, Cela R (2009) Comparison of molecularly imprinted, mixed-mode and hydrophilic balance sorbents performance in the solid-phase extraction of amphetamine drugs from wastewater samples for liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry determination. J Chromatogr 1216: 8435–8441.Google Scholar
  75. González-Mariño I, Quintana JB, Rodríguez I, Cela R (2010) Determination of drugs of abuse in water by solid-phase extraction, derivatisation and gas chromatography-ion trap-tandem mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr 1217: 1748–1760.Google Scholar
  76. Goodman RA, Munson JW, Dammers K, Lazzarini Z, Barkley JP (2003) Forensic epidemiology: law at the intersection of public health and criminal investigations. J Law Med Ethics 31: 684–700.Google Scholar
  77. Greenwald G (2009) Drug decriminalization in portugal: lessons for creating fair and successful drug policies. Cato Institute, Washington, DC, Scholar
  78. Gros M, Petrović M, Barceló D (2009) Tracing pharmaceutical residues of different therapeutic classes in environmental waters by using liquid chromatography/quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometry and automated library searching. Anal Chem 81: 898–912.Google Scholar
  79. Gros M, Petrović M, Ginebreda A, Barceló D (2010) Removal of pharmaceuticals during wastewater treatment and environmental risk assessment using hazard indexes. Environ Int 36: 15–26.Google Scholar
  80. Hagerman E (2008) Your sewer on drugs. Popular Sci 272: 44–59.Google Scholar
  81. Hannigan MP et al. (1998) Bioassay-directed chemical analysis of Los Angeles airborne particulate matter using a human cell mutagenicity assay. Environ Sci Technol 32: 3502–3514.Google Scholar
  82. Hering CL (2009) Flushing the fourth amendment down the toilet: how community urinalysis threatens individuals privacy. Arizona Law Rev 53: 741–776; Scholar
  83. Huerta-Fontela M, Galceran MT, Ventura F (2007) Ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of stimulatory drugs of abuse in wastewater and surface waters. Anal Chem 79: 3821–3829.Google Scholar
  84. Huerta-Fontela M, Galceran MT, Ventura F (2008a) Stimulatory drugs of abuse in surface waters and their removal in a conventional drinking water treatment plant. Environ Sci Technol 42: 6809–6816.Google Scholar
  85. Huerta-Fontela M, Galceran MT, Martin-Alonso J, Ventura F (2008b) Occurrence of psychoactive stimulatory drugs in wastewaters in north-eastern Spain. Sci Total Environ 397: 31–40.Google Scholar
  86. Huerta-Fontela M, Galceran MT, Ventura F (2010) Illicit drugs in the urban water cycle. In: Xenobiotics in the urban water cycle. Springer, Netherlands,  Chapter 3, pp 51–71; doi:10.1007/978-90-481-3509-7_3;
  87. Hummel D, Loffler D, Fink G, Ternes TA (2006) Simultaneous determination of psychoactive drugs and their metabolites in aqueous matrices by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Environ Sci Technol 40: 7321–7328.Google Scholar
  88. INCB (2009) International narcotics control board: narcotic drugs, psychotropic substances, and precursors. Web Page maintained by International Narcotics Control Board, Vienna, Austria Scholar
  89. Inoue H, Iwata YT, Kuwayama K (2008) Characterization and profiling of methamphetamine seizures. J Health Sci 54: 615–622.Google Scholar
  90. Janusz A, Kirkbride KP, Scott TL, Naidu R, Perkins MV, Megharaj M (2003) Microbial degradation of illicit drugs, their precursors, and manufacturing by-products: Implications for clandestine drug laboratory investigation and environmental assessment. Forensic Sci Int 134: 62–71.Google Scholar
  91. Jarosz F (2009) Scores of Indiana homes contaminated by meth labs sit abandoned: contaminated by meth production, scores of Indiana homes abandoned after labs are busted, no one enforces cleanup, Indystarcom, Community Star Network, Rome City, Ind., 10 May;
  92. Jenkins AJ (2001) Drug contamination of US paper currency. Forensic Sci Int 121: 189–193.Google Scholar
  93. Jones-Lepp TL, Stevens R (2007) Pharmaceuticals and personal care products in biosolids/sewage sludge: The interface between analytical chemistry and regulation. Anal Bioanal Chem 387: 1173–1183.Google Scholar
  94. Jones-Lepp TL, Alvarez DA, Petty JD, Huckins JN (2004) Polar organic chemical integrative sampling and liquid chromatography–electrospray/ion-trap mass spectrometry for assessing selected prescription and illicit drugs in treated sewage effluents. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 47: 427–439.Google Scholar
  95. Kaleta A, Ferdig M, Buchberger WS (2006) Semiquantitative determination of residues of amphetamine in sewage sludge samples. J Sep Sci 29: 1662–1666.Google Scholar
  96. Karolak S, Nefau T, Bailly E, Solgadi A, Levi Y (2010) Estimation of illicit drugs consumption by wastewater analysis in Paris area (France). Forensic Sci Int 200: 153–160.Google Scholar
  97. Kasprzyk-Hordern B, Dinsdale RM, Guwy AJ (2007) Multi-residue method for the determination of basic/neutral pharmaceuticals and illicit drugs in surface water by solid-phase extraction and ultra performance liquid chromatography-positive electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr 1161: 132–145.Google Scholar
  98. Kasprzyk-Hordern B, Dinsdale RM, Guwy AJ (2008a) Multiresidue methods for the analysis of pharmaceuticals, personal care products and illicit drugs in surface water and wastewater by solid-phase extraction and ultra performance liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. Anal Bioanal Chem 391: 1293–1308.Google Scholar
  99. Kasprzyk-Hordern B, Dinsdale RM, Guwy AJ (2008b) The occurrence of pharmaceuticals, personal care products, endocrine disruptors and illicit drugs in surface water in South Wales, UK. Water Res 42: 3498–3518.Google Scholar
  100. Kasprzyk-Hordern B, Dinsdale RM, Guwy AJ (2009a) The removal of pharmaceuticals, personal care products, endocrine disruptors and illicit drugs during wastewater treatment and its impact on the quality of receiving waters. Water Res 43: 363–380.Google Scholar
  101. Kasprzyk-Hordern B, Dinsdale RM, Guwy AJ (2009b) Illicit drugs and pharmaceuticals in the environment – Forensic applications of environmental data, Part 1: Estimation of the usage of drugs in local communities. Environ Pollut 157: 1773–1777.Google Scholar
  102. Kasprzyk-Hordern B, Kondakal VVR, Baker DR (2010) Enantiomeric analysis of drugs of abuse in wastewater by chiral liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr 1217: 4575–4586.Google Scholar
  103. Khan SJ (2002) Occurrence, behavior and fate of pharmaceutical residues in sewage treatment, Doctoral Dissertation, University of New South Wales, New South Wales, Australia, 383 pp.Google Scholar
  104. Khan S, Ongerth JE (2005) Occurrence and distribution of pharmaceutical residuals in bay sewage and sewage treatment (prepared for Bay Area Clean Water Agencies). University of New South Wales, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 8012–8017, 29 August, 75 pp;
  105. Kim E et al. (2008) Comparison of methamphetamine concentrations in oral fluid, urine and hair of twelve drug abusers using solid-phase extraction and GC-MS. Annales de Toxicologie Analytique 20: 145–153.Google Scholar
  106. Kortenkamp A, Backhaus T, Faust M (2009) State of the art report on mixture toxicity: Final report. University of London School of Pharmacy (ULSOP), 22 December, 391 pp;
  107. Kwon J-W, Armbrust KL, Vidal-Dorsch D, Bay SM, Xia K (2009) Determination of 17α-ethynylestradiol, carbamazepine, diazepam, simvastatin, and oxybenzone in fish livers. J AOAC Int 92: 359–369.Google Scholar
  108. Lai H, Corbin I, Almirall J (2008) Headspace sampling and detection of cocaine, MDMA, and marijuana via volatile markers in the presence of potential interferences by solid phase microextraction–ion mobility spectrometry (SPME-IMS). Anal Bioanal Chem 392: 105–113.Google Scholar
  109. Lavins ES, Lavins BD, Jenkins AJ (2004) Cannabis (marijuana) contamination of United States and foreign paper currency. J Anal Toxicol 28: 439–442.Google Scholar
  110. Loganathan B, Phillips M, Mowery H, Jones-Lepp TL (2009) Contamination profiles and mass loadings of select macrolide antibiotics and illicit drugs from a small urban wastewater treatment plant. Chemosphere 75: 70–77.Google Scholar
  111. Loue S (2010) Forensic epidemiology: Integrating public health and law enforcement. Jones and Bartlett, Boston, MA 195 pp.Google Scholar
  112. Luzardo OP, Zumbado M, Almeida-González M, Boada LD (2010) Evaluating habits of abuse of illicit drugs in a tourist region (the Canary Islands, Spain) through the determination of drug residues in Euro banknotes. Toxicol Lett 196: S290-S290.Google Scholar
  113. Magura S (2010) Validating self-reports of illegal drug use to evaluate national drug control policy: A reanalysis and critique. Eval Program Plann 33: 234–237.Google Scholar
  114. Mari F et al. (2009) Cocaine and heroin in waste water plants: A 1-year study in the city of Florence, Italy. Forensic Sci Int 189: 88–92.Google Scholar
  115. McKellar QA (1997) Ecotoxicology and residues of anthelmintic compounds. Vet Parasitol 72: 413–435.Google Scholar
  116. MSA (2007) Mass spec analytical Ltd: Papers Published [forensics of drug-contaminated money]. Web Page maintained by Mass Spec Analytical Ltd., Bristol; Scholar
  117. National Jewish Medical and Research Center (2005) Chemical exposures associated with clandestine methamphetamine laboratories using the hypophosphorous and phosphorous flake method of production. National Jewish Medical and Research Center, Denver, CO, 23 September, 20 pp; Scholar
  118. NDIC (2009) Diversion of CPDs. National Prescription Drug Threat Assessment 2009, U.S. Department of Justice, National Drug Intelligence Center, 2010-Q0317-001, Johnstown, PA, April;; Scholar
  119. NDIC (2010) National drug threat assessment 2010. U.S. Department of Justice, National Drug Intelligence Center, 2010-Q0317-001, Johnstown, PA, February, Scholar
  120. Newby NC, Mendonça PC, Gamperl K, Stevens ED (2006) Pharmacokinetics of morphine in fish: winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) and seawater-acclimated rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 143: 275-283.Google Scholar
  121. NIDA (2008) Monitoring the future survey. Web Page maintained by National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), National Institutes of Health (NIH),
  122. NIDA (2009) Drugs of abuse information. Web Page maintained by National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), National Institutes of Health (NIH),
  123. Nieto A, Peschka M, Borrull F, Pocurull E, Marcé RM, Knepper TP (2010) Phosphodiesterase type V inhibitors: Ocurrence[sic] and fate in wastewater and sewage sludge. Water Res 44: 1607–1615.Google Scholar
  124. Noppe H, Le Bizec B, Verheyden K, De Brabander HF (2008) Novel analytical methods for the determination of steroid hormones in edible matrices. Anal Chim Acta 611: 1–16.Google Scholar
  125. Nutt DJ (2009) Equasy – An overlooked addiction with implications for the current debate on drug harms. J Psychopharmacol 23: 3–5.Google Scholar
  126. ONDCP (2009) Federal drug data sources. Web Page maintained by Office of National Drug Control Policy,
  127. Oyler J, Darwin WD, Cone EJ (1996) Cocaine contamination of United States paper currency. J Anal Toxicol 20: 213–216.Google Scholar
  128. Paulozzi LJ, Xi Y (2008) Recent changes in drug poisoning mortality in the United States by urban-rural status and by drug type. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 17: 997–1005.Google Scholar
  129. Pedersen JA, Soliman M, Suffet IH (2005) Human pharmaceuticals, hormones, and personal care product ingredients in runoff from agricultural fields irrigated with treated wastewater. J Agric Food Chem 53: 1625–1632.Google Scholar
  130. Phillips PJ et al. (2010) Pharmaceutical formulation facilities as sources of opioids and other pharmaceuticals to wastewater treatment plant effluents. Environ Sci Technol 44: 4910–4916.Google Scholar
  131. Pichini S et al. (2008) Liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure ionization electrospray mass spectrometry determination of “hallucinogenic designer drugs” in urine of consumers. J Pharm Biomed Anal 47: 335–342.Google Scholar
  132. Poon WT, Lam YH, Lai CK, Chan AY, Mak TW (2007) Analogues of erectile dysfunction drugs: an under-recognised threat. Hong Kong Med J 13: 359–363.Google Scholar
  133. Poovey B (2009) Meth makers leave behind a toxic trail at motels, Star Telegram, Associated Press, 23 February;
  134. Postigo C, Lopez de Alda MJ, Barceló D (2008a) Analysis of drugs of abuse and their human metabolites in water by LC-MS2. Trends Anal Chem 27: 1053–1069.Google Scholar
  135. Postigo C, Lopez de Alda MJ, Barcelo D (2008b) Fully automated determination in the low nanogram per liter level of different classes of drugs of abuse in sewage water by on-line solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry. Anal Chem 80: 3123–3134.Google Scholar
  136. Postigo C et al. (2009) Determination of drugs of abuse in airborne particles by pressurized liquid extraction and liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry. Anal Chem 81: 4382–4388.Google Scholar
  137. Postigo C, López de Alda MJ, Barceló D (2010) Drugs of abuse and their metabolites in the Ebro River basin: Occurrence in sewage and surface water, sewage treatment plants removal efficiency, and collective drug usage estimation. Environ Int 36: 75–84.Google Scholar
  138. Psychonaut Web Mapping Research Group (2010) Psychonaut web mapping project: final report – alert on new recreational drugs on the web; building up a European-wide web scan-monitoring system. Institute of Psychiatry, King’s College London, London, February, 17 pp; also
  139. Redshaw C, Cooke M, Talbot H, McGrath S, Rowland S (2008) Low biodegradability of fluoxetine HCl, diazepam and their human metabolites in sewage sludge-amended soil. J Soils Sed 8: 217–230.Google Scholar
  140. Ruhoy IS, Daughton CG (2008) Beyond the medicine cabinet: An analysis of where and why medications accumulate. Environ Int 34: 1157–1169.Google Scholar
  141. Scott TL, Janusz A, Perkins MV, Megharaj M, Naidu R, Kirkbride KP (2003) Effect of amphetamine precursors and by-products on soil enzymes of two urban soils. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 70: 0824–0831.Google Scholar
  142. Shao B, Chen D, Zhang J, Wu Y, Sun C (2009) Determination of 76 pharmaceutical drugs by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in slaughterhouse wastewater. J Chromatogr 1216: 8312–8318.Google Scholar
  143. Sleeman R, Burton IFA, Carter JF, Roberts DJ (1999) Rapid screening of banknotes for the presence of controlled substances by thermal desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation tandem mass spectrometry. Analyst 124: 103–108.Google Scholar
  144. Sleeman R, Burton F, Carter J, Roberts D, Hulmston P (2000) Drugs on money. Anal Chem 72: 397 A–403 A.Google Scholar
  145. Smith SW (2009) Chiral toxicology: it’s the same thing...only different. Toxicol Sci 110: 4–30.Google Scholar
  146. Snell MB (2001) Welcome to meth country. Sierra 86:
  147. Sommer C, Bibby BM (2002) The influence of veterinary medicines on the decomposition of dung organic matter in soil. Eur J Soil Biol 38: 155–159.Google Scholar
  148. Sörgel F (2006) High cocaine use in Europe and US proven stunning data for European Countries: First ever comparative multi-country study of cocaine use by a new measurement technique. Institute for Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Research (IBMP), Nürnberg-Heroldsberg, Germany; Scholar
  149. Stein K, Ramil M, Fink G, Sander M, Ternes TA (2008) Analysis and sorption of psychoactive drugs onto sediment. Environ Sci Technol 42: 6415–6423.Google Scholar
  150. Stolker AAM, Brinkman UAT (2005) Analytical strategies for residue analysis of veterinary drugs and growth-promoting agents in food-producing animals – a review. J Chromatogr 1067: 15–53.Google Scholar
  151. Straub JO (2008) Deterministic and probabilistic environmental risk assessment for diazepam. In: Kümmerer K (ed) Pharmaceuticals in the environment – sources, fate, effects and risks, 3rd ed. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg, Chapter 22, pp 343–383; doi:10.1007/978-3-540-74664-5_22; Scholar
  152. Sullivan J (2009) The ride to stay high: How drug addicts manipulate EMS, hospitals for their fix, The Ironton Tribune, Boone Newspapers, Inc., Ironton, OH; Scholar
  153. Sussman S, Huver RME (2006) Definitions of street drugs. In: Cole SM (ed) New research on street drugs. Nova Science Publishers, Inc., New York, NY,  Chapter 1, pp 1–12.Google Scholar
  154. Sussman S, Ames SL (2008) Concepts of drugs, drug use, misuse, and abuse. In: Sussman S, Ames SL (eds) Drug abuse: concepts, prevention, and cessation, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge,  Chapter 1, pp 3–17; doi:10.1017.Google Scholar
  155. Teijon G, Candela L, Tamoh K, Molina-Díaz A, Fernández-Alba AR (2010) Occurrence of emerging contaminants, priority substances (2008/105/CE) and heavy metals in treated wastewater and groundwater at Depurbaix facility (Barcelona, Spain). Sci Total Environ 408: 3584–3595.Google Scholar
  156. Terzic S, Senta I, Ahel M (2010) Illicit drugs in wastewater of the city of Zagreb (Croatia) – Estimation of drug abuse in a transition country. Environ Pollut 158(8):2686–2693; doi 10.1016/j.envpol.2010.04.020:Google Scholar
  157. Thevis M, Geyer H, Kamber M, Schänzer W (2009) Detection of the arylpropionamide-derived selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM) S-4 (Andarine) in a black-market product. Drug Test Anal 1: 387–392.Google Scholar
  158. Thompson T (2002) £15m of notes tainted by drugs are destroyed, The Observer, Guardian News and Media Limited, UK, 10 November; Scholar
  159. Thrasher D, Von Derau K, Burgess J (2009) Health effects from reported exposure to methamphetamine labs: A poison center-based study. J Med Toxicol 5: 200–204.Google Scholar
  160. UNODC (June 2007) 2007 World drug report: section 4 – methodology. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, Vienna, Austria, 272–274 pp; Scholar
  161. UNODC (2009a) World drug report – global illicit drug trends. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, Vienna, Austria, Scholar
  162. UNODC (2009b) Information about drugs. Web Page maintained by United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, Vienna, Austria. Scholar
  163. USDEA (2008) National Forensic Laboratory Information System (NFLIS) year 2008 annual report. National Forensic Laboratory System, US Drug Enforcement Administration, Office of Diversion Control, 32 pp;
  164. USEPA (2009a) U.S. EPA voluntary guidelines for methamphetamine laboratory cleanup. In: US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, p 48.Google Scholar
  165. USEPA (2009b) Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs): relevant literature. Web Page maintained by US Environmental Protection Agency (a comprehensive database of literature references compiled by CG Daughton and MST Scuderi; first implemented 19 February 2008), Las Vegas, NV; Scholar
  166. USFDA (2009) Disposal by flushing of certain unused medicines: What you should know. Web Page maintained by US Food and Drug Administration, Rockville, MD; Scholar
  167. USGAO (2005) Prescription drugs: Strategic framework would promote accountability and enhance efforts to enforce the prohibitions on personal importation. United States Government Accountability Office, Washington, DC, 8 September, 76 pp; Scholar
  168. van Nuijs ALN et al. (2009a) Analysis of drugs of abuse in wastewater by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Anal Bioanal Chem 395: 819–828.Google Scholar
  169. van Nuijs ALN et al. (2009b) Cocaine and metabolites in waste and surface water across Belgium. Environ Pollut 157: 123–129.Google Scholar
  170. van Nuijs ALN et al. (2009c) Can cocaine use be evaluated through analysis of wastewater? A nation-wide approach conducted in Belgium. Addiction 104: 734–741.Google Scholar
  171. van Nuijs ALN et al. (2010 – in press) Illicit drug consumption estimations derived from wastewater analysis: A critical review. Sci Total Environ doi 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2010.05.030:Google Scholar
  172. Vazquez-Roig P, Blasco C, Andreu V, Pascual JA, Rubio JL, Picó Y (2010) Water quality in coastal wetlands: Illicit drugs in surface waters of L’Albufera Natural Park (Valencia, Spain). Geophysical Research Abstracts 12: EGU2010-14490.Google Scholar
  173. Venhuis BJ, de Kaste D (2008) Sildenafil analogs used for adulterating marihuana. Forensic Sci Int 182: e23–e24.Google Scholar
  174. Venhuis BJ, Barends DM, Zwaagstra ME, de Kaste D (2007) Recent developments in counterfeits and imitations of Viagra, Cialis and Levitra: A 2005–2006 update. RIVM (Netherlands National Institute for Public Health and the Environment), RIVM Report 370030001/2007, Bilthoven, the Netherlands, 61 pp; Scholar
  175. Verster JC (2010) Monitoring drugs of abuse in wastewater and air. Curr Drug Abuse Rev 3: 1–2.Google Scholar
  176. Viana M et al. (2010) Drugs of abuse in airborne particulates in urban environments. Environ Int 36: 527–534.Google Scholar
  177. WHO (2008) Counterfeit drugs kill. International Medical Products Anti-Counterfeiting Taskforce (IMPACT), World Health Organization, May, 8 pp;
  178. Wick A, Fink G, Joss A, Siegrist H, Ternes T (2009) Fate of beta blockers and psycho-active drugs in conventional wastewater treatment. Water Res 43: 1060–1074.Google Scholar
  179. Wiergowski M, Szpiech B, Reguła K, Tyburska A (2009) Municipal sewage as a source of current information on psychoactive substances used in urban communities. Probl Forensic Sci 79: 327–337.Google Scholar
  180. Yang Y, Shao B, Zhang J, Wu Y, Duan H (2009) Determination of the residues of 50 anabolic hormones in muscle, milk and liver by very-high-pressure liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr B 877: 489–496.Google Scholar
  181. Zuccato E, Castiglioni S (2009) Illicit drugs in the environment. Philos Trans R Soc A Math Phys Eng Sci 367: 3965–3978.Google Scholar
  182. Zuccato E et al. (2005) Cocaine in surface waters: New evidence-based tool to monitor community drug abuse. Environmental Health: A Global Access Science Source 4: 7 pp.Google Scholar
  183. Zuccato E, Chiabrando C, Castiglioni S, Bagnati R, Fanelli R (2008a) Estimating community drug abuse by wastewater analysis. Environ Health Perspect 116: 1027–1032.Google Scholar
  184. Zuccato E, Castiglioni S, Bagnati R, Chiabrando C, Grassi P, Fanelli R (2008b) Illicit drugs, a novel group of environmental contaminants. Water Res 42: 961–968.Google Scholar
  185. Zuo Y, Zhang K, Wu J, Rego C, Fritz J (2008) An accurate and nondestructive GC method for determination of cocaine on US paper currency. J Sep Sci 31: 2444–2450.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Environmental Chemistry Branch, National Exposure Research LaboratoryU.S. Environmental Protection AgencyLas VegasUSA

Personalised recommendations