• Richard A. Prayson
  • Karl M. Napekoski
Part of the Frozen Section Library book series (FROZEN, volume 6)


Intraoperative pathologic consultation is an important part of many neurosurgery procedures in which tissue is being obtained for purposes of rendering a diagnosis. The primary goal of the brain biopsy procedure is to ensure that the tissue sampled is adequate to make an accurate final diagnosis. To this end, communication between the neurosurgeon and the pathologist is important. By way of illustration, many lesions in the central nervous system, particularly gliomas, may be heterogeneous in nature, i.e., different areas of the tumor may have a different histologic appearance or grade. Ideally, the neurosurgeon samples the highest grade area of the lesion. If a tumor looks like a grade IV glioma on imaging studies and the frozen section result looks like a low-grade astrocytoma, additional tissue is required. Communication of the imaging findings to the pathologist is important in ultimately arriving at the right diagnosis. A biopsy can then be taken from a different area of the tumor in order to pathologically confirm the radiologic impression of a higher grade tumor.


Freeze Section Prion Disease Permanent Section Intramedullary Spinal Cord Freeze Section Diagnosis 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Anatomic PathologyCleveland Clinic FoundationClevelandUSA

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