Pathology of the Fetal Membranes

  • Rebecca N. Baergen


Localized edema with resultant cyst formation is occasionally seen on the fetal surface. Infrequently, such cysts represent amnionic epithelial inclusion cysts. These are simple cysts lined by a single layer of amnionic epithelium and usually contain clear fluid (Fig. 14.1). Rarely, an epidermal inclusion cyst or epidermoid cyst may be seen within the amnion lined by keratinizing stratified squamous epithelium (Fig. 14.2).


Umbilical Cord Club Foot Squamous Metaplasia Fetal Membrane Meconium Aspiration Syndrome 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Selected References

  1. PHP5, pages 277–281 (Cysts and Breus’ Mole), pages 321–379 (Anatomy and Pathology of the Fetal Membranes).Google Scholar
  2. Altshuler G, Arizawa M, Molnar-Nadasdy G. Meconium-induced umbilical cord vascular necrosis and ulceration: a potential link between the placenta and poor pregnancy outcome. Obstet Gynecol 1992;79:760–766.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Ariel IB, Landing BH. A possible distinctive vacuolar change of the amnionic epithelium associated with gastroschisis. Pediatr Pathol 1985;2:283–289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Funai EF, Labowsky AT, Drewes Ce, Kliman HJ. Timing of fetal meconium absorption by amnionic macrophages. Am J Perinatol 2009;26:93–97.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Higginbottom MC, Jones KL, Hall BD, et al. The amniotic band disruption complex: timing of amnion rupture and variable spectra of consequent defects. J Pediatr 1979;95:544–549.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Jacques SM, Qureshi F. Subamnionic vernix caseosa. Pediatr Pathol 1994;14:585–593.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Kalousek D, Banforth S. Amniotic rupture sequence in previable fetuses. Am J Med Genet 1988;31:63–73.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Martinez-Frias ML. Epidemiological characteristics of amnionic band sequence (ABS) and body wall complex (BWC): are they two different entities? Am J Med Genet 1997;73:176–179.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Miller PW, Coen RW, Benirschke K. Dating the time interval from meconium passage to birth. Obstet Gynecol 1985;66:459–462.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Morhaime JL, Park K, Benirschke K, Baergen RN. Disappearance of meconium pigment in placental specimens on exposure to light. Arch Pathol Lab Med 2003;127:711–714.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Nickell KA, Stocker JT. Placental teratoma: a case report. Pediatr Pathol 1987;7:645–650.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Pearlstone M, Bax L. Subchorionic hematoma: a review. Obstet Gynecol Surv 1993;48:65–68.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Perlman M, Tennenbaum A, Menash M, et al. Extramembranous pregnancy: maternal, placental, and perinatal implications. Obstet Gynecol 1980;55:34S–37S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Salazar H, Kanbour AI, Pardo M. Amnion nodosum. Ultrastructure and histopathogenesis. Arch Pathol 1974;98:39–46.Google Scholar
  15. Shanklin DR, Scott JS. Massive subchorial thrombohaematoma (Breus’ mole). Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1975;82:476–487.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Stanek J, Weng E. Microscopic chorionic pseudocyts in placental membranes: a histologic lesion of in utero hypoxia. Pediatr Dev Pathol 2007;10:192–198.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Werler MM, Bosco JL, Shapira SK. Maternal vasoactive exposures, amniotic bands and terminal transverse limb defects. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 2009;85:52–57.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rebecca N. Baergen
    • 1
  1. 1.New York Presbyterian Hospital—Weill Medical College of Cornell UniversityNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations