Advertisement

Drought Resistance and Its Improvement

Chapter

Summary

Plant breeding has been successful in developing drought resistant crop cultivars. However the traditional breeding method by using yield as a selection index and performing multi-environmental yield trials has been costly and slow. Plant physiology is now incorporated into the breeding program by using physiological selection criteria relevant to the designated plant ideotype and subsequent plant performance in the target stress environment. Genomics offer a great potential for the improvement of breeding efficiency towards water limited environments. There are still inherent problems in deploying marker assisted selection and transgenic technology into breeding program for drought resistance. The potential of genomics can be realized only when it will be well synchronized with plant breeding concept, theory and methods.

It has often been voiced and published that “drought resistance” is complex and therefore its improvement is difficult. This chapter aims to diffuse some of these beliefs and demonstrate that the issue is not as complex as seen by the novice or as seen from the “gene discovery” platform.

Breeding for drought resistance can basically follow an analogy of breeding for disease resistance in terms of concept and design (with few exceptions). Drought resistance is approached in terms of its components, namely dehydration avoidance, dehydration tolerance and drought escape. The most widespread and effective mechanism of drought resistance in crop plants is dehydration avoidance, which is the ability of the plant to maintain its hydration. It is controlled by plant constitutive traits and plant adaptive traits. Dehydration tolerance which is the ability to function in a dehydrated state is rare but can sometimes be important. It is shown that when stress physiology, plant genetics and knowledge of the target environment are combined it is possible to design an appropriate plant ideotype to be used as guide in breeding for the specific water limited environment.

References

References

  1. Ali, M., Jensen, C.R., Mogensen, V.O., Andersen, M.N., and Henson, I.E., 1999. Root signaling and osmotic adjustment during intermittent soil drying sustain grain yield of field grown wheat. Field Crops Res. 62, 35–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Araus, J.L., Reynolds, M.P., Acevedo, E., 1993. Leaf posture, grain yield, growth, leaf structure, and carbon isotope discrimination in wheat. Crop Sci. 33, 1273–1279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Araus, J.L., Villegas, D., Aparicio, N., García Del Moral, L.F., El Hani, S., Rharrabti, Y., Ferrio, J.P., Royo, C., 2003. Environmental factors determining carbon isotope discrimination and yield in durum wheat under mediterranean conditions. Crop Sci. 43, 170–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Blum, A. 1970. Effects of plant density and growth duration on sorghum yield under limited water supply. Agron. J. 62, 333–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Blum, A., 1972. Effect of planting date on water-use and its efficiency in dryland grain sorghum. Agron. J. 64, 775–778.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Blum, A., 2005. Drought resistance, water-use efficiency, and yield potential – are they compatible, dissonant, or mutually exclusive? Aust. J. Agric. Res. 56, 1159–1168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Blum, A., Arkin, G.F., 1984 Sorghum root growth and water-use as affected by water supply and growth duration. Field Crops Res. 9, 131–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Blum, A., Mayer, J., Gozlan, G., 1982. Infrared thermal sensing of plant canopies as a screening technique for dehydration avoidance in wheat. Field Crops Res. 5, 137–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Blum, A., Naveh, M., 1976. Improved water-use efficiency by promoted plant competition in dryland sorghum. Agron. J. 68, 111–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Caird, M.A., Richards, J.H., Hsiao, T.C., 2007. Significant transpirational water loss occurs throughout the night in field-grown tomato. Funct. Plant Biol. 34, 172–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chimenti, C.A., Marcantonio, M., Hall, A.J., 2006. Divergent selection for osmotic adjustment results in improved drought tolerance in maize (Zea mays L.) in both early growth and flowering phases. Field Crops Res. 95, 305–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Condon, A.G., Richards, R.A., Rebetzke, G.J., Farquhar, G.D., 2002. Improving intrinsic water-use efficiency and crop yield. Crop Sci. 42, 122–131.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Craufurd, P.Q., Wheeler, T.R., Ellis, R.H., Summerfield, R.J., Williams, J.H., 1999. Effect of temperature and water deficit on water-use efficiency, carbon isotope discrimination and specific leaf area in peanut. Crop Sci. 39, 136–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Davies, W.J., Jones, H.G., 1991. Abscisic acid: Physiology and Biochemistry. Bios Scientific Publishers, London, pp. 266.Google Scholar
  15. De Wit, C.T., 1958. Transpiration and crop yields, Versl. Landbouwk. Onderz., Institute of Biological and Chemical Research on Field Crops and Herbage, Wageningen, The Netherlands, 64:6.Google Scholar
  16. Donald, C.M., Hamblin, J., 1976. The biological yield and harvest index of cereals as agronomic and plant breeding criteria. Adv. Agron. 28, 361–405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Farquhar, G.D., Ehleringer, J.R., Hubick K., 1989. Carbon isotope discrimination and photosynthesis. Ann. Rev. Plant Physiol. Plant Mol. Biol. 40, 503–537.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Fischer, R.A., Turner, N.C., 1978. Plant productivity in the arid and semiarid zones, Ann. Rev. Plant Physiol., 29, 277–317).Google Scholar
  19. Fischer, R.A., Rees, D., Sayre, K.D., Lu, Z.M., Condon, A.G., Saavedra, A.L., 1998. Wheat yield progress associated with higher stomatal conductance and photosynthetic rate, and cooler canopies. Crop Sci. 38, 1467–1475.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Frank, A.B., Ray, I.M., Berdahl, J.D., Karn, J.F., 1997. Carbon isotope discrimination, ash, and canopy temperature in three wheatgrass species. Crop Sci. 7, 1573–1576.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. French, R.J., Schultz, J.E., 1984. Water use efficiency of wheat in a Mediterranean-type environment. I. The relation between yield water use and climate. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 35, 743–764.Google Scholar
  22. Hall, A.E., Richards, R.A., Condon, A.G., Wright, G.C., Farquhar, G.D. 1994. Carbon isotope discrimination and plant breeding. Plant Breed. Rev. 12, 81–113.Google Scholar
  23. Hanks, K.J., 1983. Yield and water-use relationships, an overview. In: Limitations to Efficient Water Use in Crop Production. Taylor, H.M., Jordan, W.R., Sinclair, T.R., (Eds), American Society of Agronomy, Madison, Wisconsin (USA), pp. 393–410.Google Scholar
  24. Horie T., Matsuura S., Takai T., Kuwasaki K., Ohsumi A., Shiraiwa T. 2006. Genotypic difference in canopy diffusive conductance measured by a new remote-sensing method and its association with the difference in rice yield potential. Plant Cell Environ. 29, 653–660.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Horton, P., 2000. Prospects for crop improvement through the genetic manipulation of photosynthesis, morphological and biochemical aspects of light capture. J. Exp. Bot. 51, 475–485.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ismail, A.M., Hall, A.E., Bray, E.A., 1994. Drought and pot size effects on transpiration efficiency and carbon isotope discrimination of cowpea accessions and hybrids Aust. J. Plant Physiol., 21, 23–35.Google Scholar
  27. Izanloo, A., Condon, A.G., Langridge, P., Tester, M., Schnurbusch, T., 2008. Different mechanisms of adaptation to cyclic water stress in two South Australian bread wheat cultivars J. Exp. Bot. 59, 3327–3346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Juenger, T.E., Mckay, J.K., Hausmann, N., Keurentjes, J. J. B., Sen, S., Stowe, K.A., Dawson, T.E., Simms, E. L., Richards, J.H., 2005. Identification and characterization of QTL underlying whole-plant physiology in Arabidopsis thaliana, 13C, stomatal conductance and transpiration efficiency. Plant Cell Environ. 28, 697–708.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kato, Y., Kamoshita, A., Yamagishi, J., 2008. Preflowering abortion reduces spikelet number in upland rice (Oryza sativa L.) under water stress. Crop Sci. 48, 2389–2395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kerstiens, G., 1997. In vivo manipulation of cuticular water permeance and its effect on stomatal response to air humidity. New Phytol. 137, 473–480.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kerstiens, G., 2006. Water transport in plant cuticles, an update. J. Exp. Bot. 57, 2493–2499.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kijne, J. W., Barker, Randolph, Molden, D. J. (Eds), 2003. Water Productivity in Agriculture: Limits and Opportunities for Improvement, CABI, UK, 332 pp.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kirkegaard, J.A., Lilley, J.M., Howe, G.N., Graham, J.M., 2007. Impact of subsoil water use on wheat yield. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 58, 303–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kobata, T., Okuno, T., Yamamoto, T. 1996. Contributions of capacity for soil water extraction and water use efficiency to maintenance of dry matter production in rice subjected to drought. Japanese J. Crop Sci. 65, 652–662.Google Scholar
  35. Li, C.Y., Berninger, F., Koskela, J., Sonninen, E., 2000. Drought responses of Eucalyptus microtheca provenances depend on seasonality of rainfall in their place of origin. Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 27, 231–238.Google Scholar
  36. Lu, Z.M., Zeiger, E., 1994. Selection for higher yields and heat resistance in pima cotton has caused genetically determined changes in stomatal conductances. Physiol. Plant. 92, 273–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Lu, Z.M., Radin, J.W., Turcotte, E.L., Percy, R., Zeiger, E., 1994. High yields in advanced lines of pima cotton are associated with higher stomatal conductance, reduced leaf area and lower leaf temperature. Physiol. Plant. 92, 266–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Martin, B., Tauer, C.G., Lin, R.K., 1999. Carbon isotope discrimination as a tool to improve water-use efficiency in tomato. Crop Sci. 39, 1775–1783.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Matus, A., Slinkard, A.E., Vankessel, C., 1996. Carbon isotope discrimination and indirect selection for transpiration efficiency at flowering in lentil (Lens culinaris medikus), spring bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) durum wheat (T.turgidum l), and canola (Brassica napus L.). Euphytica 87, 141–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Menendez C.M. Hall W.E., 1995 Heritability of carbon isotope discrimination and correlations with earliness in cowpea. Crop Sci. 35, 673–678, 3032.Google Scholar
  41. Merah, O., 2001. Potential importance of water status traits for durum wheat improvement under Mediterranean conditions. J. Agric. Sci. 137, 139–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Meyers, R.J.K., Foale, M.A., Done, A.A., 1984. Response of grain sorghum to varying irrigation frequency in the Ord irrigation area. II. Evapotranspiration water-use efficiency. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 35, 31–42.Google Scholar
  43. Mitchell, J.H., Fukai, S., Cooper, M., 1996. Influence of phenology on grain yield variation among barley cultivars grown under terminal drought. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 47, 757–774.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Monclus, R., Dreyer, E., Villar, M., Delmotte, F.M., Delay D., Petit, J.M., Barbaroux, C., Thiec, D., Bréchet, C., Brignolas, F., 2006. Impact of drought on productivity and water use efficiency in 29 genotypes of Populus deltoides × Populus nigra. New Phytol. 169, 765–777.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Monneveux, P., Rekika, D., Acevedo, E., Merah, O., 2006. Effect of drought on leaf gas exchange, carbon isotope discrimination, transpiration efficiency and productivity in field grown durum wheat genotypes. Plant Sci. 170, 867–872.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Monneveux, P., Sheshshayee, M.S., Akhter, J., Ribaut, J.M., 2007. Using carbon isotope discrimination to select maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines and hybrids for drought tolerance. Plant Sci. 173, 390–396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Morgan, J.A., Lecain, D.R., Mccaig, T.N., Quick, J.S., 1993. Gas exchange, carbon isotope ­discrimination, and productivity in winter wheat. Crop Sci. 33, 178–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Munoz, P., Voltas, J., Araus, J.L., Igartua, E., Romagosa, I., 1998. Changes over time in the adaptation of barley releases in north-eastern Spain. Plant Breed. 117, 531–535.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Ngugi, E.C.K., Austin, R.B., Galwey, N.W., Hall, M.A., 1996. Associations between grain yield and carbon isotope discrimination in cowpea. Europ. J. Agron. 5, 9–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Ngugi, E.C.K., Galwey, N.W., Austin, R.B., 1994. Genotype x environment interaction in carbon isotope discrimination and seed yield in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata l. walp.). Euphytica 73, 213–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. O’Toole, J.C., 1982. Adaptation of rice to drought-prone environments. In: Drought Resistance in Crops With Emphasis on Rice. IRRI (Eds), International Rice Research Institute, Los Banos, Phillippines, pp. 195–213.Google Scholar
  52. Parry, M. A. J., Madgwick, P. J., Carvahlo, J. F. C., and Andralojc, P. J., 2007. Prospects for increasing photosynthesis by overcoming the limitations of Rubisco. J. Agric. Sci. 145, 31–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Passioura, J.B., 1996. Drought and drought tolerance. Plant Growth Reg.20, 79–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Peuke, A.D., Gessler, A., Rennenberg, H., 2006. The effect of drought on C and N stable isotopes in different fractions of leaves, stems and roots of sensitive and tolerant beech ecotypes. Plant Cell Environ. 29, 823–835.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Pinheiro, H.A., Damatta, F.M., Chaves, A.R.M., Loureiro, M.E., 2005. Drought tolerance is associated with rooting depth and stomatal control of water use in clones of Coffea canephora. Ann. Bot. 96, 101–108.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Read, J.J., Johnson, D.A., Asay, K.H., Tieszen, L.L., 1991. Carbon Isotope Discrimination, Gas Exchange, and Water-Use Efficiency in Crested Wheatgrass Clones. Crop Sci. 31, 1203–1208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Rebetzke, G.J., Condon, A.G., Farquhar, G.D., Appels, R., Richards, R.A., 2008. Quantitative trait loci for carbon isotope discrimination are repeatable across environments and wheat mapping populations. Theor. Appl. Gen. 118, 123–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Rebetzke, G.J., Richards, R.A., 1999. Genetic improvement of early vigour in wheat. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 50, 291–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Reynolds, M.P., Balota, M., Delgado, M.I.B., Amani, I., Fischer, R.A., 1994. Physiological and morphological traits associated with spring wheat yield under hot, irrigated conditions. Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 21, 717–730.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Reynolds, M., Tuberosa, R. 2008. Translational research impacting on crop productivity in drought-prone environments Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. 11, 171–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Richards, R.A., Passioura, J.B., 1989. A breeding program to reduce the diameter of the major xylem vessel in the seminal roots of wheat and its effect on grain yield in rain-fed environments Aust. J. Agric. Res. 40, 943–950.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Sanguineti, M.C., Tuberosa, R., Landi, P., Salvi, S., Maccaferri, M., Casarini, E., Conti, S., 1999. QTL analysis of drought related traits and grain yield in relation to genetic variation for leaf abscisic acid concentration in field-grown maize. J. Exp. Bot. 50, 1289–1297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Saranga, Y., Jiang, C.X., Wright, R.J., Yakir, D., Paterson, A.H., 2004. Genetic dissection of cotton physiological responses to arid conditions and their inter-relationships with productivity. Plant Cell Environ. 27, 263–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Sayre, K.D., Acevedo, E., Austin, R.B., 1995. Carbon isotope discrimination and grain yield for three bread wheat germplasm groups grown at different levels of water stress. Field Crops Res. 41, 45–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Sellin, A., 2001. Hydraulic and stomatal adjustment of Norway spruce trees to environmental stress. Tree Physiol. 21, 879–888.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Sheehy, J.E., Mitchell, P.L., Hardy, B, (eds.) 2000. Redesigning Rice Photosynthesis to Increase Yield. Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, (The Netherlands), pp. 300.Google Scholar
  67. Shimshi, D., Ephrat, J., 1975. Stomatal behavior of wheat cultivars in relation to their transpiration, photosynthesis and yield. Agron. J. 67, 326–331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Siddique, K.H.M., Tennan, t D., Perry, M.W., Belford, R.K., 1990. Water use and water use efficiency of old and modern wheat cultivars in a Mediterranean-type environment Aust. J. Agric. Res. 41, 431–447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Solomon, K.F., Labuschagne, M.T., 2004. Variation in water use and transpiration efficiency among durum wheat genotypes grown under moisture stress and non-stress conditions. J. Agric. Sci. 141, 31–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Specht, J.E., Chase, K., Macrander, M., Graef, G.L., Chung, J., Markwell, J.P., Germann, M., Orf, J.H., Lark, K.G., 2001. Soybean response to water; a QTL analysis of drought tolerance. Crop Sci.41, 493–509.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Tangpremsri, T., Fukai, S., Fischer, K.S., Henzell, R.G., 1991. Genotypic variation in osmotic adjustment in grain sorghum.2. Relation with some growth attributes. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 42, 759–767.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Westgate, M.E., Passioura, J.B., Munns, R., 1996. Water status and ABA content of floral organs in drought-stressed wheat. Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 23, 763–772.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. White, J.W., Castillo, J.A., Ehleringer, J., 1990. Associations between productivity, root growth and carbon isotope discrimination in Phaseolus-vulgaris under water deficit. Aust. J. Plant Physiol.17, 189–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Zong, Lin Zhu, Liang, Suo, Xu, Xing, Li, Shu Hua, Jing, Ji Hai, Monneveux P., 2008. Relationships between carbon isotope discrimination and leaf morpho-physiological traits in spring-planted spring wheat under drought and salinity stress in Northern China. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 59, 941–949.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

  1. Abraham EM, Huang B, Bonos SA et al (2004) Evaluation of drought resistance for Texas bluegrass, Kentucky bluegrass, and their hybrids. Crop Sci 44:1746–1753CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abreu ME, Munné-Bosch S (2008) Salicylic acid may be involved in the regulation of drought-induced leaf senescence in perennials: a case study in field-grown Salvia officinalis L. plants. Environ Exp Bot 64:105–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alpert P (2000) The discovery, scope, and puzzle of desiccation tolerance in plants. Plant Ecol 151:5–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Al-Yassin A, Grando S, Kafawin O et al (2005) Heritability estimates in contrasting environments as influenced by the adaptation level of barley germplasm. Ann Appl Biol 147:235–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Andersen MN, Asch F, Wu Y et al (2002) Soluble invertase expression is an early target of drought stress during the critical, abortion-sensitive phase of young ovary development in maize. Plant Physiol 130:591–604PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Anderson SR, Lauer MJ, Schoper JB et al (2004) Pollination timing effects on kernel set and silk receptivity in four maize hybrids. Crop Sci 44:464–473CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Angadi SV, Entz MH (2002) Root system and water use patterns of different height sunflower cultivars. Agron J 94:136–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Apel K, Hirt H (2004) Reactive oxygen species: metabolism, oxidative stress, and signal transduction. Ann Rev Plant Biol 55:373–399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Araus JL, Sánchez C, Cabrera-Bosquet L (2010) Is heterosis in maize mediated through better water use? New Phytol 187:392–406PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Athar M, Johnson DA (1996) Nodulation biomass production and nitrogen fixation in alfalfa under drought. J Plant Nutr 19:185–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Atkin OK, Macherel D (2009) The crucial role of plant mitochondria in orchestrating drought tolerance. Ann Bot 103:581–597PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Auge RM (2004) Arbuscular mycorrhizae and soil/plant water relations. Can J Soil Sci 84:373–381Google Scholar
  13. Babu RC, Shashidhar HE, Lilley JM et al (2001) Variation in root penetration ability, osmotic adjustment and dehydration toleance among accessions of rice adapted to rainfed lowland and upland ecosystem. Plant Breed 120:233–238Google Scholar
  14. Babu RC, Zhang J, Blum A et al (2004) HVA1, a LEA gene from barley confers dehydration tolerance in transgenic rice (Oryza sativa L) via cell membrane protection. Plant Sci 166:855–862CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bacelar EA, Correia CM, Moutinho-Pereira JM (2004) Sclerophylly and leaf anatomical traits of five field-grown olive cultivars growing under drought conditions. Tree Physiol 24:233–239PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Badawi GH, Yamauchi Y, Shimada E et al (2004) Enhanced tolerance to salt stress and water ­deficit by overexpressing superoxide dismutase in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) chloroplasts. Plant Sci 166:919–928CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bajji M, Kinet JM, Lutts S (2002) The use of the electrolyte leakage method for assessing cell membrane stability as a water stress tolerance test in durum wheat. Plant Growth Regul 36:61–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bakken AK, Macduff J, Humphreys M (1997) A stay-green mutation of Lolium perenne affects NO3-uptake and translocation of N during prolonged n starvation. New Phytol 135:41–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Baldocchi OO, Verma SB, Kosenberg NJ et al (1983) Leaf pubescence effects on the mass and energy exchange between soybean canopies and the atmosphere. Agron J 75:537–541CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bancal MO, Robert C, Ney B (2007) Modelling wheat growth and yield losses from late epidemics of foliar diseases using loss of green leaf area per layer and pre-anthesis reserves. Ann Bot 100:777–789PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bandurska H (1998) Implication of ABA and proline on cell membrane injury of water deficit stressed barley seedlings. Acta Physiol Plant 20:375–381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bänziger M, Setimela PS, Hodson D et al (2006) Breeding for improved drought tolerance in maize adapted to Southern Africa. Agric Water Manag 80:212–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Barbour MM (2007) Stable oxygen isotope composition of plant tissue: a review. Funct Plant Biol 34:83–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Barbour MM, Warren CR, Farquhar GD et al (2010) Variability in mesophyll conductance between barley genotypes, and effects on transpiration efficiency and carbon isotope discrimination. Plant Cell Environ 33:1176–1185PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Barker T, Campos H, Cooper M et al (2005) Improving drought tolerance in maize. Plant Breed Rev 25:173–253Google Scholar
  26. Basnayake J, Ludlow M, Cooper M et al (1993) Genotypic variation of osmotic adjustment and desiccation tolerance in contrasting sorghum inbred lines. Field Crops Res 35:51–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Basnayake J, Cooper M, Ludlow MM et al (1995) Inheritance of osmotic adjustment to water stress in three grain sorghum crosses. Theor Appl Genet 90:675–682CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Basnayake J, Cooper M, Henzell RG et al (1996) Influence of rate of development of water deficit on the expression of maximum osmotic adjustment and desiccation tolerance in three grain sorghum lines. Field Crops Res 49:65–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Basu PS, Berger JD, Turner NC et al (2007) Osmotic adjustment of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) is not associated with changes in carbohydrate composition or leaf gas exchange under drought. Ann Appl Biol 150:217–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Becana M, Dalton DA, Moran JF et al (2001) Reactive oxygen species and antioxidants in legume nodules. Physiol Plant 109:372–381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Beckett RP (2001) ABA-induced tolerance to ion leakage during rehydration following desiccation in the moss Atrichum androgynum. Plant Growth Regul 35:131–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Benjamin JG, Nielsen DC (2006) Water deficit effects on root distribution of soybean, field pea and chickpea. Field Crops Res 97:248–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Bernier J, Kumar A, Ramaiah V et al (2007) A large-effect QTL for grain yield under reproductive-stage drought stress in upland rice. Crop Sci 47:507–516CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Betrán FJ, Beck D, Bänziger M et al (2003a) Secondary traits in parental inbreds and hybrids under stress and non-stress environments in tropical maize. Field Crops Res 83:51–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Betrán FJ, Beck D, Bänziger M et al (2003b) Genetic analysis of inbred and hybrid grain yield under stress and nonstress environments in tropical maize. Crop Sci 43:807–817CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Bewley JO (1979) Physiological aspects of desiccation tolerance. Ann Rev Plant Physiol 30:195–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Bidinger FR, Serraj R, Rizvi SMH et al (2005) Field evaluation of drought tolerance QTL effects on phenotype and adaptation in pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L) R Br] topcross hybrids. Field Crops Res 94:14–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Bidinger FR, Nepolean T, Hash CT et al (2007) Quantitative trait loci for grain yield in pearl millet under variable postflowering moisture conditions. Crop Sci 47:969–980CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Blum A (1970) Effects of plant density and growth duration on sorghum yield under limited water supply Agron J 62:333–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Blum A (1972) Effect of planting date on water-use and its efficiency in dryland grain sorghum. Agron J 64:775–778CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Blum A (1973) Components analysis of yield responses to drought of sorghum hybrids. Exp Agric 9:159–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Blum A (1988) Plant breeding for stress environments. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  43. Blum A (1997) Constitutive traits affecting plant performance under drought stress. In: Edmeades GO, Banziger M, Mickelson HR et al (eds) Developing drought and low N tolerant maize. CIMMYT, El BatanGoogle Scholar
  44. Blum A (1998) Improving wheat grain filling under stress by stem reserve mobilization. Euphytica 100:77–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Blum A (2004) Sorghum physiology. In: Nguyen HT, Blum A (eds) Physiology and biotechnology integration for plant breeding. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  46. Blum A (2005) Drought resistance, water-use efficiency, and yield potential – are they compatible, dissonant, or mutually exclusive? Aust J Agric Res 56:1159–1168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Blum A (2009) Effective use of water (EUW) and not water-use efficiency (WUE) is the target of crop yield improvement under drought stress. Field Crops Res 112:119–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Blum A, Arkin GF (1984) Sorghum root growth and water-use as affected by water supply and growth duration. Field Crops Res 9:131–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Blum A, Ebercon A (1981) Cell membrane stability as a measure of drought and heat tolerance in wheat. Crop Sci 21:43–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Blum A, Naveh M (1976) Improved water-use efficiency by promoted plant competition in dryland sorghum. Agron J 68:111–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Blum A, Pnuel Y (1990) Physiological attributes associated with drought resistance of wheat cultivars in a Mediterranean environment. Aust J Agric Res 41:799–810CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Blum A, Sinmena B (1995) Isolation and characterization of variant wheat cultivars for ABA sensitivity. Plant Cell Environ 18:77–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Blum A, Sullivan CY (1986) The comparative drought resistance of landraces of sorghum and millet from dry and humid regions. Ann Bot 57:835–846Google Scholar
  54. Blum A, Arkin GF, Jordan WR (1977a) Sorghum root morphogenesis and growth. I. Effect of maturity genes. Crop Sci 17:149–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Blum A, Jordan WR, Arkin GF (1977b) Sorghum root morpho-genesis and growth. II. Manifestation of heterosis. Crop Sci 17:153–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Blum A, Sinmena B, Ziv O (1980) An evaluation of seed and seedling drought tolerance screening tests in wheat. Euphytica 29:727–736CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Blum A, Gozlan G, Mayer J (1981) The manifestation of dehydration avoidance in wheat breeding germplasm. Crop Sci 21:495–499CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Blum A, Mayer J, Gozlan G (1982) Infrared thermal sensing of plant canopies as a screening technique for dehydration avoidance in wheat. Field Crops Res 5:137–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Blum A, Golan G, Mayer J et al (1989) The drought response of landraces of wheat from the Northern Negev desert in Israel. Euphytica 43:87–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Blum A, Ramaiah S, Kanemasu ET et al (1990) Recovery of wheat from drought stress at the tillering developmental stage. Field Crops Res 24:67–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Blum A, Sinmena B, Mayer J et al (1994) Stem reserve mobilisation supports wheat grain filling under heat stress. Aust J Plant Physiol 21:771–781CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Blum A, Munns R, Passioura JB et al (1996) Genetically engineered plants resistant to soil drying and salt stress: how to interpret osmotic relations? Plant Physiol 110:1051PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Blum A, Golan G, Mayer J et al (1997) The effect of dwarfing genes on sorghum grain filling from remobilized stem reserves, under stress. Field Crops Res 52:43–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Blum A, Zhang JX, Nguyen HT (1999) Consistent differences among wheat cultivars in osmotic adjustment and their relationship to plant production. Field Crops Res 64:287–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Blum A, Klueva N, Nguyen HT (2001) Wheat cellular thermotolerance is related to yield under heat stress. Euphytica 117:117–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Bohnert HJ, Shen B (1999) Transformation and compatible solutes. Sci Hort 78:237–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Bolanos J, Edmeades GO (1996) The importance of the anthesis-silking interval in breeding for drought tolerance in tropical maize. Field Crops Res 48:65–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Bonnett GD, Incoll LD (1992) Effects on the stem of winter barley of manipulating the source and sink during grain-filling. 1. Changes in accumulation and loss of mass from internodes. J Exp Bot 44:75–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Borrell AK, Hammer GL (2000) Nitrogen dynamics and the physiological basis of stay-green in sorghum. Crop Sci 40:1295–1307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Borrell AK, Incoll LD, Dalling MJ (1993) The influence of the rht1 and rht2 alleles on the deposition and use of stem reserves in wheat Ann Bot 71:317–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Borrell AK, Hammer GL, Henzell RG (2000) Does maintaining green leaf area in sorghum improve yield under drought? II. Dry matter production and yield. Crop Sci 40:1037–1048CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Boyer JS (1976) Photosynthesis at low potentials. Philos Trans R Soc Lond Ser B 273:501–511CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Boyer JS, Westgate ME (2004) Grain yields with limited water. J Exp Bot 55:2385–2394PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Boyer JS, Johnson RR, Saupe SG (1980) Afternoon water deficits and grain yields in old and new soybean cultivars. Agron J 72:981–986CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Buchanan-Wollaston V (1997) The molecular biology of leaf senescence. J Exp Bot 48:181–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Busscher WJ, Lipiec J, Bauer PJ et al (2000) Improved root penetration of soil hard layers by a selected genotype. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 31:3089–3101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Cabrera-Bosquet L, Sánchez C, Araus JL (2009a) Oxygen isotope enrichment reflects yield ­potential and drought resistance in maize. Plant Cell Environ 32:1487–1499PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Cabrera-Bosquet L, Sanchez C, Araus JL (2009b) How yield relates to ash content, 13C and 18O in maize grown under different water regimes. Ann Bot 104:1207–1216PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Campos H, Cooper M, Habben JE et al (2004) Improving drought tolerance in maize: a view from industry. Field Crops Res 90:19–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Carleton AH, Foote WH (1968) Heterosis for grain yield and leaf area and their components in two six-rowed barley crosses. Crop Sci 8:554–560CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Castiglioni P, Warner D, Bensen RJ et al (2008) Bacterial RNA chaperones confer abiotic stress tolerance in plants and improved grain yield in maize under water-limited conditions. Plant Physiol 147:446–455PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Castleberry CW, Crum CW, Krull CF (1984) Genetic yield improvement of US maize cultivars under varying fertility and climatic environments. Crop Sci 24:33–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Ceccarelli S (1987) Yield potential and drought tolerance of segregating populations of barley in contrasting environments. Euphytica 36:265–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Ceccarelli S (1989) Wide adaptation: how wide? Euphytica 40:197–205Google Scholar
  85. Ceccarelli S, Grando S (1991) Environment of selection and type of germplasm in barley breeding for low-yielding conditions. Euphytica 57:207–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Ceccarelli S, Grando S (2007) Decentralized-participatory plant breeding: an example of demand driven research. Euphytica 155:349–360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Ceccarelli S, Grando S, Impiglia A (1998) Choice of selection strategy in breeding barley for stress environments. Euphytica 10:307–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Cha KW, Lee YJ, Koh HJ et al (2002) Isolation, characterization, and mapping of the stay green mutant in rice. Theor Appl Genet 104:526–532PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Chapman SC, Edmeades GO (1999) Selection improves drought tolerance in tropical maize populations. II. Direct and correlated responses among secondary traits. Crop Sci 39:1315–1324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Chimenti CA, Marcantonio M, Hall AJ (2006) Divergent selection for osmotic adjustment results in improved drought tolerance in maize (Zea mays L) in both early growth and flowering phases. Field Crop Res 95:305–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Christopher JT, Manschadi AM, Hammer GL et al (2008) Developmental and physiological traits associated with high yield and stay-green phenotype in wheat. Aust J Agric Res 59:354–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Clark LJ, Whalley WR, Barraclough PB (2003) How do roots penetrate strong soil? Plant Soil 255:93–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Clarke JM, McCaig TN, DePauw RM (1994) Inheritance of glaucousness and epicuticular wax in durum wheat. Crop Sci 34:327–331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Cochard H, Casella E, Mencuccini M (2007) Xylem vulnerability to cavitation varies among poplar and willow clones and correlates with yield. Tree Physiol 27:1761–1767PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Collins NC, Tardieu F, Tuberosa R (2008) Quantitative trait loci and crop performance under abiotic stress: where do we stand? Plant Physiol 147:469–486PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Condon AG, Richards RA, Rebetzke GJ (2004) Breeding for high water-use efficiency. J Exp Bot 55:2447–2460PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Condon AG, Kirkegaard JA, Rebetzke GJ (2009) Wheat yield and water use: what do they have to do with carbon isotope discrimination? In: Interdrought-III, Shanghai (in press)Google Scholar
  98. Cooper M, Hammer GL (eds) (1996) Plant adaptation and crop improvement. CABI, OxonGoogle Scholar
  99. Cox TS, Shroyer JP, Liu B-H et al (1988) Genetic improvement in agronomic traits of hard red winter wheat cultivars from 1919 to 1987. Crop Sci 28:756–760CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Dahlberg JA (2000) Collection, conversion, and utilization of sorghum. In: Smith CW, Frederiksen RA (eds) Sorghum: origin, history, technology and production. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  101. Degenkolbe T, Do P, Zuther et al (2008) Expression profiling of rice cultivars differing in their tolerance to long-term drought stress. Plant Mol Biol 69:133–153PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Derouw A, Winkel T (1998) Drought avoidance by asynchronous flowering in pearl millet stands cultivated on-farm and on-station in Niger. Exp Agric 34:19–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Dodd JL (1979) Grain sink size and predisposition of Zea mays to stalk rot. Phytopathology 70:534–535CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Du WJ, Fu SX, Yu DY (2009) Genetic analysis for the leaf pubescence density and water status traits in soybean [Glycine max (L) Merr] Plant Breed 128:259–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Duvick DN (1997) What is yield In: Edmeades GO, Banziger M, Mickelson HR et al (eds) Developing drought and low-N tolerant maize. CIMMYT, El BatanGoogle Scholar
  106. Eapen D, Barroso ML, Ponce G et al (2005) Hydrotropism: root growth responses to water. Trends Plant Sci 10:44–50PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Edmeades GO, Bolanos J, Chapman SC et al (1999) Selection improves drought tolerance in tropical maize populations. I. Gains in biomass, grain yield, and harvest index. Crop Sci 39:1306–1315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Efisue A, Tongoona P, Derera J et al (2008) Farmers’ perceptions on rice varieties in sikasso region of mali and their implications for rice breeding. J Agron Crop Sci 194:393–400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Erickson PI, Ketring DL (1985) Evaluation of peanut genotypes for resistance to water stress in situ. Crop Sci 25:870–876CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Fan X-W, Li F-M, Song L et al (2009) Defense strategy of old and modern spring wheat varieties during soil drying. Physiol Plant 136:310–323PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Farquhar GD, Ehleringer JR, Hubick K (1989) Carbon isotope discrimination and photosynthesis. Ann Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 40:503–537CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Farrant JM, Kruger LA (2001) Longevity of dry Myrothamnus flabellifolius in simulated field conditions. Plant Growth Regul 35:109–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Farrant JM, Cooper K, Kruger et al (1999) The effect of drying rate on the survival of three desiccation-tolerant angiosperm species. Ann Bot 84:371–379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Febrero A, Fernandez SM, Cano JL et al (1998) Yield, carbon isotope discrimination, canopy reflectance and cuticular conductance of barley isolines of differing glaucousness. J Exp Bot 49:1575–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Fellows KJ, Boyer JS (1978) Altered ultrastructure of cells of sunflower leaves having low water potentials. Protoplasma 93:381–386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Ferrio JP, Mateo MA, Bort J et al (2007) Relationships of grain δ13C and δ18O with wheat phenology and yield under water-limited conditions. Ann Bot 150:207–215Google Scholar
  117. Fischer RA, Wood JT (1979) Drought resistance in spring wheat cultivars. III. Yield associations with morpho-physiological traits. Aust J Agric Res 30:1001–1010CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Fischer RA, Rees D, Sayre KD et al (1998) Wheat yield progress associated with higher stomatal conductance and photosynthetic rate, and cooler canopies. Crop Sci 38:1467–1475CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Fischer KS, Lafitte R, Fukai S (eds) (2003) Breeding rice for drought-prone environments. International Rice Research Institute, Los BañosGoogle Scholar
  120. Flexas J, Medrano H (2002) Drought-inhibition of photosynthesis in C3 plants: stomatal and non-stomatal limitations revisited. Ann Bot 89:183–189PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Flexas J, Bota J, Loreto F et al (2004) Diffusive and metabolic limitations to photosynthesis under drought and salinity in C3 plants. Plant Biol (Stuttg) 6:269–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Flower DJ, Ludlow MM (1986) contribution of osmotic adjustment to the dehydration tolerance of water-stressed pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan [L] millsp) leaves. Plant Cell Environ 9:33–40Google Scholar
  123. Fokar M, Blum A, Nguyen HT (1998) Heat tolerance in spring wheat. II. Grain filling. Euphytica 104:9–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Foulkes MJ, Scott RK, Sylvester-Bradley R (2002) The ability of wheat cultivars to withstand drought in UK conditions: formation of grain yield. J Agric Sci 138:153–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Foulkes MJ, Sylvester-Bradley R, Weightman R et al (2007) Identifying physiological traits associated with improved drought resistance in winter wheat. Field Crops Res 103:11–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Frahm MA, Rosas JC, Mayek-Perez N et al (2004) Breeding beans for resistance to terminal drought in the Lowland tropics. Euphytica 136:223–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Fukai S, Pantuwan G, Jongdee B et al (1999) Screening for drought resistance in rainfed lowland rice. Field Crops Res 64:61–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Galle A, Feller U (2007) Changes of photosynthetic traits in beech saplings (Fagus sylvatica) under severe drought stress and during recovery. Physiol Plant 131:412–421PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Gan S, Amasino RM (1995) Inhibition of leaf senescence by autoregulated production of cytokinin. Science 270:1986–1988PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Giese BN (1976) Roles of the cer-j and cer-p loci in determining the epicuticular wax composition on barley seedling leaves. Hereditas 82:137–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Giuliani S, Sanguineti MC, Tuberosa R et al (2005) Root-ABA1, a major constitutive QTL, affects maize root architecture and leaf ABA concentration at different water regimes. J Exp Bot 56:3061–3070PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Gonzalez A, Ayerbe L (2010) Effect of terminal water stress on leaf epicuticular wax load, residual transpiration and grain yield in barley. Euphytica 172:341–349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Gonzalez A, Martin I, Ayerbe L (1999) Barley yield in water-stress conditions. The influence of precocity, osmotic adjustment and stomatal conductance. Field Crops Res 62:23–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Gonzalez EM, Galvez L, Royuela M et al (2001) Insights into the regulation of nitrogen fixation in pea nodules: lessons from drought abscisic acid and increased photoassimilate availability. Agronomie 21:607–613CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Hall AE, Richards RA, Condon AG et al (1994) Carbon isotope discrimination and plant breeding. Plant Breed Rev 12:81–113Google Scholar
  136. Hammer G, Cooper M, Tardieu F et al (2006) Models for navigating biological complexity in breeding improved crop plants. Trends Plant Sci 11:587–593PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Hammer G, Dong Z, McLean G et al (2009) Can changes in canopy and/or root system architecture explain historical maize yield trends in the U.S. corn belt? Crop Sci 49:299–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Haque MM, Mackill DJ, Ingram KT (1992) Inheritance of leaf epicuticular wax content in rice. Crop Sci 32:865–868CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Harris K, Subudhi PK, Borrell A et al (2007) Sorghum stay-green QTL individually reduce post-flowering drought-induced leaf senescence. J Exp Bot 58:327–338PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Harvey HP, van den Driessche R (1997) Nutrition, xylem cavitation and drought resistance in hybrid poplar. Tree Physiol 17:647–654PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Hauck B, Gay AP, Macduff J et al (1997) Leaf senescence in a non-yellowing mutant of festuca pratensis – implications of the stay-green mutation for photosynthesis, growth and nitrogen nutrition Plant. Cell Environ 20:1007–1018CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Haussmann BIG, Obilana AB, Ayiecho PO et al (1999) Quantitative-genetic parameters of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L) Moench] grown in semi-arid areas of Kenya. Euphytica 105:109–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Haussmann BIG, Mahalakshmi V, Reddy BVS et al (2003) QTL mapping of stay-green in two sorghum recombinant inbred populations. Theor Appl Genet 106:133–142Google Scholar
  144. Holbrook FS, Welsh JR (1980) Soil water-use by semi-dwarf and tall wheat cultivars under dryland conditions. Crop Sci 20:244–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Hooker TS, Millar AA, Kunst L (2002) Significance of the expression of the CER6 condensing enzyme for cuticular wax production in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol 129:1568–1580PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Horie T, Matsuura S, Takai T et al (2006) Genotypic difference in canopy diffusive conductance measured by a new remote-sensing method and its association with the difference in rice yield potential. Plant Cell Environ 29:653–660PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Horner TW, Frey KJ (1957) Methods for determining natural areas for oat varietal recommendations. Agron J 49:313–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Hsiao TC (1973) Plant responses to water stress. Ann Rev Plant Physiol 24:519–532CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Huang BR, Fry J, Wang B (1998) Water relations and canopy characteristics of tall fescue cultivars during and after drought stress. HortScience 33:837–840Google Scholar
  150. Huang Y, Xiao B, Xiong L (2007) Characterization of a stress responsive proteinase inhibitor gene with positive effect in improving drought resistance in rice. Planta 226:73–85PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Hurd, EA (1974) Phenotype and drought tolerance in wheat. Agric Meteor 14:39–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Hyoun Chin J, Lu X, Haefele SM et al (2010) Development and application of gene-based markers for the major rice QTL Phosphorus uptake. Theor Appl Genet 120:1073–1086CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Innes P, Blackwell RD (1983) Some effects of leaf posture on yield and water economy of winter wheat. J Agric Sci Camb 101:367–376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Irvine RB, Harvey BL, Rossnagel BG (1980) Rooting capabilities as it relates to soil moisture extraction and osmotic potential of semi-dwarf and normal statured genotypes of six-rowed barley. Can J Plant Sci 60:241–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Islam MA, Du H, Ning J et al (2009) Characterization of Glossy1-homologous genes in rice involved in leaf wax accumulation and drought resistance. Plant Mol Biol 70:443–456PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Ito K, Tanakamaru K, Morita S et al (2006) Lateral root development, including responses to soil drying, of maize (Zea mays) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) seminal roots. Physiol Plant 127:260–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Izanloo A, Condon AG, Langridge P et al (2008) Different mechanisms of adaptation to cyclic water stress in two South Australian bread wheat cultivars. J Exp Bot 59:3327–3346PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. James AT, Lawn RJ, Cooper M (2008) Genotypic variation for drought stress response traits in soybean. II. Inter-relations between epidermal conductance, osmotic potential, relative water content, and plant survival. Aust J Agric Res 59:670–678CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Jefferson PG (1994) Genetic variation for epicuticular wax production in Altai wild rye populations that differ in glaucousness. Crop Sci 34:367–371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Jenkins MT (1932) Differential resistance of inbred and crossbred strains of corn to drought and heat injury. Agron J 24:504–506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Jenks MA, Hasegawa PM, Mohan Jain S (eds) (2007) Advances in molecular breeding towards drought and salt tolerant crops. Springer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  162. Jiang YW, Huang BR (2001) Physiological responses to heat stress alone or in combination with drought: a comparison between tall fescue and perennial ryegrass HortScience 36:682–686Google Scholar
  163. Johnson DA, Asay KH (1993) Viewpoint – selection for improved drought response in cool-season grasses. J Range Manag 46:194–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Johnson GR, Frey KJ (1967) Heritabilities of quantitative attributes of oat (Avena sp) at varying levels of environmental stress. Crop Sci 7:43–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Johnson DA, Richards RA, Turner NC (1983) Yield water relations gas exchange and surface reflectance of near isogenic wheat lines differing in glaucousness. Crop Sci 23:318–321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Jones HG (1998) Stomatal control of photosynthesis and transpiration. J Exp Bot 49:387–398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Jordan WR, Monk RL, Miller FR et al (1983) Environmental physiology of sorghum. I. Environmental and genetic control of epicuticular wax load. Crop Sci 23:552–555CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Jung C, Seo JS, Han SW et al (2008) Overexpression of AtMYB44 enhances stomatal closure to confer abiotic stress tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol 146:623–635PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Kebede H, Subudhi PK, Rosenow DT et al (2001) Quantitative trait loci influencing drought tolerance in grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L Moench). Theor Appl Genet 103:266–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Kholov J, Hash CT, Kakkera A et al (2010) Constitutive water-conserving mechanisms are correlated with the terminal drought tolerance of pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L)]. J Exp Bot 61:369–377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Kim KS, Park SH, Jenks MA (2007) Changes in leaf cuticular waxes of sesame (Sesamum indicum L) plants exposed to water deficit. J Plant Physiol 164:1134–1143PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Kiniry JR (1993) Nonstructural carbohydrate utilization by wheat shaded during grain growth. Agron J 85:844–849CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Koonjul PK, Minhas JS, Nunes C et al (2005) Selective transcriptional down-regulation of anther invertases precedes the failure of pollen development in water-stressed wheat. J Exp Bot 56:179–190PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Kubo K, Jitsuyama Y, Iwama et al (2004) Genotypic difference in root penetration ability by durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L var. durum) evaluated by a pot with paraffin-Vaseline discs. Plant and Soil 262:169–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Kubo K, Jitsuyama Y, Iwama K et al (2005) The reduced height genes do not affect the root penetration ability in wheat. Euphytica 141:105–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Kuchel H, Williams K, Langridge P et al (2007) Genetic dissection of grain yield in bread wheat. II. QTL-by-environment interaction. Theor Appl Genet 115:1015–1027PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Kuhbauch W, Thome U (1989) Nonstructural carbohydrates of wheat stems as influenced by sink-source manipulations. J Plant Physiol 134:243–250Google Scholar
  178. Kumar R, Sarawgi AK, Ramos C et al (2006) Partitioning of dry matter during drought stress in rainfed lowland rice. Field Crops Res 96:455–465CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Kumar R, Venuprasad R, Atlin GN (2007) Genetic analysis of rainfed lowland rice drought tolerance under naturally-occurring stress in eastern India: heritability and QTL effects. Field Crops Res 103:42–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Lafitte HR, Courtois B (2002) Interpreting cultivar × environment interactions for yield in upland rice assigning value to drought-adaptive traits. Crop Sci 42:1409–1420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Lafitte HR, Edmeades GO, Johnson EC (1997) Temperature responses of tropical maize cultivars selected for broad adaptation. Field Crops Res 49:215–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Lal S, Gulyani V, Khurana P (2008) Overexpression of HVA1 gene from barley generates tolerance to salinity and water stress in transgenic mulberry (Morus indica) Transgen Res 17:651–663CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Lambert L, Beach RM, Kilen TC et al (1992) Soybean pubescence and its influence on larval development and oviposition preference of lepidopterous insects. Crop sci 32:463–466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Landi P, Sanguineti MC, Conti S et al (2001) Direct and correlated responses to divergent selection for leaf abscisic acid concentration in two maize populations. Crop Sci 41:335–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Laporte MM, Shen B, Tarczynski MC (2002) Engineering for drought avoidance: expression of maize NADP-malic enzyme in tobacco results in altered stomatal function. J Exp Bot 53:699–705PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Lascano HR, Antonicelli GE, Luna CM et al (2001) Antioxidant system response of different wheat cultivars under drought: field and in vitro studies. Aust J Plant Physiol 28:1095–1102Google Scholar
  187. Leport L, Turner NC, French RJ et al (1999) Physiological responses of chickpea genotypes to terminal drought in a Mediterranean-type environment. Eur J Agron 11:279–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Leport L, Turner NC, Davies SL et al (2006) Variation in pod production and abortion among chickpea cultivars under terminal drought. Eur J Agron 24:236–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Levitt J (1980) Response of plants to environmental stresses water, radiation salt and other stresses. Academic, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  190. Liang GHL, Heyne HG, Walter TL (1966) Estimates of variety × environment interactions in yield tests of three small grains and their significance on the breeding program. Crop Sci 6:135–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Lilley JM, Fukai S (1994) Effect of timing and severity of water deficit on four diverse rice cultivars 1. Rooting pattern and soil water extraction. Field Crops Res 37:205–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Lilley JM, Ludlow MM, Mccouch SR et al (1996) Locating qtl for osmotic adjustment and dehydration tolerance in rice. J Exp Bot 47:1427–1436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Liu F, Andersen MN, Jensen CR (2004a) Root signal controls pod growth in drought-stressed soybean during the critical, abortion-sensitive phase of pod development. Field Crops Res 85:159–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Liu F, Jensen CR, Andersen MN (2004b) Drought stress effect on carbohydrate concentration in soybean leaves and pods during early reproductive development: its implication in altering pod set. Field Crops Res 86:1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Liu JX, Liao DQ, Oane R et al (2006) Genetic variation in the sensitivity of anther dehiscence to drought stress in rice. Field Crops Res 96:87–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Lopatecki LE, Longair EI, Kasting R (1962) Quantitative changes of soluble carbohydrates in stems of solid- and hollow- stemmed wheats during growth. Can J Bot 40:1223–1228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Lopezcastaneda C, Richards RA, Farquhar GD (1995) Variation in early vigor between wheat and barley. Crop Sci 35:472–479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Lu ZM, Radin JW, Turcotte EL et al (1994) High yields in advanced lines of pima cotton are associated with higher stomatal conductance, reduced leaf area and lower leaf temperature. Physiol Plant 92:266–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Ludlow MM, and Bjorkman O (1984) Paraheliotropic leaf movement in Sirato as a protective mechanism against drought-induced damage to primary photosynthetic reactions: damage by excessive light and heat. Planta 161:505–510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Ludlow MM, Santamaria JM, Fukai S (1990) Contribution of osmotic adjustment to grain yield in Sorghum-Bicolor (L) Moench under water-limited conditions 2. Water stress after anthesis. Aust J Agric Res 41:67–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Lynch J (1995) Root architecture and plant productivity. Plant Physiol 109:7–13PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Lynch PJ, Frey KJ (1993) Genetic improvement in agronomic and physiological traits of oat since 1914. Crop Sci 33:984–988CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Ma BL, Dwyer LM (1998) Nitrogen uptake and use of two contrasting maize hybrids differing in leaf senescence. Plant Soil 199:283–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Maes B, Trethowan M, Reynolds MP et al (2001) The influence of glume pubescence on spikelet temperature of wheat under freezing conditions. Aust J Plant Physiol 28:141–148Google Scholar
  205. Malinowski DP, Kigel J, Pinchak WE (2009) Water deficit, heat tolerance, and persistence of summer-dormant grasses in the US Southern Plains. Crop Sci 49:2363–2370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Manschadi AM, Christopher J, deVoil P et al (2006) The role of root architectural traits in adaptation of wheat to water-limited environments. Funct Plant Biol 33:823–837CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Manschadi AM, Hammer GL, Christopher J et al (2008) Genotypic variation in seedling root architectural traits and implications for drought adaptation in wheat (Triticum aestivum L). Plant Soil 303:115–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Maroco JP, Rodrigues ML, Lopes C et al (2002) Limitations to leaf photosynthesis in field-grown grapevine under drought – metabolic and modelling approaches. Funct Plant Biol 29:451–459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Martineau JR, Williams JH, Specht JE (1979) Temperature tolerance in soybeans II. Evaluation of segregating populations for membrane thermostability. Crop Sci 19:79–1979CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Marulanda A, Barea J-M, Azcón R (2009) Stimulation of plant growth and drought tolerance by native microorganisms (AM fungi and bacteria) from dry environments: mechanisms related to bacterial effectiveness. J Plant Growth Regul 28:115–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Masle J, Farquhar GD, Wong SC (1993) Transpiration ratio and plant mineral content are related among genotypes of a range of species. Aust J Plant Physiol 19:709–721CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Mathews KL, Malosetti M, Chapman S et al (2008) Multi-environment QTL mixed models for drought stress adaptation in wheat. Theor Appl Genet 117:1077–1091PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. May OL, Kasperbauer MJ (1999) Genotypic variation for root penetration of a soil pan. J Sustain Agric 13:87–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. Mccaig TN, Morgan JA (1993) Root and shoot dry matter partitioning in near-isogenic wheat lines differing in height. Can J Plant Sci 73:679–689Google Scholar
  215. Mckersie BD, Bowley SR, Harjanto E et al (1996) Water-deficit tolerance and field performance of transgenic alfalfa overexpressing superoxide dismutase. Plant Physiol 111:1177–1181PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. Mclaughlin JE, Boyer JS (2004) Sugar-responsive gene expression, invertase activity, and senescence in aborting maize ovaries at low water potentials. Ann Bot 94:675–689PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Messmer R, Fracheboud Y, Bänziger M et al (2009) Drought stress and tropical maize: QTL-by-environment interactions and stability of QTLs across environments for yield components and secondary traits. Theor Appl Genet 119:913–930PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Mian M, Bailey MA, Ashley DA et al (1996) Molecular markers associated with water use efficiency and leaf ash in soybean. Crop Sci 36:1252–1257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. Miller G, Suzuki N, Ciftci-Yilmaz S et al (2010) Reactive oxygen species homeostasis and signaling during drought and salinity stresses. Plant Cell Environ 32:453–467CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. Miralles DJ, Slafer GA, Lynch V (1997) Rooting patterns in near-isogenic lines of spring wheat for dwarfism. Plant Soil 197:79–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. Mitchell JH, Fukai S, Cooper M (1996) Influence of phenology on grain yield variation among barley cultivars grown under terminal drought. Aust J Agric Res 47:757–774CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. Moinuddin KCR, Khanna-Chopra R (2004) Osmotic adjustment in chickpea in relation to seed yield and yield parameters. Crop Sci 44:449–455Google Scholar
  223. Moinuddin KCR, Fischer RA, Sayre KD et al (2005) Osmotic adjustment in wheat in relation to grain yield under water deficit environments. Agron J 97:1062–1071CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. Morgan JM (1991) A gene controlling differences in osmoregulation in wheat. Aust J Plant Physiol 18:249–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. Morgan JM, Tan MK (1996) Chromosomal location of a wheat osmoregulation gene using RFLP analysis. Aust J Plant Physiol 23:803–806CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. Morgan JM, Hare RA, Fletcher RJ (1986) genetic variation in osmoregulation in bread and durum wheats and its relationship to grain yield in a range of field environments. Aust J Agric Res 37:449–457CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. Morgan JM, Rodriguezmaribona B, Knights EJ (1991) Adaptation to water-deficit in chickpea breeding lines by osmoregulation – relationship to grain yields in the field. Field Crops Res 27:61–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. Mungur R, Wood AJ, Lightfooot DA (2006) Water potential is maintained during water deficit in Nicotiana tabacum expressing the Escherichia coli glutamate dehydrogenase gene. Plant Growth Regul 50:231–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. Munns R (1988) Why measure osmotic adjustment? Aust J Plant Physiol 15:717–726CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. Munns R, Richards RA (2007) Recent advances in breeding wheat for drought and salt stresses. In: Jenks MA, Hasegawa PM, Jain SM (eds) Advances in molecular breeding toward drought and salt tolerant crops. Springer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  231. Muñoz-Perea CG, Terán H, Allen RG et al (2006) Selection for drought resistance in dry bean landraces and cultivars. Crop Sci 46:2111–2120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. Nagel OW, Konings H, Lambers H (1994) Growth rate, plant development and water relations of the ABA-deficient tomato mutant sitiens. Physiol Plant 92:102–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. Nakashima K, Ito Y, Yamaguchi-Shinozaki K (2009) Transcriptional regulatory networks in response to abiotic stresses in Arabidopsis and grasses. Plant Physiol 149:88–95PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. Ney B, Duthion C, Turc O (1994) Phenological response of pea to water stress during reproductive development. Crop Sci 34:141–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. Nguyen HT, Babu RC, Blum A (1997) Breeding for drought resistance in rice – physiology and molecular genetics considerations. Crop Sci 37:1426–1434CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. Nielsen OC, Bind BL, Verma SB et al (1984) Influence of soybean pubescence type on radiation balance. Agron J 76:924–930CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. Nizam-Uddin M, Marshall DR (1988) Variation in epicuticular wax content in wheat. Euphytica 38:3–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. Norton MR, Volaire F, Lelievre F et al (2009) Identification and measurement of summer dormancy in temperate perennial grasses. Crop Sci 49:2347–2352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. Okosun LA, Akenova ME, Singh BB (1998) Screening for drought tolerance at seedling stage in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L] Walp) II. Selecting for root length and recovery ability traits. J Arid Agric 8:11–20Google Scholar
  240. Oliver SN, Dennis ES, Dolferus R (2007) ABA regulates apoplastic sugar transport and is a potential signal for cold-induced pollen sterility in rice. Plant Cell Physiol 48:1319–1330PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. O’Toole JC, Bland WL (1987) Genotypic variation in crop plant root systems. Adv Agron 41:91–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. O’Toole JC, Namuco OS (1983) Role of panicle exsertion in water stress induced sterility. Crop Sci 23:1093–1097CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. O’Toole JC, Hsiao TC, Namuco OS (1984) Panicle water relations during water stress. Plant Sci Lett 33:137–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. Ouk M, Basnayake J, Tsubo M et al (2007) Genotype-by-environment interactions for grain yield associated with water availability at flowering in rainfed lowland rice. Field Crops Res 101:145–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. Paleg LG, Stewart GR, Starr R (1985) The effect of compatible solutes on proteins. Plant Soil 89:83–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. Palta JA, Fillery IRP, Rebetzke GJ (2007) Restricted-tillering wheat does not lead to greater investment in roots and early nitrogen uptake. Field Crops Res 104:52–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. Pandy S, Bhandari H (2008) Drought: economic costs and research implications. In: Serraj R, Bennett J, Hardy B (eds) Drought fronteirs in rice crop improvement for increased rainfed production. World Scientific and IRRI, Singapore/Los BanosGoogle Scholar
  248. Pantuwan G, Fukai S, Cooper M et al (2002) Yield response of rice (Oryza sativa L) genotypes to different types of drought under rainfed lowlands – Part 3. Plant factors contributing to drought resistance. Field Crops Res 73:181–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. Passioura JB, Spielmeyer W, Bonnett DG (2007) Requirements for success in marker-assisted breeding for drought-prone environments. In: Jenks MA, Hasegawa PM, Jain S (eds) Advances in molecular breeding towards drought and salt tolerant crops. Springer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  250. Pastore D, Trono D, Laus MN et al (2007) Possible plant mitochondria involvement in cell adaptation to drought stress; A case study: durum wheat mitochondria. J Exp Bot 58:195–210PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  251. Patterson RP, Hudak CM (1996) Drought-avoidant soybean germplasm maintains nitrogen-fixation capacity under water stress. Plant Soil 186:39–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. Pepe JF, Welsh JR (1979) Soil water depletion patterns under dryland field conditions of closely related height lines of winter wheat. Crop Sci 19:677–680CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. Perry MW, D’Antuono MF (1989) Yield improvement and associated characteristics of some Australian spring wheat cultivars introduced between 1860 and 1982. J Agric Sci Camb 112:295–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. Peters S, Mundree SG, Thomson JA (2007) Protection mechanisms in the resurrection plant Xerophyta viscosa (Baker): both sucrose and raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs) accumulate in leaves in response to water deficit. J Exp Bot 58:1947–1956PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. Peters PJ, Jenks MA, Rich PJ et al (2009) Mutagenesis, selection, and allelic analysis of epicuticular wax mutants in sorghum. Crop Sci 49:1250–1258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  256. Pimratch S, Jogloy S, Vorasoot N et al (2009) Heritability of N2 fixation traits and phenotypic and genotypic correlations between N2 fixation traits with drought resistance traits and yield in peanut. Crop Sci 49:791–800CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  257. Pinheiro HA, Damatta FM, Chaves ARM et al (2005) Drought tolerance is associated with rooting depth and stomatal control of water use in clones of Coffea canephora. Ann Bot 96:101–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  258. Poormohammad KS, Talia P, Maury P et al (2007) Genetic analysis of plant water status and osmotic adjustment in recombinant inbred lines of sunflower under two water treatments. Plant Sci 172:773–787CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  259. Porter JR, Klepper B, Belford RK (1986) A model (WHTROOT) which synchronizes root growth and development with shoot development for winter wheat. Plant Soil 92:133–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  260. Prester T, Weltzien E (2003) Exploiting heterosis in pearl millet for population breeding in arid environments. Crop Sci 43:767–776CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  261. Price AH, Steele KA, Moore BJ et al (2000) A combined RFLP and AFLP linkage map of upland rice (Oryza sativa L) used to identify QTLs for root-penetration ability. TAG 100:49–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  262. Price AH, Cairns JE, Horton P et al (2002) Linking drought-resistance mechanisms to drought avoidance in upland rice using a QTL approach: progress and new opportunities to integrate stomatal and mesophyll responses. J Exp Bot 53:989–1004PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  263. Proctor MCF, Ligrone R, Duckett JG (2007) Desiccation tolerance in the moss Polytrichum formosum: physiological and fine-structural changes during desiccation and recovery. Ann Bot 99:75–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  264. Purcell LC, Serraj R, Sinclair TR et al (2004) Soybean N2 fixation estimates ureide concentration and yield responses to drought. Crop Sci 44:484–492Google Scholar
  265. Rahman H, Malik SA, Saleem M (2004) Heat tolerance of upland cotton during the fruiting stage evaluated using cellular membrane thermostability. Field Crops Res 85:149–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  266. Rajabi A, Griffiths H, Ober ES et al (2008) Genetic characteristics of water-use related traits in sugar beet. Euphytica 160:175–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  267. Ramos ML, Gordon AJ, Minchin FR et al (1999) Effect of water stress on nodule physiology and biochemistry of a drought tolerant cultivar of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Ann Bot 83:57–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  268. Ray JD, Yu L, McCouch SR et al (1996) Mapping quantitative trait loci associated with root penetration ability in rice (Oryza sativa L.). TAG 92:627–636CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  269. Rebetzke GJ, Richards RA (1999) Genetic improvement of early vigour in wheat. Aust J Agric Res 50:291–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  270. Rebetzke GJ, Condon AG, Farquhar GD et al (2008a) Quantitative trait loci for carbon isotope discrimination are repeatable across environments and wheat mapping populations. TAG 118:123–137PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  271. Rebetzke GJ, van Herwaarden AF, Jenkins C et al (2008b) Quantitative trait loci for water-soluble carbohydrates and associations with agronomic traits in wheat. Aust J Agric Res 59:891–905CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  272. Rebetzke GJ, Condon AG, Farquhar GD et al (2009) Water-use efficiency in wheat – the use of surrogate traits for breeding improved biomass and yield under drought. In: Interdrought-III, Shanghai, in pressGoogle Scholar
  273. Rehman A, Nautiyal CS (2002) Effect of drought on the growth and survival of the stress-tolerant bacterium rhizobium sp NBRI2505 sesbania and its drought-sensitive transposon Tn5 mutant. Curr Microbiol 45:368–377PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  274. Reitz LP (1974) Breeding for more efficient water-use – is it real or a mirage. Agric Meteorol 14:3–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  275. Reynolds MP, Balota M, Delgado MIB et al (1994) Physiological and morphological traits associated with spring wheat yield under hot, irrigated conditions. Aust J Plant Physiol 21:717–730CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  276. Reynolds MP, Ortiz-Monasterio JI, McNab A (eds) (2006) Application of physiology in wheat breeding. CIMMYT, El BatanGoogle Scholar
  277. Ribaut JM, Hoisington DA, Deutsch JA et al (1996) Identification of quantitative trait loci under drought conditions in tropical maize I. Flowering parameters and the anthesis-silking interval. Theor Appl Genet 92:905–914CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  278. Ribaut JM, Jiang C, Gonzalezdeleon D et al (1997) Identification of quantitative trait loci under drought conditions in tropical maize 2. Yield components and marker-assisted selection strategies. Theor Appl Genet 94:887–896CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  279. Richards RA, Passioura JB (1989) A Breeding program to reduce the diameter of the major xylem vessel in the seminal roots of wheat and its effect on grain yield in rain-fed environments. Aust J Agric Res 40: 943–950CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  280. Richards RA, Rawson HM, Johnson DA (1986) Glaucousness in wheat: its development and effect on water-use efficiency gas exchange and photosynthetic tissue temperatures. Aust J Plant Physiol 13:465–473Google Scholar
  281. Richards RA, Rebetzke GJ, Condon AG et al (2002) Breeding opportunities for increasing the efficiency of water use and crop yield in temperate cereals. Crop Sci 42:111–121PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  282. Riga P, Vartanian N (1999) Sequential expression of adaptive mechanisms is responsible for drought resistance in tobacco. Aust J Plant Physiol 26:211–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  283. Ripley B, Frole K, Gilbert M (2010) Differences in drought sensitivities and photosynthetic limitations between co-occurring C3 and C4 (NADP-ME) Panicoid grasses. Ann Bot 105:493–503PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  284. Rivero RM, Shulaev V, Blumwald E (2009) Cytokinin-dependent photorespiration and the protection of photosynthesis during water deficit. Plant Physiol 150:1530–1540PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  285. Rodrigues SM, Andrade MO, Gomes APS et al (2006) Arabidopsis and tobacco plants ectopically expressing the soybean antiquitin-like ALDH7 gene display enhanced tolerance to drought, salinity, and oxidative stress. J Exp Bot 57:1909–1918PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  286. Rodriguezmaribona B, Tenorio JL, Conde JR et al (1992) Correlation between yield and osmotic adjustment of peas (Pisum sativum l) under drought stress. Field Crops Res 29:15–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  287. Romagosa I, Han F, Ullrich SE et al (1999) Verification of yield QTL through realized molecular marker – assisted selection responses in a barley cross. J Mol Breed 5:143–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  288. Rosenow DT, Ejeta G, Clark LE et al (1996) Breeding for pre- and post-flowering drought stress resistance in sorghum. In: Rosenow DT Yohe JM (ed) Proceedings of the international conference genetic improvement of sorghum and pearl millet, INTSORMIL, LubbockGoogle Scholar
  289. Rubio MC, Gonzalez EM, Minchin FR et al (2002) Effects of water stress on antioxidant enzymes of leaves and nodules of transgenic alfalfa overexpressing superoxide dismutases. Physiol Plant 115:531–539PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  290. Ruuska SA, Rebetzke GJ, Van Herwaarden AF et al (2006) Genotypic variation in water-soluble carbohydrate accumulation in wheat. Funct Plant Biol 33:799–809CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  291. Saadalla MM, Quick JS, Shanahan JF (1990) Heat tolerance in winter wheat 2. Membrane ­thermostability and field performance. Crop Sci 30:1248–1251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  292. Saccardy K, Cornic G, Brulfert J et al (1996) Effect of drought stress on net CO2 uptake by Zea leaves. Planta 199:589–595CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  293. Sadras VO, Connor DJ, Whitfield DM (1993) Yield, yield components and source-sink relationships in water-stressed sunflower. Field Crops Res 31:27–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  294. Saini HS, Aspinall D (1981) Effect of water deficit on sporogenesis in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Ann Bot 48:623–633Google Scholar
  295. Saint Pierre C, Trethowan R, Reynolds M (2010) Stem solidness and its relationship to water-soluble carbohydrates: association with wheat yield under water deficit. Funct Plant Biol 37:166–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  296. Sanchez FJ, Manzanares M, de Andres EF et al (2001) Residual transpiration rate, epicuticular wax load and leaf colour of pea plants in drought conditions Influence on harvest index and canopy temperature. Eur J Agron 15:57–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  297. Sanchez AC, Subudhi PK, Rosenow DT et al (2002) Mapping QTLs associated with drought resistance in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L Moench). Plant Mol Biol 48:713–726PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  298. Sanguineti MC, Tuberosa R, Landi et al (1999) QTL analysis of drought related traits and grain yield in relation to genetic variation for leaf abscisic acid concentration in field-grown maize. J Exp Bot 50:1289–1297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  299. Santamaria JM, Ludlow MM, Fukai S (1990) Contribution of osmotic adjustment to grain yield in Sorghum-bicolor (L.) moench under water-limited conditions 1. Water stress before anthesis. Aust J Agric Res 41:51–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  300. Saranga Y, Menz M, Jiang CX et al (2001) Genomic dissection of genotype x environment interactions conferring adaptation of cotton to arid conditions. Genome Res 11:1988–1995PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  301. Sayar R, Khemira H, Kharrat M (2007) Inheritance of deeper root length and grain yield in half-diallel durum wheat (Triticum durum) crosses. Ann Appl Biol 151:213–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  302. Schnyder, H (1993) The role of carbohydrate storage and redistribution in the Source-Sink relations of wheat and barley during grain filling – a review. New Phytol 123:233–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  303. Schoper JB, Lambert RJ, Vasilas BL et al (1987) Plant factors controlling seed set in maize 1. The influence of silk, pollen, and ear-leaf water status and tassel heat treatment at pollination. Plant Physiol 8:121–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  304. Selote DS, Khanna-Chopra R (2004) Drought-induced spikelet sterility is associated with an inefficient antioxidant defence in rice panicles. Physiol Plant 121:462–471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  305. Serraj R, Sinclair TR (1998) Soybean cultivar variability for nodule formation and growth under drought. Plant Soil 202:159–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  306. Serraj R, Sinclair TR (2002) Osmolyte accumulation: can it really help increase crop yield under drought conditions? Plant Cell Environ 25:333–341PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  307. Serraj R, Vadez V, Sinclair TR (2001) Feedback regulation of symbiotic N2 fixation under drought stress. Agronomie 21:621–626CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  308. Shearman VJ, Sylvester-Bradley R, Scott RK et al (2005) Physiological processes associated with wheat yield progress in the UK. Crop Sci 45:175–185Google Scholar
  309. Shen B, Jensen RG, Bohnert HJ (1997) Mannitol protects against oxidation by hydroxyl radicals. Plant Physiol 115(2):527–532PubMedGoogle Scholar
  310. Shen L, Courtois B, McNally KL et al (2001) Evaluation of near-isogenic lines of rice introgressed with QTLs for root depth through marker-aided selection. Theor Appl Genet 103:75–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  311. Sheoran IS, Saini HS (1996) Drought-induced male sterility in rice: changes in carbohydrate levels and enzyme activities associated with the inhibition of starch accumulation in pollen. Sexual Plant Reprod 9:161–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  312. Sinclair TR, Purcell LC, King C et al (2007) Drought tolerance and yield increase of soybean resulting from improved symbiotic N2 fixation. Field Crops Res 101:68–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  313. Singh TN, Aspinall D, Paleg LG (1972) Proline accumulation and varietal adaptability to drought in barley: a potential metabolic measure of drought resistance. Nature 236:188–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  314. Specht JE, Williams JH, Pearson DR (1985) Near-isogenic analyses of soybean pubescence genes. Crop Sci 25:92–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  315. Sreedhar L, Wolkers WF, Hoekstra FA et al (2002) In vivo characterization of the effects of abscisic acid and drying protocols associated with the acquisition of desiccation tolerance in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) somatic embryos. Ann Bot 89:391–400PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  316. Srinivasan S, Gomez SM, Kumar S et al (2008) QTLs linked to leaf epicuticular wax, physio-morphological and plant production traits under drought stress in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Plant Growth Regul 56:245–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  317. Steele KA, Price AH, Shashidhar HE et al (2006) Marker-assisted selection to introgress rice QTLs controlling root traits into an Indian upland rice variety. Theor Appl Genet 112:208–221PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  318. Steele KA, Virk DS, Kumar R et al (2007) Field evaluation of upland rice lines selected for QTLs controlling root traits. Field Crops Res 101:180–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  319. Stiller WN, Reid PE, Constable GA (2004) Maturity and leaf shape as traits influencing cotton cultivar adaptation to dryland conditions. Agron J 96:656–664CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  320. Taketa S, Chang CL, Ishii M et al (2002) Chromosome arm location of the gene controlling leaf pubescence of a Chinese local wheat cultivar ‘Hong-mang-mai’. Euphytica 125:141–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  321. Tambussi EA, Bort J, Guiamet J-J et al (2007) The photosynthetic role of ears in C3 cereals: metabolism, water use efficiency and contribution to grain yield. Crit Rev Plant Sci 26:1–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  322. Tang R-S, Zheng J-C, Jin Z-Q et al (2007) Possible correlation between high temperature-induced floret sterility and endogenous levels of IAA, GAs and ABA in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Plant Growth Regul 54:37–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  323. Tangpremsri T, Fukai S, Fischer KS et al (1991) Genotypic variation in osmotic adjustment in grain sorghum. 2. Relation with some growth attributes. Aust J Agric Res 42:759–767CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  324. Tangpremsri T, Fukai S, Fischer KS (1995) Growth and yield of sorghum lines extracted from a population for differences in osmotic adjustment. Aust J Agr Res 46:61–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  325. Tenkouano A, Miller FR, Frederiksen RA et al (1993) Genetics of nonsenescence and charcoal rot resistance in sorghum Theor Appl Genet 85:644–648CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  326. Teulat B, Monneveux P, Wery J et al (1997) Relationships between relative water content and growth parameters under water stress in barley – a QTL study. New Phytol 137(1):99–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  327. Teulat B, This D, Khairallah M et al (1998) Several QTLs involved in osmotic adjustment trait variation in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Theor Appl Genet 96:688–698CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  328. Thiaw S, Hall AE (2004) Comparison of selection for either leaf-electrolyte-leakage or pod set in enhancing heat tolerance and grain yield of cowpea. Field Crops Res 86:239–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  329. Thomas H, Howarth CJ (2000) Five ways to stay green. J Exp Bot 51:329–337PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  330. Toldi O, Tuba Z, Scott P (2009) Vegetative desiccation tolerance: is it a goldmine for bioengineering crops? Plant Sci 176:187–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  331. Tollenaar M, Wu J (1999) Yield improvement in temperate maize is attributable to greater stress tolerance. Crop Sci 39:1597–1604CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  332. Tomar SMS, Kumar GT (2004) Seedling survivability as a selection criterion for drought tolerance in wheat. Plant Breed 123:392–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  333. Toyofuku K, Loreti E, Vernieri P et al (2000) Glucose modulates the abscisic acid-inducible Rab16A gene in cereal embryos. Plant Mol Biol 42:451–454PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  334. Tripathy JN, Zhang J, Robin S et al (2000) QTLs for cell membrane stability mapped in rice (Oryza sativa L.) under drought stress. Theor Appl Genet 100:1197–1202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  335. Tuinstra MR, Grote EM, Goldsbrough PB et al (1997) Genetic analysis of post-flowering drought tolerance and components of grain development in Sorghum bicolor (L) Moench. Mol Breed 3:439–448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  336. Turner NC, Abbo S, Berger JD et al (2007a) Osmotic adjustment in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) results in no yield benefit under terminal drought. J Exp Bot 58:187–194PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  337. Turner NC, Palta JA, Shrestha R et al (2007b) Carbon isotope discrimination is not correlated with transpiration efficiency in three cool-season grain legumes (pulses). J Integr Plant Biol 49:1478–1483CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  338. Vadez V, Sinclair TR (2001) Leaf ureide degradation and N2 fixation tolerance to water deficit in soybean. J Exp Bot 52:153–159PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  339. van Eeuwijk FA, Malosetti M, Xinyou Y et al (2005) Statistical models for genotype by environment data: from conventional ANOVA models to eco-physiological QTL models: modelling complex traits for plant improvement. Aust J Agric Res 56:883–894CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  340. van Oosterom EJ, Weltzien E, Yadav OP et al (2006) Grain yield components of pearl millet under optimum conditions can be used to identify germplasm with adaptation to arid zones. Field Crops Res 96:407–421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  341. Vartanian N (1981) Some aspects of structural and functional modifications induced by drought in root systems. Plant Soil 63:83–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  342. Vassileva V, Simova-Stoilova L, Demirevska K et al (2009) Variety-specific response of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) leaf mitochondria to drought stress. J Plant Res 122:445–454PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  343. Venuprasad R, Shashidhar HE, Hittalmani S et al (2002) Tagging quantitative trait loci associated with grain yield and root morphological traits in rice (Oryza sativa L.) under contrasting moisture regimes. Euphytica 128:293–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  344. Venuprasad R, Lafitte HR, Atlin GN (2007) Response to direct selection for grain yield under drought stress in rice. Crop Sci 47:285–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  345. Venuprasad R, Sta Cruz MT, Amante M et al (2008) Response to two cycles of divergent selection for grain yield under drought stress in four rice breeding populations. Field Crops Res 107:232–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  346. Venuprasad R, Dalid CO, Del Valle M et al (2009) Identification and characterization of large-effect quantitative trait loci for grain yield under lowland drought stress in rice using bulk-segregant analysis. Theor Appl Genet 120:177–190PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  347. Verma V, Foulkes MJ, Worland AJ et al (2004) Mapping quantitative trait loci for flag leaf senescence as a yield determinant in winter wheat under optimal and drought-stressed environments. Euphytica 135:255–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  348. Villnlobos-Kodruigez H, Shibles R (1985) Response of determinate and indeterminate tropical soybean cultivars to water stress. Field Crops Res 10:269–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  349. Volaire F (2002) Drought survival, summer dormancy and dehydrin accumulation in contrasting cultivars of Dactylis glomerata. Physiol Plant 116:42–51PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  350. Volaire F (2008) Plant traits and functional types to characterise drought survival of pluri-specific perennial herbaceous swards in Mediterranean areas. Eur J Agron 29:116–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  351. Volaire F, Lelievre F (2001) Drought survival in Dactylis glomerata and Festuca arundinacea under similar rooting conditions in tubes. Plant Soil 229:225–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  352. Volaire F, Norton MR (2006) Summer dormancy in perennial temperate grasses. Ann Bot 98:927–933PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  353. Volaire F, Norton MR, Norton GM et al (2005) Seasonal patterns of growth, dehydrins and water-soluble carbohydrates in genotypes of Dactylis glomerata varying in summer dormancy. Ann Bot 95:981–990PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  354. Volaire F, Norton MR, Lelievre F (2009a) Summer drought survival strategies and sustainability of perennial temperate forage grasses in Mediterranean areas. Crop Sci 49:2386–2392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  355. Volaire F, Seddaiu G, Ledda L et al (2009b) Water deficit and induction of summer dormancy in perennial Mediterranean grasses. Ann Bot 103:1337–1346PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  356. Wang Z, Huang B (2004) Physiological recovery of Kentucky bluegrass from simultaneous drought and heat stress. Crop Sci 44:1729–1736CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  357. Wang XJ, Loh CS, Yeoh HH et al (2002) Drying rate and dehydrin synthesis associated with abscisic acid-induced dehydration tolerance in Spathoglottis plicata Orchidaceae protocorms. J Exp Bot 53:551–558PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  358. Wang Z, Huang B, Bonos SA et al (2004) Abscisic acid accumulation in relation to drought tolerance in Kentucky bluegrass. Hortscience 39:1133–1137Google Scholar
  359. Wang F-Z, Wang Q-B, Kwon S-Y et al (2005a) Enhanced drought tolerance of transgenic rice plants expressing a pea manganese superoxide dismutase. J Plant Physiol 162:465–472PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  360. Wang Y, Ying J, Kuzma M et al (2005b) Molecular tailoring of farnesylation for plant drought tolerance and yield protection. Plant J 43:413–424PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  361. Wang Y, Jiang J, Zhao X et al (2006) A novel LEA gene from Tamarix androssowii confers drought tolerance in transgenic tobacco. Plant Sci 171:655–662CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  362. Wardlaw IF, Willenbrink J (2000) Mobilization of fructan reserves and changes in enzyme activities in wheat stems correlate with water stress during kernel filling. New Phytol 148:413–422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  363. Watanabe N, Naruse J, Austin RB et al (1995) Variation in thylakoid proteins and photosynthesis in Syrian landraces of barley. Euphytica 82:213–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  364. Welcker C, Boussuge B, Bencivenni C et al (2007) Are source and sink strengths genetically linked in maize plants subjected to water deficit? A QTL study of the responses of leaf growth and of anthesis-silking interval to water deficit. J Exp Bot 58:339–349PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  365. Winzeler M, Monteil P, Nosberger J (1989) Grain growth of tall and short spring wheat genotypes at different assimilate supplies. Crop Sci 29:1487–1491CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  366. Xiao B, Huang Y, Tang N et al (2007) Over-expression of a LEA gene in rice improves drought resistance under the field conditions. Theor Appl Genet 115:35–46PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  367. Xiong L, Wang R-G, Mao G et al (2006) Identification of drought tolerance determinants by genetic analysis of root response to drought stress and abscisic acid. Plant Physiol 142:1065–1074PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  368. Xiong Y-C, Li F-M, Zhang T et al (2007) Evolution mechanism of non-hydraulic root-to-shoot signal during the anti-drought genetic breeding of spring wheat. Environ Exp Bot 59:193–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  369. Xu Y, Crouch JH (2008) Marker-assisted selection in plant breeding: from publications to practice. Crop Sci 48:391–407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  370. Xu W, Subudhi PK, Crasta OR et al (2000) Molecular mapping of QTLs conferring stay-green in grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench). Genome 43:461–469PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  371. Yadav OP, Bhatnagar SK (2001) Evaluation of indices for identification of pearl millet cultivars adapted to stress and non-stress conditions. Field Crops Res 70:201–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  372. Yan J, Wang J, Tissue D et al (2003) Photosynthesis and seed production under water-deficit conditions in transgenic tobacco plants that overexpress an Arabidopsis ascorbate peroxidase gene. Crop Sci 43:1477–1483CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  373. Yan J, He C, Wang J et al (2004) Overexpression of the Arabidopsis 14-3-3 protein GF14 in cotton leads to a “stay-green” phenotype and improves stress tolerance under moderate drought conditions. Plant Cell Physiol 45:1007–1014PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  374. Yang J, Zhang J (2006) Grain filling of cereals under soil drying. New Phytol 169:223–236PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  375. Yang WJ, Nadolskaorczyk A, Wood KV et al (1995) Near-isogenic lines of maize differing for glycinebetaine. Plant Physiol 107:621–630PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  376. Yang JC, Zhang JH, Wang ZQ et al (2001) Activities of starch hydrolytic enzymes and sucrose-phosphate synthase in the stems of rice subjected to water stress during grain filling. J Exp Bot 52:2169–2179PubMedGoogle Scholar
  377. Yang JC, Zhang JH, Wang ZQ et al (2003) Involvement of abscisic acid and cytokinins in the senescence and remobilization of carbon reserves in wheat subjected to water stress during grain filling. Plant Cell Environ 26:1621–1631CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  378. Yang JC, Zhang JH, Ye YX et al (2004) Involvement of abscisic acid and ethylene in the responses of rice grains to water stress during filling. Plant Cell Environ 27:1055–1064CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  379. Yang J, Zhang J, Liu K et al (2007) Abscisic Acid and Ethylene Interact in Rice Spikelets in Response to Water Stress During Meiosis J Plant Growth Regul 26:318–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  380. Yu LX, Ray JD, O’Toole JC et al (1995) Use of wax-petrolatum layers for screening rice root penetration. Crop Sci 35:684–687CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  381. Yue B, Xiong L, Xue W et al (2005) Genetic analysis for drought resistance of rice at reproductive stage in field with different types of soil. Theor Appl Genet 111:1127–1136PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  382. Zahran HH (1999) Rhizobium-legume symbiosis and nitrogen fixation under severe conditions and in an arid climate. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 63:968–989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  383. Zaidi PH, Srinivasan G, Cordova HS et al (2004) Gains from improvement for mid-season drought tolerance in tropical maize (Zea mays L.). Field Crops Res 89:135–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  384. Zhang J, Zheng HG, Aarti A et al (2001) Locating genomic regions associated with components of drought resistance in rice: comparative mapping within and across species. Theor Appl Genet 103:19–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  385. Zhang J-Y, Broeckling CD, Sumner LW et al (2007) Heterologous expression of two Medicago truncatula putative ERF transcription factor genes, WXP1 and WXP2, in Arabidopsis led to increased leaf wax accumulation and improved drought tolerance, but differential response in freezing tolerance. Plant Mol Biol 64:265–278PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  386. Zhang J, Dell Be, Conocono E et al (2009) Water deficits in wheat: fructan exohydrolase (1-FEH) mRNA expression and relationship to soluble carbohydrate concentrations in two varieties. New Phytol 181:843–850CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  387. Zheng H, Babu RC, Safiullah P et al (2000) Quantitative trait loci for root-penetration ability and root thickness in rice: comparison of genetic backgrounds. Genome 43:53–61PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  388. Zhu H, Briceño G, Dovel R et al (1999) Molecular breeding for grain yield in barley: an evaluation of QTL effects in a spring barley cross. Theor Appl Genet 98:772–779CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  389. Zilberstein M, Blum A, Eyal Z (1985) Chemical desiccation of wheat plants as a simulator of postanthesis speckled leaf blotch stress. Phytopathology 75:226–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  390. Zou GH, Mei HW, Liu HY et al (2006) Grain yield responses to moisture regimes in a rice population: association among traits and genetic markers. Theor Appl Genet 112:106–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Tel AvivIsrael

Personalised recommendations