Two-Phase Flow in Continuous Casting



In the current continuous casting processes, Ar gas is injected into a submerged entrance nozzle (SEN) to prevent clogging of Al2O3 to the inner surface of the SEN [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]. The gas disintegrates into small bubbles of varying diameters as it issues out of the SEN. This occurs as a result of the intense shear forces exerted by steel on the gas. Large bubbles rise toward the meniscus due to buoyancy and are subsequently removed from the mold, while smaller bubbles are carried deep into the mold. The small bubbles are trapped in the steel, causing pinhole defects [4, 7, 8]. Considerable effort has been devoted to removing these small bubbles in addition to suppressing the entrainment of mold powder into the steel [9, 10, 11, 12]. These efforts have resulted in improvements in the shape and size of the nozzle [13, 14] and the application of electromagnetic braking [2, 4, 15, 16]. These notwithstanding, pinhole defects have not been successfully and completely eliminated from castings.


Particle Imaging Velocimetry Molten Steel Submerged Entrance Nozzle Narrow Face Mold Powder 
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© Springer New York 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Graduate School of Engineering Division Materials Science & EngineeringHokkaido UniversitySapporoJapan
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical, Materials & Aerospace EngineeringUniversity of Central FloridaOrlandoUSA

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