Advertisement

Race, Ethnicity, and Aging

  • Jan E. Mutchler
  • Jeffrey A. Burr
Chapter
Part of the Handbooks of Sociology and Social Research book series (HSSR)

Abstract

Sociologists recognize age and race as key dimensions of social reality, especially in the American context, with its heterogeneous population, turbulent race relations history, and rapidly changing age structure. As so-called “master variables,” age and race (along with sex) are regarded as statuses shaping and penetrating nearly every aspect of social life, including but not limited to economic opportunity and overall well-being (for reviews, see Leicht 2008; Mayer 2009; Riley and Riley 2000; Winant 2000). Sociologists who focus their research at the intersection of age and race sometimes struggle to define the “social” boundaries of these constructs, as independent from perspectives found in the biological, anthropological, and psychological sciences. Understanding how race and ethnic group status, along with the related issue of culture, shape the experience of aging itself remains an elusive but worthwhile goal.

Keywords

Ethnic Group Residential Segregation African American Population Ethnic Enclave Minority Group Member 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Alba, Richard D. 1990. Ethnic Identity: The Transformation of White America. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Alba, Richard D. and Victor Nee. 1999. “Rethinking Assimilation Theory for a New Era of Immigration.” Pp. 137–60 in The Handbook of International Migration: The American Experience, edited by C. Hirschman, P. Kasinitz and J. DeWind. New York: Russell Sage.Google Scholar
  3. Angel, Jacqueline L. and Ronald J. Angel. 2006a. “Minority Group Status and Healthful Aging: Social Structure Still Matters.” American Journal of Public Health 96:1152–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Angel, Ronald J. and Jacqueline L. Angel. 2006b. “Diversity and Aging in the United States.” Pp. 94–110 in Handbook of Aging and the Social Sciences, 6th ed., edited by R. H. Binstock and L. K. George. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  5. Angel, Jacqueline L. and Dennis P. Hogan. 2004. “Population Aging and Diversity in a New Era.” Pp. 1–12 in Closing the Gap: Improving the Health of Minority Elders in the New Millennium, edited by K. E. Whitfield. Washington, DC: The Gerontological Society of America.Google Scholar
  6. Angel, Jacqueline L. and Fernando Torres-Gil. 2010. “Hispanic Aging and Social Policy.” Pp. 1–19 in Aging in America, Vol. 3, Societal Issues, edited by J. C. Cavanaugh and C. Cavanaugh. Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger.Google Scholar
  7. Bengtson, Vern L., Daphna Gans, Norella M. Putney, and Merril Silverstein. 2009. “Theories about Age and Aging.” Pp. 3–24 in Handbook of Theories of Aging, edited by V. L. Bengtson, D. Gans, N. M. Putney, and M. Silverstein. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  8. Berkman, Lisa F., Thomas Glass, Ian Brissettte, and Teresa E. Seeman. 2000. “From Social Integration to Health: Durkheim in the New Millennium.” Social Science and Medicine 51:843–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Blau, Peter M., and Otis D. Duncan. 1967. The American Occupational Structure. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  10. Burgess, Ernest W., ed. 1960. Ageing in Western Societies. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  11. Burr, Jeffrey A., Kerstin Gerst, and Jan E. Mutchler. 2010. “Public Policy and Populations of Color,” in The New Politics of Old Age Policy, edited by R. Hudson. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Burr, Jeffrey A. and Jan E. Mutchler. 1993. “Ethnic Living Arrangements: Cultural Convergence or Cultural Manifestation?” Social Forces 72:169–80.Google Scholar
  13. —  —  —. 1999. “Race and Ethnic Variation in Norms of Filial Responsibility among Older Persons.” Journal of Marriage and the Family 61:674–87.Google Scholar
  14. —  —  —. 2003. “English Language Skills, Ethnic Concentration, and Household Composition: Older Mexican Immigrants.” Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences 58B:S83–S92.Google Scholar
  15. Cowgill, Donald O. 1972. “A Theory of Aging in Cross-Cultural Perspective.” Pp. 1–14 in Ageing and Modernization, edited by D. O. Cowgill and L. D. Holmes. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.Google Scholar
  16. Cox, Oliver. 1948. Race, Caste and Class. New York: Monthly Review Press.Google Scholar
  17. Crosnoe, Robert and Glen H. Elder, Jr. 2004. “From Childhood to the Later Years: Pathways of Human Development.” Research on Aging 26:623–54.Google Scholar
  18. Crystal, Stephen and Dennis Shea. 1990. “Cumulative Advantage, Cumulative Disadvantage, and Inequality among Elderly People.” The Gerontologist 30:437–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Crystal, Stephen, Dennis Shea, and Shreeram Krishnaswami. 1992. “Educational Attainment, Occupational History, and Stratification: Determinants of Later-Life Economic Outcomes.” Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences 47:S213–21.Google Scholar
  20. Dannefer, Dale. 1987. “Aging as Intracohort Differentiation: Accentuation, the Matthew Effect, and the Life Course.” Sociological Forum 2:211–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. —  —  —. 2003. “Cumulative Advantage/Disadvantage and the Life Course: Cross-Fertilizing Age and Social Science Theory.” Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences 58:S327–38.Google Scholar
  22. Department of Homeland Security. 2008. Yearbook of Immigration Statistics: 2008. Retrieved on 12/21/09 (http://www.dhs.gov/files/statistics/publications/LPR08.shtm).
  23. Dilworth-Anderson, Peggye and Linda Burton. 1999. “Critical Issues in Understanding Family Support and Older Minorities.” Pp. 93–105 in Full-Color Aging: Facts, Goals, and Recommendations for America’s Diverse Elders, edited by Toni P. Miles. Washington, DC: Gerontological Society of America.Google Scholar
  24. Dilworth-Anderson, Peggye, Ishan C. Williams, and Brent E. Gibson. 2002. “Issues of Race, Ethnicity, and Culture in Caregiving Research: A 20-year Review (1980–2000).” The Gerontologist 42:237–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. DiPrete, Thomas and Gregory Eirich. 2006. “Cumulative Advantage as a Mechanism for Inequality: A Review of Theoretical and Empirical Developments.” Annual Review of Sociology 32:271–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Dowd, James and Vern Bengtson. 1978. “Aging In Minority Populations: An Examination of the Double Jeopardy Hypothesis.” Journal of Gerontology 33:427–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Duncan, Greg J. and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, eds. 1997. Consequences of Growing Up Poor. New York: Russell Sage.Google Scholar
  28. Durkheim, Emile. 1951. Suicide: A Study in Sociology. Glencoe, IL: Free Press.Google Scholar
  29. Eberstein, Isaac W., Charles B. Nam, and Kathleen M. Heyman. 2008. “Causes of Death and Mortality Crossovers by Race.” Biodemography and Social Biology 54:214–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Elder, Glen H., Jr. 1985. “Perspectives on the Life Course.” Pp. 23–49 in Life Course Dynamics: Trajectories and Transitions, 1968-1980, edited by G. H. Elder, Jr. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  31. Ferraro, Kenneth F. and Melissa M. Farmer. 1996. “Double Jeopardy, Aging as Leveler or Persistent Health Inequality? A Longitudinal Analysis of White and Black Americans.” Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences 51B:S319–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ferraro, Kenneth F., Tetyana Pylypiv Shippee, and Markus H. Schafer. 2009. “Cumulative Inequality Theory for Research on Aging and the Life Course.” Pp. 413–34 in Handbook of Theories of Aging, edited by V. L. Bengtson, D. Gans, N. M. Putney, and M. Silverstein. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  33. Frey, William H. 2006. “Diversity Spreads Out: Metropolitan Shifts in Hispanic, Asian, and Black Populations since 2000.” The Brookings Institution, Living Cities Census Series. Retrieved April 2, 2010 (http://www.frey-demographer.org/reports/R-2006-1_DiversitySpreadsOut.pdf).
  34. Friedman, Samantha and Emily Rosenbaum. 2004. “Nativity Status and Racial/Ethnic Differences in Access to Quality Housing: Does Homeownership Bring Greater Parity?” Housing Policy Debate 15:865–901.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Frisbie, W. Parker, Youngtae Cho, and Robert Hummer. 2001. “Immigration and the Health of Asian and Pacific Islander Adults in the United States.” American Journal of Epidemiology 153:372–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Geronimus, Arline T. 2001. “Understanding and Eliminating Racial Inequalities in Women’s Health in the United States: The Role of the Weathering Conceptual Framework.” Journal of the American Medical Women’s Association 56:133–36.Google Scholar
  37. Gerst, Kerstin and Jan E. Mutchler. 2009. “Poverty, Later Life.” Pp. xx–xx in Encyclopedia of the Life Course and Human Development, Vol. 3, edited by D. Carr. New York: Macmillan Reference USA.Google Scholar
  38. Gibson, Rose C. 1987. “Reconceptualizing Retirement for Black Americans.” The Gerontologist 27:691–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Gibson, Campbell and Kay Jung. 2002. Historical Census Statistics on Population Totals by Race, 1790 to 1990, and by Hispanic Origin, 1970 to 1990, for the United States, Regions, Divisions, and States. Population Division Working Paper No. 56. U.S. Census Bureau.Google Scholar
  40. Goins, R. Turner, Margaret P. Moss, Dedra Buchwald, and Jack Guralnik. 2007. “Disability among Older American Indians and Alaska Natives: An Analysis of the 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Sample.” The Gerontologist 47:690–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Gordon, Milton. 1964. Assimilation in American Life: The Role of Race, Religion and National Origins. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  42. Hagestad, Gunhild O. 1990. “Social Perspectives on the Life Course.” Pp. 151–168 in Handbook of Aging and the Social Sciences, 3rd ed., edited by R. H. Binstock and L. K. George. San Diego: Academic.Google Scholar
  43. Hayward, Mark D. and Melonie Heron. 1999. “Racial Inequality in Active Life among Adult Americans.” Demography 36:77–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Henretta, John C. and Richard T. Campbell. 1976. “Status Attainment and Status Maintenance: A Study of Stratification in Old Age.” American Sociological Review 41:981–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Herd, Pamela. 2006. “Do Functional Health Inequalities Decrease in Old Age? Educational Status and Functional Decline among the 1931–1941 Birth Cohort.” Research on Aging 28:375–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hummer, Robert, Maureen Benjamins, and Richard Rogers. 2004. “Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health and Mortality among the U.S. Elderly Population.” Pp. 53–94 in Critical Perspectives on Racial and Ethnic Differences in Health in Later Life, edited by Norman Anderson, Rodolfo Bulatao, and Barney Cohen. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.Google Scholar
  47. Jackson, James J. 1985. “Race, National Origin, Ethnicity, and Aging.” Pp. 264–303 in Handbook of Aging and the Social Sciences, 2nd ed., edited by R. H. Binstock and E. Shanas. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.Google Scholar
  48. Kelley-Moore, Jessica A. and Kenneth F. Ferraro. 2004. “The Black/White Disability Gap: Persistent Inequality in Later Life?” Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences 59B:S34–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Keyes, Corey L. M. 2009. “The Black-White Paradox in Health: Flourishing in the Face of Social Inequality and Discrimination.” Journal of Personality 77:1677–705.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kim, Jinyoung and Richard Miech. 2009. “The Black–White Differences in Age Trajectories of Functional Health over the Life Course.” Social Science and Medicine 68:717–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Krause, Neal. 2005. “God-Mediated Control and Psychological Well-Being in Late Life.” Research on Aging 27:136–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. LaVeist, Thomas A. 2004. “Conceptualizing Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Access, Utilization, and Quality of Care.” Pp. 87–93 in Closing the Gap: Improving the Health of Minority Elders in the New Millennium, edited by K. E. Whitfield. Washington, DC: The Gerontological Society of America.Google Scholar
  53. Leicht, Kevin T. 2008. “Broken Down by Race and Gender? Sociological Explanations of New Sources of Earnings Inequality.” Annual Review of Sociology 34:236–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Lieberson, Stanley. 1980. A Piece of the Pie: Blacks and White Immigrants since 1880. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  55. Logan, John R., Richard D. Alba, and Brian J. Stults. 2003. “Enclaves and Entrepreneurs: Assessing the Payoff for Immigrants and Minorities.” International Migration Review 37:344–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Lynch, Scott. 2003. “Cohort and Life Course Patterns in the Relationship between Education and Health: A Hierarchical Approach.” Demography 40:309–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. —  —  —. 2008. “Race, Socioeconomic Status and Health in Life Course Perspective: Introduction to the Special Issue.” Research on Aging 30:127–36.Google Scholar
  58. Mannheim, Karl. 1952. “The Sociological Problem of Generations.” Pp. 276–322 in Essays on the Sociology of Knowledge, edited by P. Kecskemeti. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  59. Markides, Kyriakos S. and Sandra A. Black. 1996. “Race, Ethnicity, and Aging: The Impact of Inequality.” Pp. 153–170 in Handbook of Aging and the Social Sciences, 4th ed., edited by R. H. Binstock & L. K. George. San Diego: Academic.Google Scholar
  60. Markides, Kyriakos S. and Karl Eschbach. 2005. “Aging, Migration, and Mortality: Current Status of Research on the Hispanic Paradox.” Journal of Gerontology Series B: Special Issue II 60B:68–75.Google Scholar
  61. Markides, Kyriakos S., Jersey Liang, and James S. Jackson. 1990. “Race, Ethnicity, and Aging: Conceptual and Methodological Issues.” Pp. 112–29 in Handbook of Aging and the Social Sciences, 3rd ed., edited by R. H. Binstock and L. K. George. New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  62. Markides, Kyriakos S. and Charles Mindel. 1987. Aging and Ethnicity. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  63. Mayer, Karl U. 2009. “New Directions in Life Course Research.” Annual Review of Sociology 35:413–33.Google Scholar
  64. McClanahan, Sara and Christine Percheski. 2008. “Family Structure and the Reproduction of Inequalities.” Annual Review of Sociology 34:257–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Merton, Robert K. 1968. “The Matthew Effect in Science: Theoretical and Empirical Investigations.” Science 199:55–63.Google Scholar
  66. Mortimer, Jeylan T. and Michael J. Shanahan, eds. 2003. Handbook of the Life Course. New York: Kluwer Academic.Google Scholar
  67. Mui, Ada C. and Tazuko Shibusawa. 2008. Asian American Elders in the Twenty-first Century: Key Indicators of Well-Being. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  68. Musil, Carol M. and Muayyad Ahmad. 2002. “Health of Grandmothers: A Comparison by Caregiver Status.” Journal of Aging and Health 14:96–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Mutchler, Jan E., Lindsey A. Baker, and SeungAh Lee. 2007a. “Grandparents Responsible for Grandchildren in Native American Families.” Social Science Quarterly 88:990–1009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Mutchler, Jan E. and Jeffrey A. Burr. 2003. “Living Arrangements among Older Persons: A Multilevel Analysis of Housing Market Effects.” Research on Aging 25:531–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. —  —  —. 2008. “Varieties of Wellbeing: Race, Class, Gender, and Age.” Pp. 23–46 in Boomer Bust? Economic and Political Dynamics of the Graying Society, edited by R. B. Hudson. New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
  72. Mutchler, Jan E., Archana Prakash, and Jeffrey A. Burr. 2007b. “The Demography of Disability and the Effects of Immigration History: Older Asians in the United States.” Demography 44:251–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Myers, Dowell. 2007. Immigrants and Boomers: Forging a New Social Contract for the Future of America. New York: Russell Sage.Google Scholar
  74. Nee, Victor and Jimy Sanders. 2001. “Understanding the Diversity of Immigrant Incorporation: A Forms-of-Capital Model.” Ethnic and Racial Studies 24:386–411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. O’Rand, Angela M. 1996. “The Precious and the Precocious: Understanding Cumulative Disadvantage and Cumulative Advantage over the Life Course.” The Gerontologist 36:230–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. —  —  —. 2006. “Stratification and the Life Course: Life Course Capital, Life Course Risks, and Social Inequality.” Pp. 145–62 in Handbook of Aging and the Social Sciences, edited by R. H. Binstock and L. K. George. San Diego: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  77. Osypuk, Theresa L., Ana V. Diez Roux, Craig Hadley, and Namratha Kandula. 2009. “Are Immigrant Enclaves Healthy Places to Live? The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.” Social Science and Medicine 69:110–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Palloni, Alberto. 2006. “Reproducing Inequalities: Luck, Wallets, and the Enduring Effects of Childhood Health.” Demography 43:587–615.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Park, Robert. 1950. Race and Culture. Glencoe, IL: Free Press.Google Scholar
  80. Pearlin, Leonard I. 2010. “The Life Course and the Stress Process: Some Conceptual Comparisons.” Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences 65B:207–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Portes, Alejandro and Min Zhou. 1993. “The New Second Generation: Segmented Assimilation and Its Variants.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 530:74–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Riley, Matilda White and John W. Riley, Jr. 2000. “Age Integration: Conceptual and Historical Background.” The Gerontologist 40:266–70.Google Scholar
  83. Roff, Lucinda L., Lewis D. Burgio, Laura Gitlin, Linda Nichols, William Chaplin, and J. Michael Hardin. 2004. “Positive Aspects of Alzheimer’s Caregiving: The Role of Race.” Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences 59B, P185–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Ryder, Norman. 1965. “The Cohort as a Concept in the Study of Social Change.” American Sociological Review 30:843–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Ryff, Carol D. and Burton Singer. 2009. “Understanding Healthy Aging: Key Components and Their Integration.” Pp. 117–44 in Handbook of Theories of Aging, edited by V. L. Bengtson, D. Gans, N. M. Putney, and M. Silverstein. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  86. Sands, Roberta G. and Robin S. Goldberg-Glen. 1998. “The Impact of Employment and Serious Illness on Grandmothers Who Are Raising Their Grandchildren.” Journal of Women and Aging 10(3):41–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Schweitzer, Marjorie M. 1999. “Oteo-Missouria Grandmothers: Linking Past, Present, and Future.” Pp. 159–80 in American Indian Grandmothers: Traditions and Transitions, edited by M. Schweitzer. Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press.Google Scholar
  88. Settersten, Richard A., Jr., ed. 2003. Invitation to the Life Course: Toward New Understandings of Later Life. Amityville, NY: Baywood.Google Scholar
  89. —  —  —. 2006. “Aging and the Life Course.” Pp. 3–19 in Handbook of Aging and the Social Sciences, 6th ed., edited by R. H. Binstock and L. K. George. New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  90. Shuey, Kim M. and Andrea E. Willson. 2008. “Cumulative Disadvantage and Black-White Disparities in Life-Course Health Trajectories.” Research on Aging 30:200–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Smedley, Brian D. Adrienne Stith, and Alan R. Nelson, eds. 2003. Unequal Treatment: Confronting Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.Google Scholar
  92. Social Security Administration. 2009. Retirement Benefits by Year of Birth. Retrieved on December 20, 2009 (http://www.socialsecurity.gov/retire2/agereduction.htm).
  93. Sykes, Lori L. 2003. “Income Rich and Asset Poor: A Multilevel Analysis of Racial and Ethnic Differences in Housing Values among Baby Boomers.” Population Research and Policy Review 22:1–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Taylor, Miles G. 2008. “Timing, Accumulation, and the Black/White Disability Gap in Later Life: A Test of Weathering.” Research on Aging 30:226–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Taylor, Robert J., Linda M. Chatters, and James S. Jackson. 2007. “Religious Participation among Older Black Caribbeans in the United States.” Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences 62B:S251–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Thomas, William I. and Florian Znaniecki. 1974 [1918–1920]. The Polish Peasant in Europe and America. New York: Octagon Books.Google Scholar
  97. Treas, Judith. 2008–2009. “Four Myths about Older Adults in America’s Immigrant Families.” Generations 32(4):40–5.Google Scholar
  98. Treas, Judith and Shampa Mazumdar. 2002. “Older People in America’s Immigrant Families: Dilemmas of Dependence, Integration, and Isolation.” Journal of Aging Studies16:243–58.Google Scholar
  99. Turra, Cassio and Irma Elo. 2008. “The Impact of Salmon Bias on the Hispanic Mortality Advantage: New Evidence from Social Security Data.” Population Research and Policy Review 7:515–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. U.S. Bureau of the Census. 2008. U.S. Population Projections. Retrieved December 11, 2009 (http://www.census.gov/population/www/projections/downloadablefiles.html).
  101. —  —  —. 2009. American Community Survey, 2008. Retrieved December 13, 2009 (http://www.census.gov/acs/www/Products/index.html).
  102. Walesmann, Katrina M., Arline T. Geronimus, and Gilbert C. Gee. 2008. “Accumulating Disadvantage over the Life Course: Evidence from a Longitudinal Study Investigating the Relationship between Educational Advantage in Youth and Health in Middle Age.” Research on Aging 30:169–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Warner, David F. and Mark D. Hayward. 2006. “Early-life Origins of the Race Gap in Men’s Mortality.” Journal of Health Social Behavior 47:209–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Weiss, Robert. 2005. The Experience of Retirement. Ithaca, NY: ILR Press.Google Scholar
  105. Williams, David R. 2004. “Racism and Health.” Pp. 69–80 in Closing the Gap: Improving the Health of Minority Elders in the New Millennium, edited by K. Whitfield. Washington, DC: The Gerontological Society of America.Google Scholar
  106. Williams, David R. and Colwick M. Wilson. 2001. “Race, Ethnicity, and Aging.” Pp. 160–78 in Handbook of Aging and the Social Sciences, 5th ed., edited by R. H. Binstock and L. K. George. New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  107. Willson, Andrea E., Kim M. Shuey, and Glen H. Elder, Jr. 2007. “Cumulative Advantage Processes as Mechanisms of Inequality in Life Course Health.” American Journal of Sociology 112:1886–924.Google Scholar
  108. Wilmoth, Janet M. and Charles F. Longino. 2006. “Demographic Trends that Will Shape U.S. Policy in the 21st Century.” Research on Aging 28:269–88.Google Scholar
  109. Winant, Howard. 2000. “Race and Racism.” Annual Review of Sociology 26:169–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Xie, Yu and Margaret Gough. 2009. “Ethnic Enclaves and the Earnings of Immigrants.” Population Studies Center Research Report #09-685, University of Michigan. Retrieved April 10, 2010 (http://www.psc.isr.umich.edu/pubs/pdf/rr09–685.pdf).
  111. Yang, Yang and Linda C. Lee. 2010. “Dynamics and Heterogeneity in the Process of Human Frailty and Aging: Evidence from the U.S. Older Adult Population.” Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences 65B:S246–55.Google Scholar
  112. Yao, Li and Stephanie A. Robert. 2008. “The Contributions of Race, Individual Socioeconomic Status and Neighborhood Socioeconomic Context on the Self-Rated Health Trajectories and Mortality of Older Adults.” Research on Aging 30:251–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer New York 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of GerontologyUniversity of MassachusettsBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations