Range-Based Network localization
This section defines the taxonomy of range-based approaches based on their computational organization. Centralized algorithms are designed to run on a central machine with plenty of resources. Network nodes collect physical measurements and deliver back to a base station for analysis. Centralized algorithms resolve the computational limitations of individual nodes. This benefit, however, comes from accepting the communication cost of transmitting data back to the base station. Unfortunately, communication generally consumes more energy than computation in most hardware platforms. In contrast, distributed algorithms are designed to run in-network, using massive parallelism and internode communication to compensate for the lack of centralized computing power, while at the same time reducing the expensive node-to-sink communication. Often distributed algorithms use a subset of measurement data to locate nodes one by one, yielding an approximation of a corresponding centralized algorithm where all the data are considered and used to compute the positions of all nodes simultaneously.