Spray Applications in Internal Combustion Engines

  • K. LeeEmail author
  • J. Abraham


Modern internal combustion engines running on liquid fuels employ injection of the liquid as the means of delivering fuel to the engine. In spark-ignition (SI) engines, there may be port fuel injection (PFI), throttle-body injection (TBI), or direct injection (DI). In compression ignition (CI) engines, injection may be into the port as in homogeneous-charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines or into the chamber as in conventional diesel engines. Injection pressures vary from 2 to 3 bar in PFI engines to 2,000 bar or higher in conventional DI diesel engines. Injection systems may be electronically controlled as in PFI and common-rail injectors (CRIs), or mechanically controlled. Injectors, sprays, and modes of fuel–air mixing in the engines are reviewed in this chapter. Engines selected for detailed discussion are PFI homogeneous-charge SI engines, gasoline direct injection (GDI) SI engines, diesel engines, and low-temperature combustion compression-ignition engines.


Direct injection Gasoline direct injection High-pressure injection Homogeneous-charge compression ignition Low-temperature combustion Port-fuel injection 


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© Springer US 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringHanyang UniversitySeoulKorea

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