Advertisement

Radiation Effects on the Blood-Forming System

Chapter

Abstract

The hematopoiesis system plays an important part in maintaining the vitality of mammals [1–3]. Functional cells of this system transport oxygen in the blood, provide specific and nonspecific immune protection to the organism against foreign substances (viruses, bacteria, and so on), ensure the blood coagulates, and sustain intact blood vessels. Hematopoiesis is one of the most radiosensitive systems in mammalian organisms [4–8]. A radiation injury of hematopoiesis can lead to hemorrhage, to endo- and exoinfections, and to anemia. They are the main manifestations of the hematopoietic subsyndrome of the acute radiation syndrome.

Keywords

Singular Point Dose Rate Acute Irradiation Hematopoietic Line Radiosensitization Effect 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Munker R., Hiller E., Glass J., Paquette R. (Eds.). Modern Hematology, 2nd ed. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press 2007.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Young N.S., Gerson S.L., High K.A. (Eds.). Clinical Hematology. Philadelphia: Mosby/Elsevier, 2005.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Fedorov N.A. Normal Haemopoiesis and Its Regulation, 1st ed. Moscow: Meditsina, 1976 (Russian).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bond V.P., Fliendner T.M., Archambeau J.O. Mammalian Radiation Lethality: A Disturbance in Cellular Kinetics. New York: Academic Press, 1965.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Yarmonenko S.P., Vainson A.A. Radiobiology of Humans and Animals. Moscow: Visshaya shkola, 2004 (Russian).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Nias A.H.W. An Introduction to Radiobiology, 2nd ed. Chichester, UK: Wiley, 1998.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Fliedner T.M., Graessle D., Paulsen C., Reimers K. Structure and function of bone marrow hemopoiesis: Mechanisms of response to ionizing radiation exposure. Cancer Biotherapy and Radiopharmaceuticals, v. 17(4), pp. 405–426, 2002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Fliedner T.M., Graessle D., Meineke V., Dorr H. Pathophysiological principles underlying the blood cell concentration responses used to assess the severity of effect after accidental whole-body radiation exposure: An essential basis for an evidence-based clinical triage. Experimental Hematology, v. 35(4), pp. 8–16, 2007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Smirnova O.A., Govorun R.D., Ryshov N.I. Mathematical model to study the postirradiation dynamics of lymphopoiesis. Radiobiologiya, v. 22, pp. 488–493, 1982 (Russian).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Smirnova O.A. Mathematical model of cyclic kinetics of granulocytopoiesis. Kosmicheskaya Biologiya i Aviakosmicheskay Meditsina, no. 1, pp. 77–80, 1985 (Russian).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Smirnova O.A. Mathematical modeling of thrombocytopoiesis dynamics in mammals exposed to radiation. Radiobiologiya, v. 25, p. 571. Dep. in VINITI N 2552-85, 16.04.85, 1985.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Zukhbaya T.N., Smirnova O.A. Experimental and theoretical investigation of the dynamics of lymphopoiesis upon prolonged exposure to ionizing radiation. Radiobiologiya, v. 28, pp. 626–631, 1988 (Russian).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Zukhbaya T.N., Smirnova O.A. Mathematical model for the dynamics of granulocytopoiesis in mammals. Radiobiologiya, v. 28, pp. 796–802, 1988 (Russian).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Smirnova O.A. Mathematical modeling of cyclic kinetics of hematopoiesis. Kosmicheskaya Biologiya i Aviakosmicheskaya Meditsina, no. 1, pp. 41–45, 1989 (Russian).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Smirnova O.A. The model of homeostasis of hematopoiesis system under chronic irradiation. In: Modeling of Population Dynamics. Gorky: Gorky University Press, pp. 39–45, 1989 (Russian).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Zukhbaya T.M., Smirnova O.A. The stimulation effect of prolonged radiation of small dose rates on mammalian lymphopoiesis. Kosmicheskaya Biologiya i Aviakosmicheskaya Meditsina, no. 1, pp. 47–51, 1989 (Russian).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Smirnova O.A. Mathematical modeling of dynamics of erythropoiesis and granulocytopoiesis under acute irradiation. Radiobiologiya, v. 30, pp. 627–633, 1990 (Russian).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Smirnova O.A. Mathematical modeling of bone–marrow erythropoiesis dynamics in nonirradiated and irradiated mammals. In: Dynamics of Biological Populations. Gorky: Gorky University Press, pp. 51–58, 1990 (Russian).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Smirnova O.A., Zukhbaya T.M. The stimulation effect of prolonged radiation of small dose rates on mammalian granulocytopoiesis. Kosmicheskaya Biologiya i Aviakosmicheskaya Meditsina, no. 3, pp. 40–42, 1991 (Russian).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Zukhbaya T.M., Smirnova O.A. An experimental and mathematical analysis of lymphopoiesis dynamics under continuous irradiation. Health Physics, v. 61, pp. 87–95, 1991.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Smirnova O.A. Effect of chronic irradiation at high dose rate on the hematopoietic system: Mathematical simulation. Radiobiologiya, v. 32, pp. 757–763, 1992 (Russian).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Smirnova O.A. Hematopoiesis dynamics in mammals under combined exposures to radiation: Mathematical modeling. Aviakosmicheskaya i Ekologicheskaya Meditsina, no. 3, pp. 45–49, 1995 (Russian).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kovalev E.E., Smirnova O.A. Estimation of radiation risk based on the concept of individual variability of radiosensitivity. AFRRI Contract Report 96-1. Bethesda, MD: Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, 1996.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Smirnova O.A. Problems of mathematical modeling in modern space radiobiology. Proceedings of Sissakian Memorial Symposium under the auspices of UNESCO, “Problems of Biochemistry, Radiation and Space Biology,” Moscow, Dubna, Russia, January 22–25, 1997. D-19-97-284. Dubna: JINR, pp. 239–253, 1997 (Russian).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Smirnova O.A. Mathematical models of hematopoiesis dynamics in nonirradiated and irradiated mammals. BioMedSim’99. 1st Conference on Modeling and Simulation in Biology, Medicine and Biomedical Engineering, Noisy-le-Grand, France, April 20–22, 1999. Proceedings. Paris: Groupe ESIEE, pp. 105–109, 1999.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Smirnova O.A. Mathematical Models of Hematopoiesis Dynamics in Irradiated Mammals. Abstracts of the 24th Meeting of the European Study Group for Cell Proliferation (ESGCP), Leipzig, Germany, June 12–17, 2001. Cell Proliferation, v. 34(3), p. 193, 2001.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Smirnova O.A. Paradoxical effects of low level irradiation on radiosensitivity of mammals: Modeling investigation. In: “Problems of Biochemistry, Radiation, and Space Biology,” II International Symposium under the auspices of UNESCO dedicated to the memory of Academician N. Sissakian and II Sissakian Readings, Moscow, Dubna, Russia, 2001: Proceedings. ISBN 5-85165-697-2. Dubna: JINR, v. I, pp. 177–182, 2002 (Russian).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Smirnova O.A., Yonezawa M. Radioprotection effect of low level preirradiation on mammals: Modeling and experimental investigations. Health Physics, v. 85(2), pp. 150–158, 2003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Smirnova O.A., Yonezawa M. Radioresistance in mammals induced by low–level chronic irradiation: Modeling and experimental investigations. Health Physics, v. 87(4), pp. 366–374, 2004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Smirnova O.A. Radiation and organism of mammals: Modeling approach. Moscow-Izhevsk: Scientific-Publishing Centre “Regular and Chaotic Dynamics,” Institute of Computer Science, 2006 (Russian).Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Smirnova O., Yonezawa M. Effects of chronic low-level irradiation on radiosensitivity of mammals: Modeling and experimental studies. In: Radiation Risk Estimates in Normal and Emergency Situations. Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Impact of Radiation Risk Estimates in Normal and Emergency Situations, Yerevan, Armenia, September 8–11, 2005. A.A. Cigna and M. Durante (Eds.), Springer, XX, pp. 291–301, 2006.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Smirnova O.A. Effects of low-level chronic irradiation on the radiosensitivity of mammals: Modeling studies. Advances in Space Research, v. 40, pp. 1408–1413, 2007.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Smirnova O.A. Blood and small intestine cell kinetics under radiation exposures: Mathematical modeling. Advances in Space Research, v. 44, pp. 1457–1469, 2009.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Romanov J.A., Ketlinsky S.A., Antokhin A.I., Okulov V.B. Chalones and Regulation of Cell Division. Moscow: Meditsina, 1984 (Russian).Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Ketlinsky S.A., Simbircev A.S., Vorob’ev A.A. Endogenous Immunomodulators. Sankt-Peterburg: Hippokrat, 1992 (Russian).Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Loeffler M., Potten C.S. Stem cells and cellular pedigrees — A conceptual introduction. In: Potten C.S. (Ed.) Stem Cells. Cambridge: Academic Press, pp. 1–27, 1997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Loeffler M., Roeder I. Tissue stem cells: Definition, plasticity, heterogeneity, self-organization and models — A conceptual approach. Cells Tissues Organs, v. 171, pp. 8–26, 2002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Fliedner T.M. The role of blood stem cells in hematopoietic cell renewal. Stem Cells (Dayton, Ohio), v. 16(6), pp. 361–374, 1998.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Lajtha L.G., Oliver R., Gurney C.W. Model of a bone–marrow stem-cell population. British Journal of Haematology, v. 8, pp. 442–460, 1962.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Till J.E., McCulloch E.A., Siminovitch L. A stochastic model of stem cell proliferation, based on the growth of spleen colony-forming cells. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, v. 51, pp. 29–36, 1964.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Kiefer J. A model of feedback-controlled cell populations. Journal of Theoretical Biology, v. 18, pp. 263–279, 1968.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Wichmann H.E. Computer modeling of erythropoiesis. In: Current Concepts in Erythropoiesis, C.D.R. Dunn (Ed.). Chichester, UK: John Wiley and Sons, pp. 99–141, 1983.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Roeder I., Kamminga L.M., Braesel K., Dontje B., Haan G., Loeffler M. Competitive clonal hematopoiesis in mouse chimeras explained by a stochastic model of stem cell organization. Blood, v. 105(2), pp. 609–616, 2005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Glauche I., Cross M., Loeffler M., Roeder I. Stem cells. Lineage specification of hematopoietic stem cells: Mathematical modeling and biological implications. Stem Cells, v. 25, pp. 1791–1799, 2007.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Roeder I., Horn K., Sieburg H.-B., Cho R., Muller-Sieburg C., Loeffler M. Characterization and quantification of clonal heterogeneity among hematopoietic stem cells: A model-based approach. Blood, v. 112(13), pp. 4874–4883, 2008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Hoffmann M., Chang H.H., Huang S., Ingber D.E., Loeffler M., Galle J. Noise-driven stem cell and progenitor population dynamics. PLoS ONE, 3(8), e2922, 2008.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Glauche I., Moore K., Thielecke L., Horn K., Loeffler M., Roeder I. Stem cell proliferation and quiescence — two sides of the same coin. PLoS Comput. Biol., 5(7), e1000447, 2009.MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Belair J., Mackey M.C., Mahaffy J.M. Age-structured and two-delay models for erythropoiesis. Mathematical Biosciences, v. 128(1-2), pp. 317–346, 1995.MATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    King-Smith E.A., Morley A. Computer simulation of granulopoiesis: Normal and impaired granulopoiesis. Blood, v. 36(2), pp. 254-262, 1970.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Kirk J., Orr J.S., Wheldon T.E., Gray W.M. Stress cycle analysis in the biocybernetic study of blood cell populations. Journal of Theoretical Biology, v. 26, pp. 265–276, 1970.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Gray W.M., Kirk J. Analysis of analogue and digital computers of bone marrow stem cell and platelet control mechanisms. Computers for analysis and control in medical and biological research. IEEE publication, pp. 120–124, 1971.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Wheldon T.E. Mathematical model of oscillatory blood cell production. Mathematical Biosciences, v. 24, pp. 289–305, 1975.MATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Kazarinoff N.D., Driessche P. Control of oscillations in hematopoiesis. Science, v. 203, pp. 1348–1349, 1979.MathSciNetADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Wichmann H.E., Gerhardts M.D., Spechtmeyer H., Gross R. A mathematical model of thrombopoiesis in rats. Cell Tissue Kinetics, v. 12, pp. 551–567, 1979.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Marchuk G.I. Mathematical Models in Immunology. Moscow: Nauka, pp. 134–206, 1980 (Russian).Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Wichmann H.E., Loeffler M. Mathematical Modeling of Cell Proliferation: Stem Cell Regulation in Hemopoiesis, 1st ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 1985.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Verigo V.V. Systemic Methods in Cosmic Biology and Medicine. Problems of Cosmic Biology. Moscow: Nauka, pp. 132–150, 1987 (Russian).Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Wichmann H.E., Loeffler M., Schmitz S. A concept of hemopoietic regulation and its mathematical realization. Blood Cells, v. 14, pp. 411–429, 1988.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Loeffler M., Pantel K., Wulff H., Wichmann H.E. A mathematical model of erythropoiesis in mice and rats. Cell Tissue Kinetics, v. 22, pp. 13–30, 1989.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Schmitz S., Loeffler M., Jones J.B., Lange R.D., Wichmann H.E. Synchrony of bone marrow proliferation and maturation as the origin of cyclic haemopoiesis. Cell Tissue Kinetics, v. 23, pp. 425–441, 1990.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Schmitz S., Franke H., Loeffler M., Wichmann H.E., Diehl V. Reduced variance of bone marrow transit time of granulopoiesis — A possible pathomechanism of human cyclic neutropenia. Cell Proliferation, v. 27, pp. 655–667, 1994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Monichev A.J. Dynamics of Haemopoiesis. Moscow: Meditsina, 1984 (Russian).Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Tyazelova V.G. Kinetic Principle in Interspecies Extrapolations. Moscow: Nauka, 1988 (Russian).Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Vakha I., Znoil V. The mathematical model of erythropoiesis application for investigation of the postirradiation recovery process in mice. Biofizika, v. 20, pp. 872–879, 1975 (Russian).Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Sacher G.A., Trucco E. Theory of radiation injury and recovery in self-renewing cell populations. Radiation Research, v. 29, pp. 236–256, 1966.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Shafirkin A.V. Some regularities of hemopoietic stem cell dynamics under continuous irradiation with different values of dose rate. Radiobiologiya, v. 23, pp. 630–636, 1983 (Russian).Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Roeder I., Loeffler I. A novel dynamic model of hematopoietic stem cell organization based on the concept of within-tissue plasticity. Experimental Hematology, v. 30(8), pp. 853–861, 2002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Roeder I., Loeffler M. Quantitative tissue stem cell modeling. Blood, v. 102(3), pp. 1143–1145, 2003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Loeffler M., Roeder I. Conceptual models to understand tissue stem cell organization. Current Opinion in Hematology, v. 11(2), pp. 81–87, 2004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Roeder I., Horn M., Glauche I., Hochhaus A., Mueller M.C., Loeffler M. Dynamic modeling of imatinib-treated chronic myeloid leukemia: Functional insights and clinical implications. Nature Medicine, v. 12, pp. 1181–1184, 2006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Horn M., Loeffler M., Roeder I. Mathematical modeling of genesis and treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia. Cells Tissues Organs, v. 188, pp. 236–247, 2008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Mahaffy J.M., Belair J., Mackey M.C. Hematopoietic model with moving boundary condition and state dependent delay: Applications in erythropoiesis. Journal of Theoretical Biology, v. 190(2), pp. 135–146, 1998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Hearn T., Haurie C., Mackey M.C. Cyclical neutropenia and the peripheral control of white blood cell production. Journal of Theoretical Biology, v. 192(2), pp. 167–181, 1998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Haurie C., Dale D.C., Rudnicki R., Mackey M.C. Modeling complex neutrophil dynamics in the grey collie. Journal of Theoretical Biology, v. 204(4), pp. 505–519, 2000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Santillan M., Mahaffy J.M., Belair J., Mackey M.C. Regulation of platelet production: The normal response to perturbation and cyclical platelet disease. Journal of Theoretical Biology, v. 206(4), pp. 585–603, 2000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Bernard S., Belair J., Mackey M.C. Oscillations in cyclical neutropenia: New evidence based on mathematical modeling. Journal of Theoretical Biology, v. 223(3), pp. 283–298, 2003.MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Colijn C., Mackey M.C. A mathematical model of hematopoiesis. I. Periodic chronic myelogenous leukemia. Journal of Theoretical Biology, v. 237(2), pp. 117–132, 2005.MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Colijn C., Mackey M.C. A mathematical model of hematopoiesis. II. Cyclical neutropenia. Journal of Theoretical Biology, v. 237(2), pp. 133–146, 2005.MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Foley C., Bernard S., Mackey M.C. Cost-effective G-CSF therapy strategies for cyclical neutropenia: Mathematical modelling based hypotheses. Journal of Theoretical Biology, v. 238(4), pp. 754–763, 2006.MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Apostu R., Mackey M.C. Understanding cyclical thrombocytopenia: A mathematical modeling approach. Journal of Theoretical Biology, v. 251(2), pp. 297–316, 2008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Foley C., Mackey M.C. Mathematical model for G-CSF administration after chemotherapy. Journal of Theoretical Biology, v. 257(1), pp. 27–44, 2009.MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Fliedner T.M, Friesecke I., Graessle D., Paulsen C., Weiss M. Hematopoietic cell renewal as the limiting factor in low-level radiation exposure: Diagnostic implications and therapeutic options. Military Medicine, v. 167, pp. 46–48, 2002.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Ackleh A.S., Deng K., Ito K., Thibodeaux J. A structured erythropoiesis model with nonlinear cell maturation velocity and hormone decay rate. Mathematical Biosciences, v. 204(1), pp. 21–48, 2006.MATHMathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Alaoui H.T., Yafia R. Stability and Hopf bifurcation in an approachable haematopoietic stem cells model. Mathematical Biosciences, v. 206(2), pp. 176–184, 2007.MATHMathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Fliedner T.M., Graessle D., Meineke D., Dorr H. Pathophysiological principles underlying the blood cell concentration responses used to assess the severity of effect after accidental whole-body radiation exposure: An essential basis for an evidence-based clinical triage. Experimental Hematology, v. 35(4), pp. 8–16, 2007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Fliedner T.M., Graessle D.H. Hematopoietic cell renewal systems: Mechanisms of coping and failing after chronic exposure to ionizing radiation. Radiation and Environmental Biophysics, v. 47(1), pp. 63–69, 2008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Fliedner T.M. et al. Stem cells, multiorgan failure in radiation emergency medical preparedness: A U.S./European consultation workshop. Stem Cells, v. 27(5), pp. 1205–1211, 2009.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Thibodeaux J.J. Modeling erythropoiesis subject to malaria infection. Mathematical Biosciences, v. 225(1), pp. 59–67, 2010.MATHMathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Graessle D.H., Fliedner T.M. Computer-assisted severity of effect assessment of hematopoietic cell renewal after radiation exposure based on mathematical models. Health Physics, v. 98(2), pp. 282–289, 2010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Romanovsky J.M., Stepanova N.V., Chernavsky D.S. Mathematical Modeling in Biophysics. Introduction to Theoretical Biophysics. Moscow-Izhevsk: Scientific-Publishing Centre “Regular and Chaotic Dynamics,” Institute of Computer Science, 2004 (Russian).Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Romanovsky J.M., Stepanova N.V., Chernavsky D.S. Mathematical Biophysics. Moscow: Nauka, 1984 (Russian).Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Romanovsky J.M., Stepanova N.V., Chernavsky D.S. Kinetische Modelle in der Biophysik. Stuttgart: Gustav Fischer Verlag, 1974.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Yarmonenko S.P. Radiation Haematology Hand-book, 1st ed. Moscow: Meditsina, 1974 (Russian).Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Belousova O.I., Gorizontov P.D., Fedorova M.I. Radiation and Haemopoietic System. Moscow: Atomizdat, 1979 (Russian).Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Fliedner T.M, Graessle D., Paulsen C., Reimers K. Structure and function of bone marrow hemopoiesis: Mechanisms of response to ionizing radiation exposure. Cancer Biotherapy and Radiopharmaceuticals, v. 17(4), pp. 405–426, 2002.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Lea D.E. Action of Radiation on Living Cells, 2nd ed. Cambridge: The Syndics of the Cambridge University Press, 1955.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Strdzidzovsky A.D. Dynamical and dose characteristics of the distraction process in lymphoid tissue in rodents. Radiobiologiya, v. 14, pp. 409–412, 1974 (Russian).Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Mosyagina E.N., Vladimirskaya E.B., Torubarova N.A., Mizina N.V. Kinetics of the Blood Constituents of the Blood. Moscow: Meditsina, 1976 (Russian).Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Harker L.A. Platelet production. New England Journal of Medicine, v. 282(9), pp. 492–494, 1970.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Pontryagin L.S. Ordinary Differential Equations. Moscow: Nauka, 1982 (Russian).MATHGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Andronov A.A., Vitt A.A., Khikin S.E. Theory of Oscillation. Moscow: Nauka, 1981 (Russian).Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Andronov A.A., Leontovich E.A., Gordon I.I., Maier A.G. Theory of Bifurcations of Dynamical Systems on Plane. Moscow: Nauka, 1967 (Russian).Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Hayashi C. Nonlinear Oscillations in Physical Systems. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1964.MATHGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Arrowsmith D.K., Place C.M. Ordinary Differential Equations. A Qualitative Approach with Applications. London: Chapman and Hall, 1982.MATHGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Dulac H. Sur les cycles limités. Bulletin de la Société Mathématique de France, v. 51, pp. 45–188, 1923.MATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Korn G.A., Korn T.M. Mathematical Handbook. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1968.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Patt H.M., Lund J.E., Maloney M.A. Cyclic hematopoiesis in grey collie dogs: A stem-cell problem. Blood, v. 42(6), pp. 873–884, 1973.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Matter M., Hartmann J.R., Kautz J., De Marsh Q.B., Finch C.A. A study of thrombopoiesis in induced acute thrombocytopenia. Blood, v. 15(1), pp. 174–185, 1960.Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    De Gabriele G., Penington D.G. Physiology of the regulation of platelet production. British Journal of Haematology, v. 13, pp. 202–209, 1967.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Kalina I., Praslichka M. Changes in haemopoiesis and survival of continuously irradiated mice. Radiobiologiya, v. 17, pp. 849–853, 1977 (Russian).Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Praslichka M., Kalina I. Influence of low dose-rate radiation on the change of CFC and peripheral blood in mice. Radiobiologiya, v. 16, pp. 376–380, 1976 (Russian).Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Kalina I., Praslicka M., Marko L., Hudak S. Hamatologische veranderungen und iiberlebensdauer bei mausen nach kontinuierlicher bestrahlung. Radiobiologia Radiotherapia, v. 16(3), pp. 347–354, 1975.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Fabrikant J.I. Adaptation of cell renewal systems under continuous irradiation. Health Physics, v. 52(5), pp. 561–570, 1987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Muksinova K.N., Mushkacheva G.S. Cellular and molecular bases of haemopoiesis transformation under continuous irradiation. Moscow: Energoatomizdat, 1990 (Russian).Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Dale D.S., Alling D.W., Wolff S.M. Cyclic hematopoiesis: The mechanism of cyclic neutropenia in grey collie dogs. Journal of Clinical Investigations, v. 51, pp. 2197–2204, 1972.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Lange R.D., Jones J.B. Erythropoiesis in dogs and humans with cyclic hematopoiesis. Current Concepts in Erythropoiesis, C.D.R. Dunn (Ed.). Chichester, UK: John Wiley and Sons, pp. 144–165, 1983.Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Hulse E.V. Lymphocyte depletion of the blood and bone marrow of the irradiated rat: A quantitative study. British Journal of Haematology, v. 5, pp. 278–283, 1959.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Hulse E.V. Lymphocytic recovery after irradiation and its relation to other aspects of haemopoiesis. British Journal of Haematology, v. 9, pp. 376–384, 1963.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Zukhbaya T.M. The kinetics of lymphocytes during long-term γ-irradiation. Radiobiologiya, v. 21, pp. 863–867, 1981 (Russian).Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Lamerton L.F., Pontifex A.H., Blackett N.M., Adams K. Effects of protracted irradiation: I. Continuous exposure. British Journal of Radiology, v. 33(389), pp. 287–301, 1960.Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Kuzin A.M. Stimulation Effect of Ionizing Radiation on Biological Processes. Moscow: Atomizdat, 1977 (Russian).Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Luckey T.D. Physiological benefits from low levels of ionizing radiation. Health Physics, v. 43(6), pp. 771–789, 1982.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Luckey T.D. Radiation Hormesis. Boca Raton, FL: Taylor and Francis, 1991.Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Morley A., Stohlman F. Erythropoiesis in the dog: The periodic nature of the steady state. Science, v. 165, pp. 1025–1027, 1968.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Hulse E.V. Quantitative studies on the depletion of the erythropoietic cells in the bone marrow of the irradiated rat. British Journal of Haematology, v. 3, pp. 348–358, 1957.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Hulse E.V. Recovery of erythropoiesis after irradiation: A quantitative study in the rat. British Journal of Haematology, v. 9, pp. 365–375, 1963.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Zukhbaya T.M. Regularities in the development of radiation affection and recovery of haemopoietic tissues of rates subjected to long-term γ-irradiation of a dose rate of 0.1 Gy/day. Radiobiologiya, v. 29, pp. 74–78, 1989 (Russian).Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Zukhbaya T.M. Quantitative changes in some generations of cells of erythroid and granulopoietic compartments in bone marrow of rats exposured to constant γ-radiation at varying dose rates. Radiobiologiya, v.19, pp. 278–282, 1979 (Russian).Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Morley A. A neutrophil cycle in healthy individuals. Lancet, v. 2, pp. 1220–1222, 1966.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Hulse E.V. The depletion of the myelopoietic cells of the irradiated rat. British Journal of Haematology, v. 5, pp. 369–378, 1959.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Yonezawa M., Misonoh J., Hosokawa Y. Two types of acquired radioresistance after low doses of X-rays in mice. In: Low Dose Irradiation and Biological Defense Mechanisms. T. Suguhara, L.A. Sagan, T. Aoyama (Eds.). Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers, pp. 215–218, 1992.Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Yonezawa M., Misonoh J., Hosokawa Y. Two types of X-ray-induced radioresistance in mice: Presence of 4 dose ranges with distinct biological effects. Mutation Research, v. 358, pp. 237–243, 1996.Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Yonezawa M., Misonoh J., Hosokawa Y., Asano T. Decreased bone marrow death and suppression of hemorrhage in radioadaptive response in mice. Hoken Butsuri, v. 34, pp. 375–380, 1999.Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Yonezawa M. Radio-adaptive survival response in mice. In: Biological Effects of Low Dose Radiation. Proceedings of an Excepta Medica International Congress, Series 1211, T. Yamada, C. Mothersill, B.D. Michael, C.S. Potten (Eds.). Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers, pp. 93–99, 2000.Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Matsubara J., Turcanu V., Poindron P., Ina Y. Immune effects of low-dose radiation: Short-term induction of thymocyte apoptosis and long-term augmentation of T-cell-dependent immune responses. Radiation Research, v. 153, pp. 332–338, 2000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Nose M., Wang B., Itsukaichi H., Yukawa O., Hayata I., Yamada T., Ohyama H. Rescue of lethally irradiated mice from hematopoietic death by pre-exposure to 0.5 Gy X rays without recovery from peripheral blood cell depletion and its modification by OK432. Radiation Research, v. 156, pp. 195–204, 2001.Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Pelevina I.I., Afanasiev G.G., Gotlib V.Y. et al. (1993) Radiation exposure of cultured tissue cells and animals (mice) within the ten-kilometer zone of Chernobyl disaster: Effect on radiosensitivity to posterior irradiation. Radiatsionnaya Biologiya Radioekologiya, v. 33, pp. 508–520, 1993 (Russian).Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Fomenko L.A., Kozhanovskaya Y.K., Gaziev A.I. Formation of micronuclei in bone–marrow cells of chronically irradiated mice and subsequent acute exposure their of to γ-radiation. Radiobiologiya, v. 31, pp. 709–715, 1991 (Russian).Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Konradov A.A., Lyubimova N.V., Pelevina I.I. Modification of radiosensitivity of animals after exposure within the zone of Chernobyl disaster. Radiatsionnaya Biologiya Radioekologiya, v. 33, pp. 499–507, 1993 (Russian).Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Darenskaya N.G., Ushakov I.B., Ivanov I.V., Nasonova T.A., Esaulenko I.E., Popov V.I. Extrapolation of the Experimental Data on Man: Principles, Approaches, Substantiation of Methods and Their Use in Physiology and Radiobiology (Manual). Moscow-Voronezh: Istoki, 2004 (Russian).Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    Gruzdev G.P. Acute Radiation Bone–Marrow Syndrome. Moscow: Meditsina, 1988 (Russian).Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    Reimann H.A. Haemocytic periodicity and periodic disorders: Periodic neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, lymphocytosis and anaemia. Postgraduate Medical Journal, v. 47, pp. 504–510, 1971.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Lewis M.L. Cyclic thrombocytopenia: A thrombopoietin deficiency? Journal of Clinical Pathology, v. 27, pp. 242–246, 1974.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Dan K., Inokuchi K., An E., Nomura T. Cell-mediated cyclic thrombocytopenia treated with azathioprine. British Journal of Haematology, v. 77, pp. 365–370, 1991.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Yarmonenko S.P. Radiobiology of Humans and Animals. Moscow: Visshaya shkola, 1988 (Russian).Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    Fliedner T.M., Graessle D.H. Hematopoietic cell renewal systems: Mechanisms of coping and failing after exposure to ionizing radiation. Radiation and Environmental Biophysics, v. 47, pp. 63–69, 2008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. Guidance on Radiation Received in Space Activity (NCRP report no. 98). Bethesda, MD: NCRP, 1989.Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Petrov V.M. Verification of methods of Mir-station’s crew members personal dose estimation based on radiation monitoring data. Radiation Measurements, v. 35, pp. 527–530, 2002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Zapp E.N., Townsend L.W., Cucinotta F.A. Solar particle event organ doses and dose equivalents for interplanetary crews: Variations due to body size. Advances in Space Research, v. 30(4), pp. 975–979, 2002.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Kim M-H.Y., Hayat M.J., Feiveson A.H., Cucinotta F.A. Prediction of frequency and exposure level of solar particle events. Health Physics, v. 97(1), pp. 68–81, 2009.Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    Morley A., King-Smith E.A., Stohlman F. The oscillatory nature of hemopoiesis. In: Hemopoietic Cellular Proliferation, F. Stohlman (Ed.). New York: Grune and Stratton, pp. 3–14, 1970.Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    Hauriea C., Daled D.C., Mackey M.C. Cyclic neutropenia and other periodic hematological disorders: A review of mechanisms and mathematical models. Blood, v. 92(8), pp. 2629–2640, 1998.Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    Morley A., Haurie C., Mackey M.C., Daled D.C. Periodic hematological disorders. Blood, v. 93, pp. 4023–4024, 1999.Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    Hauriea C., Daled D.C., Mackey M.C. Occurrence of periodic oscillations in the differential blood counts of congenital, idiopathic, and cyclical neutropenic patients before and during treatment with G-CSF. Experimental Hematology, v. 27(3), pp. 401–409, 1999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Hansen N.E., Andersen V., Kable H. Plasma lysozyme in drug-indused and spontaneous cyclic neutropenia. British Journal of Hematology, v. 25, pp. 485–495, 1973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer New York 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Research and Technical Center of Radiation-Chemical Safety and HygieneMoscowRussian Federation

Personalised recommendations