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Bile Acid Metabolism

  • John Y. L. Chiang
Chapter
Part of the Molecular Pathology Library book series (MPLB, volume 5)

Abstract

Bile acids are physiological agents that facilitate biliary secretion of lipids and metabolites, and intestinal absorption of fat and nutrients. Bile acids are also signaling molecules that activate nuclear receptors and cell signaling pathways to regulate hepatic lipid metabolism and homeostasis. Bile acids are synthesized from cholesterol in the liver, stored in the gallbladder, secreted to the intestine and reabsorbed in the ileum, and transported back to the liver. This physiological process of enterohepatic circulation of bile acids is regulated by a complex network of membrane transport systems in the hepatocytes, cholangiocytes, and enterocytes. Bile acid-activated nuclear receptors, farnesoid X receptor (FXR), pregnane X receptor (PXR), and vitamin D receptor (VDR), play critical roles in regulation of key regulatory genes involved in bile acid metabolism in the liver and intestine. The bile acid receptors also regulate lipid, glucose, drugs, and energy metabolism. Inborn errors of bile acid synthesis cause neonatal liver diseases. Disruption of bile flow causes cholestatic liver diseases. Bile acids are therapeutic agents that have great potential for treating cholestasis, gallstone, fatty liver, cardiovascular diseases, obesity, and diabetes in humans.

Keywords

Bile Acid Cholic Acid Bile Acid Synthesis Cholestatic Liver Disease Bile Acid Metabolism 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgment

This research is supported by NIH grants DK44442 and DK58379

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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Integrative Medical SciencesNortheastern Ohio Universities Colleges of Medicine and PharmacyRootstownUSA

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