A Tale of Two Countries: Contrasting Archaeological Culture History in British and French Archaeology

Chapter

Abstract

Archaeological cultures were one of the fundamental concepts for twentieth century archaeology. Yet, as shown through a comparative historiography of British and French archaeologies, the development and reception of this concept differed significantly in both countries. The reasons for these differences are manifold but primarily are due to the focus on different prehistoric periods (Neolithic, Bronze and Iron Ages in Britain, Palaeolithic in France) and the role played by key intellectual personalities. This analysis offers new perspectives on the contemporary divergences between the French and British archaeological traditions, as well on the complexity of archaeological cultures.

Keywords

Migration Manifold Europe Coherence Assimilation 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We are very grateful to Cate Frieman, Jody Joy and Chris Scarre for reading and commenting on earlier drafts of this paper.

References

  1. Abercromby, J. (1904). A proposed chronological arrangement of the Drinking-Cup or Beaker class of fictilia in Britain. Proceedings Society Antiquaries of Scotland 37: 323–410.Google Scholar
  2. Abercromby, J. (1912). A Study of the Bronze Age Pottery of Britain and Ireland and its associated Grave Goods, Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  3. Arnal, J. and Bénazet, G. (1951). Contribution à l’étude de la poterie néolithique. Bulletin de la Société Préhistorique Française 48: 541–564.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Audouze, F. (1999). New advances in French prehistory. Antiquity 73: 167–175.Google Scholar
  5. Audouze, F. (2002). Leroi-Gourhan, a philosopher of technique and evolution. Journal of Archaeological Research 10: 277–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Audouze, F. and Leroi-Gourhan, A. (1981). France: a continental insularity. World Archaeology 13: 170–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Audouze, F. and Schlanger, N. (eds.) (2004). Autour de l’homme: contexte et actualité d’André Leroi-Gourhan, APDCA, Antibes.Google Scholar
  8. Bailloud, G. and Mieg de Boofzheim, P. (1955). Les civilisations néolithiques de la France dans leur contexte européen, Picard, Paris.Google Scholar
  9. Bertalanffy, L. von (1950). An outline of general systems theory. The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 1: 134–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bertrand, A. (1889). Archéologie Celtique et Gauloise: mémoires et documents relatifs aux ­premiere tempes de notre histoire nationale, Ernest Leroux, Paris.Google Scholar
  11. Biehl, P.F., Gramsch, A. and Marciniak, A. (eds.) (2002). Archaeologies of Europe: History, Methods and Theories, Waxmann Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
  12. Binford, L.R. and Binford, S.R. (1966). A preliminary analysis of functional variability in the Mousterian Levallois facies. American Anthropologist 68: 238–295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Blanchet, J.-C. (1984). Les premiers métallurgistes en Picardie et dans le nord de la France. Chalcolithique, âge du Bronze et début du premier âge du fer, Société Préhistorique de France, Paris.Google Scholar
  14. Bordes, F. (1953). Essai de classification des industries “moustériennes”. Bulletin de la Société Préhistorique Française 50: 457–466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bordes, F. (1961). Mousterian cultures in France. Science 134: 803–810.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bordes, F. and de Sonneville-Bordes, D. (1970). The significance of variability in Palaeolithic assemblages. World Archaeology 2: 61–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bosch-Gimpera, P. and Serra-Rafols, J. de C. (1926). Etudes sur le Néolithique et l’Enéolithique de France. Revue anthropologique 17: 318–345.Google Scholar
  18. Bourdieu, P. (1972). Esquisse d’une théorie de la pratique, précédé de trois études d’ethnologie kabyle, Éditions Droz, Paris.Google Scholar
  19. Bradley, R. (2007). The Prehistory of Britain and Ireland, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Brea, L.B. (1946). Gli scavi nella caverna delle Arene Candide. Parte 1. Gli strati con ceramiche, Bordighera, Instituto di Studi Liguri.Google Scholar
  21. Breuil, H. (1930). Le Clactonien et sa place dans la chronologie. Bulletin de la Société Préhistorique Française 27: 221–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Breuil, H. (1932). Le Paléolithique ancien en Europe occidentale et sa chronologie. Bulletin de la Société Préhistorique Française 29: 570–578.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Briard, J. (1989). Des “trois âges” de C.J. Thomsen à la chronologie de J. Déchelette. In Mohen, J.-P. (dir.), Le temps de la préhistoire, Société Préhistorique Française, Paris, pp. 24–25.Google Scholar
  24. Burkitt, M.C. (1921). Prehistory: A study of early cultures in Europe and the Mediterranean Basin, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  25. Childe, V.G. (1925). The Dawn of European Civilization, Kegan Paul, London.Google Scholar
  26. Childe, V.G. (1929). The Danube in Prehistory, Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  27. Childe, V.G. (1930). The Bronze Age, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  28. Childe, V.G. (1940). The Prehistoric Communities of Britain, W and R Chambers, London.Google Scholar
  29. Childe, V.G. (1949). L’aube de la civilisation européenne. Traduction de la quatrième edition anglaise entièrement refondue par l’auteur avec cent-cinquante-neuf igures et cartes, Payot, Paris.Google Scholar
  30. Childe, V.G. (1958). Retrospect. Antiquity 32: 69–74.Google Scholar
  31. Childe, V.G. and Burkitt, M.C. (1932) A Chronological Table of Prehistory. Antiquity 6: 185–205.Google Scholar
  32. Childe, V.G. and Sandars, N. (1950). La civilisation de Seine-Oise-Marne. L’anthropologie 54: 1–18.Google Scholar
  33. Clark, J.G.D. (1932). The Mesolithic Age in Britain, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  34. Clark, J.G.D. (1933). Reviews. Antiquity 7: 506–8.Google Scholar
  35. Clark, J. G.D. (1966). The invasion hypothesis in British prehistory. Antiquity 33, 170–82.Google Scholar
  36. Clark, J.G.D. and Godwin, H. (1962). The Neolithic in the Cambridgeshire Fens. Antiquity 36: 10–23.Google Scholar
  37. Clarke, D.L. (1968). Analytical Archaeology. Methuen, London.Google Scholar
  38. Cleuziou, S., Demoule, J.-P., Schnapp, A. and Schnapp, A. (1973). Renouveau des méthodes et théorie de l’archéologie (note critique). Annales. Economies, Sociétés, Civilisations 28: 35–51.Google Scholar
  39. Cleuziou, S., Coudart, A. and Demoule, J.-P. (1991). The use of theory in French archaeology. In Hodder, I. (ed.), Archaeological theory in Europe: the last three decades, Routledge, London, pp. 91–128.Google Scholar
  40. Coudart, A. (1999). Is post-processualism bound to happen everywhere? The French case. Antiquity 73: 161–7.Google Scholar
  41. Coye, N. (1997). La préhistoire en parole et en actes. Méthodes et enjeux de la pratique archéologique (1830-1950), L’Harmattan, Paris.Google Scholar
  42. Coye, N. (2001). Humanité et pots cassés. La tentative céramologique des préhistoriens français (1900–1918). In Blanchet, C. (dir.), Les politiques de l’anthropologie. Discours et pratique en France (1860–1940), L’Harmattan, Paris, pp. 231–267.Google Scholar
  43. Crawford, O.G.S. (1912). The distribution of Early Bronze Age settlement groups in Britain. Geographical Journal 40: 184–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Crawford, O.G.S. (1921). Man and his Past, Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  45. Daniel, G. (1958). The Megalith Builders of Western Europe, Hutchinson, London.Google Scholar
  46. Déchelette, J. (1908). Manuel d’archéologie préhistorique, celtique et gallo-romaine, Picard, Paris.Google Scholar
  47. Demoule, J.-P. (1989). Les âges du Néolithique français. In Mohen, J.-P. (dir.), Le temps de la préhistoire, Société Préhistorique Française, Paris, pp. 36–40.Google Scholar
  48. Demoule, J.-P. (1999). Ethnicity, culture and identity: French archaeologists and historians. Antiquity 73: 190–198.Google Scholar
  49. Demoule, J.-P. (ed.) (2005a). La révolution néolithique en France, La Découverte, Paris.Google Scholar
  50. Demoule, J.-P. (2005b). Théorie et interprétations en archéologie. In Demoule, J.-P., Giligny, F., Lerhoëff, A., and Schnapp, A., Guide des méthodes de l’archéologie, La Découverte, Paris, pp. 187–233.Google Scholar
  51. Desmaisons, H. (1939). Essai de nomenclature des noms attribués aux divers horizons préhistoriques. Bulletin de la Société Préhistorique Française 36: 416–420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Dibble, H.L. (1991). Mousterian assemblage variability on an interregional scale. Journal of Anthropological Research 47: 239–257.Google Scholar
  53. Dupont, E. (1874). Théorie des âges de la pierre en Belgique. Bulletins de la Société d’anthropologie de Paris IX: 728–761.Google Scholar
  54. Evans J. (1881). The Ancient Bronze Implements, Weapons and Ornaments of Great Britain and Ireland, Longmans, London.Google Scholar
  55. Evans, A.J. (1890). On a late Celtic urn-field at Aylesford, Kent. Archaeologica 52: 315–88.Google Scholar
  56. Foucault, M. (1969). L’archéologie du savoir. Gallimard, Paris.Google Scholar
  57. Fourdrignier, E. (1905). Céramographie préhistorique. Bulletin de la Société Préhistorique Française 2: 57–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Fox, C. (1932). The Personality of Britain, National Museum of Wales, Cardiff.Google Scholar
  59. Garrod, D.A.E. (1926). The Upper Palaeolithic Age in Britain, Clarendon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  60. Gaucher, G. (1989). Cultures et chronologie. In Mohen, J.-P. (dir.), Le temps de la préhistoire, Société Préhistorique Française, Paris, pp. 68–70.Google Scholar
  61. Greenwell, W. (1877). British barrows: a record of the examination of sepulchral mounds in various parts of England, Clarendon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  62. Goury, G. (1936). Génèse d’une classification du Néolithique. Bulletin de la Société Préhistorique Française 33: 203–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Groenen, M. (1996). Leroi-Gourhan. Essai et contingence dans la destinée humaine, De Boeck, Bruxelles.Google Scholar
  64. Guilaine, J. (ed.). (1980). Le groupe de Véraza et la fin des temps néolithiques dans le sud de la France et la Catalogne, CNRS, Paris.Google Scholar
  65. Hatt, J.-J. (1954). De l’Age du Bronze à la fin du 1er Age du Fer. Problèmes et perspectives de la protohistoire française. Bulletin de la Société Préhistorique Française 51: 101–110.Google Scholar
  66. Hawkes, C.F.C. (1931). Hillforts. Antiquity 5: 60–97.Google Scholar
  67. Hawkes, C.F.C. (1959). The ABC of the British Iron Age. Antiquity 33: 172–182.Google Scholar
  68. Hodder, I. (1978a). Spatial correlations between material culture and society: a review. In I. Hodder (ed.) The Spatial Organisation of Culture, Duckworth, London, pp. 3–24.Google Scholar
  69. Hodder, I. (1978b).The spatial structure of material ‘cultures’: a review of some of the evidence. In I. Hodder (ed.) The Spatial Organisation of Culture, Duckworth, London, pp. 93–111. Google Scholar
  70. Hodder, I. (1979a). Pottery distributions: Service and tribal areas. In Millett, M. (ed.), Pottery and the Archaeologist, Institute of Archaeology, Occasional Publication No. 4, London, pp. 7–24.Google Scholar
  71. Hodder, I. (1979b). Economic and social stress and material culture patterning. American Antiquity 44: 446–454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Hodder, I. (1982a). Symbols in action. Ethnoarchaeological studies of material culture, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  73. Hodder, I. (1982b). Symbolic and structural archaeology, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Hodder, I. (1990). The Domestication of Europe, Blackwell, Oxford.Google Scholar
  75. Hodder, I. (ed.) (1991). Archaeological theory in Europe: the last three decades, Routledge, London.Google Scholar
  76. Hodson, F.R. (1964). Cultural grouping within the British pre-Roman Iron Age. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 30: 99–110.Google Scholar
  77. Holmes, T.R. (1907). Ancient Britain and the invasions of Julius Caesar, Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  78. Johnson, L.L. (1968). A history of flint-knapping experimentation, 1838-1976 (with comments and reply). Current Anthropology 19: 337–372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Jones, S. (1997). The Archaeology of Ethnicity: Constructing Identities in the Past and Present, Routledge, London.Google Scholar
  80. Jones, A. (2008). Introduction. In Jones, A. (ed.), Prehistoric Europe: theory and practice, Blackwell, Oxford, pp. 1–14.Google Scholar
  81. Julien, M. (1993). La technologie et la typologie. Du fossile-directeur à la chaîne opératoire. Evolution de l’interprétation des ensembles lithiques et osseux en France. In Garanger, J. (ed.), La Préhistoire dans le monde, Presses Universitaires de France, Paris, pp. 163–193.Google Scholar
  82. Kendrick, T.D. and Hawkes, C.F.C. (1932). Archaeology in England, Methuen, London.Google Scholar
  83. Kossinna, G. (1911). Der Herkunft der Germanen, Kabitzsch, Leipzig.Google Scholar
  84. Latham, R.G. and Franks, A.W. (eds.) (1856). Horae Ferales; or Studies in the Archaeology of the Northern Nations, by the late John M. Kemble, Lovell, Reeve, London.Google Scholar
  85. Leclerc, J. and Tarrête, J. (1994). Culture. In Leroi-Gourhan, A. (ed.), Dictionnaire de la Préhistoire, Presses Universitaires de France, Paris, pp. 295.Google Scholar
  86. Lenoir, M. (1974). Faciès et culture. Bulletin de la Société Préhistorique Française 71: 58–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Leroi-Gourhan, A. (1964). Le geste et la parole I—Technique et langage, Albin Michel, Paris.Google Scholar
  88. Leroi-Gourhan, A., and Brézillon, M. (1966). L’habitation magdalénienne n◦ 1 de Pincevent, près Montereau (Seine-et-Marne). Gallia-Préhistoire 9: 263–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Leroi-Gourhan, A., Brézillon, M. and Bailloud, G. (1962). L’hypogée II des Mournouards (Mesnil-sur-Oger, Marne). Gallia Préhistoire 5: 23–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Lubbock, J. (1865). Pre-historic Times, Williams and Norgate, London.Google Scholar
  91. Merleau Ponty, M. (1945). Phénoménologie de la perception, Gallimard, Paris.Google Scholar
  92. Mortillet, G. de (1872). Classification des diverses périodes de l’âge de la pierre. Revue d’anthropologie 1: 432–435.Google Scholar
  93. Mortillet, G. de (1883). Le Préhistorique. Antiquité de l’homme, Reinwald, Paris.Google Scholar
  94. Moyer, C.C. and Rolland, N. (2002). Understanding the Middle Palaeolithic assemblage typology. Antiquity 75: 39–43.Google Scholar
  95. Myres, J.L. (1911). The Dawn of History, Williams and Norgate, London.Google Scholar
  96. Myres, J.L. (1923a). Primitive Man, in geological time. In Bury, J.B., Cook S.A., Adcock, F.E. (eds.) Cambridge Ancient History, Volume 1, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 1–56.Google Scholar
  97. Myres, J.L. (1923b). Neolithic and Bronze Age cultures. In Bury, J.B., Cook S.A., Adcock, F.E. (eds.) Cambridge Ancient History, Volume 1, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 57–111.Google Scholar
  98. Needham, S.P. (2005). Transforming Beaker Culture in North-West Europe. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 71: 171–217.Google Scholar
  99. Nougier, L.R. (1954a). Le Campignien. Bulletin de la Société Préhistorique Française 51: 76–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Nougier, L.R. (1954b). Le Néolithique de tradition campignienne. Bulletin de la Société Préhistorique Française 51: 89–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Octobon, E. (1927). Etat des connaissances actuelles sur le Néolithique en France. Bulletin de la Société Préhistorique Française 24: 252–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Octobon, E. (1928). Contribution à l’étude du Néolithique. Bulletin de la Société Préhistorique Française 25: 150–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. O’Connor, A. (2007). Finding Time for the Old Stone Age: A History of Palaeolithic Archaeology and Quaternary Geology in Britain, 1860–1960, Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  104. Pardieu, M. de (1937). Le Néolithique en Bourbonnais. Bulletin de la Société Préhistorique Française 34: 303–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Parker-Pearson, M. (1999). The Archaeology of Death and Burial, Stroud, Sutton.Google Scholar
  106. Peake, H.J.E. (1922). The Bronze Age and the Celtic World, Benn, London.Google Scholar
  107. Pétrequin, A.-M. and Pétrequin, P. (1988). Le Néolithique des lacs. Préhistoire des lacs de Chalain et de Clairvaux, Errance, Paris.Google Scholar
  108. Pétrequin, P. and Pétrequin, A.-M. (1984). Habitat lacustre du Bénin: une approche ethno-archéologique, Editions Recherche sur les civilisations, Paris.Google Scholar
  109. Pétrequin, P. and Pétrequin, A.-M. (1993). Ecologie d’un outil: la hache de pierre en Irian Jaya (Indonésie), CNRS, Paris.Google Scholar
  110. Pétrequin, P. (1993). North wind, South wind. Neolithic technical choices in the Jura Mountains, 3700-2400 BC. In Lemonnier, P. (ed.), Technological choices. Transformations in material cultures since the Neolithic, Routledge, London, pp. 36–76.Google Scholar
  111. Pétrequin, P., Arbogast, R.-M., Bourquin-Mignot, C., Lavier, C. and Viellet, A. (1998). Demographic growth, environmental changes and technical adaptations: responses of an ­agricultural community from the 32nd to the 30th centuries BC. World Archaeology 30: 181–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Pétrequin, P., Chastel, J., Giligny, F., Pétrequin, A.-M. and Saintot, S. (1987/1988). Réinterprétation de la civilisation Saône-Rhône. Une approche des tendances culturelles du Néolithique final. Gallia Préhistoire, Fouilles et Monuments archéologiques en France métropolitaine 30: 1–89.Google Scholar
  113. Peyrony, D. (1933). Les industries “aurignaciennes” dans le bassin de la Vézère. Bulletin de la Société Préhistorique Française 30: 543–559.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Piggott, S. (1931). The Neolithic Pottery of the British Isles. Archaeological Journal 88: 67–158.Google Scholar
  115. Piggott, S. (1938). The Early Bronze Age in Wessex. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 4: 52–106.Google Scholar
  116. Piggott, S. (1954). Neolithic Cultures of the British Isles. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  117. Renfrew, C. (1968). The autonomy of the south-east European Copper Age. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 35, 12–47.Google Scholar
  118. Renfrew, C. (1969). Review of David Clarke, Analytical archaeology, and Sally Binford and Lewis Binford, eds, New perspectives in archaeology. Antiquity 43: 241–244.Google Scholar
  119. Renfrew, C. (1973). Before Civilization: the radiocarbon revolution and Prehistoric Europe. London: Jonathan Cape.Google Scholar
  120. Renfrew, C. (1978). Space, Time and Polity. In J. Friedman and M.J. Rowlands (eds.) The Evolution of Social Systems, 89–112. London: Duckworth.Google Scholar
  121. Richard, N. (2008). Inventer la préhistoire. Les débuts de l’archéologie préhistorique en France, Vuibert, Paris.Google Scholar
  122. Riquet, R. (1959). Chassey où es-tu? Bulletin de la Société Préhistorique Française 56: 364–374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Rowley-Conwy, P. (2007). From Genesis to Prehistory. The archaeological Three Age System and its contested reception in Denmark, Britain and Ireland. Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  124. Rouse, I. (1972). Introduction to Prehistory, McGraw-Hill, New York.Google Scholar
  125. Scarre, C. (1999). Archaeological theory in France and Britain. Antiquity 73: 155–161.Google Scholar
  126. Schnapp, A. (1981). Les Annales et l’archéologie: une rencontre difficile. Mélanges de l’Ecole Française de Rome Antiquité 93: 469–478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Shennan, S. (1989a). Introduction. In S. Shennan (ed.), Archaeological Approaches to Cultural Identity, Unwin-Hyman, London, pp. 1–32.Google Scholar
  128. Shennan, S. (1989b). Archaeology as archaeology or as anthropology? Clarke’s Analytical archaeology and the Binfords’ New perspectives in archaeology 21 years on. Antiquity 63: 831–835.Google Scholar
  129. Shennan, S. (2000). Population, culture history, and the dynamics of change. Current Anthropology 41: 811–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Shennan, S. (2002). Genes, Memes and Human History: Darwinian Archaeology and Cultural Evolution, Thames and Hudson, London.Google Scholar
  131. Sonneville-Bordes, D. and Perrot, J. (1954). Lexique typologique du Paléolithique supérieur. Outillage lithique: I grattoirs – II outils solutréens. Bulletin de la Société Préhistorique Française 51: 327–335.Google Scholar
  132. Sonneville-Bordes, D. and Perrot, J. (1955). Lexique typologique du Paléolithique supérieur. Outillage lithique - III outils composites - perçoirs. Bulletin de la Société Préhistorique Française 52: 76–79.Google Scholar
  133. Sonneville-Bordes, D. and Perrot, J. (1956a). Lexique typologique du Paléolithique supérieur. Outillage lithique – IV burins. Bulletin de la Société Préhistorique Française 53: 408–412.Google Scholar
  134. Sonneville-Bordes, D. and Perrot, J. (1956b). Lexique typologique du Paléolithique supérieur. Outillage lithique (suite et fin) – V outillage à bord abattu – VI pièces tronquées - VII lames retouchées – VIII pièces variées – IX outillage lamellaire – pointe azilienne. Bulletin de la Société Préhistorique Française 53: 547–559.Google Scholar
  135. Stiegler, B. (1994). La technique et le temps. 1. La faute d’Epiméthée, Galilée/Cité des Sciences et de l’Industrie, Paris.Google Scholar
  136. Thévenot, J.-P., Strahm, C., Beeching, A., Bill, J., Bocquet, A., Gallay, A., Pétrequin, P. and Schifferdecker, F. (1976). La civilisation Saône-Rhône. Revue Archéologique de l’Est et du Centre-Est 27: 331–420.Google Scholar
  137. Tilley, C. (1994). A Phenomenology of Landscape Places, Paths and Monuments, Berg, London.Google Scholar
  138. Trigger, B.G. (2006). A History of Archaeological Thought, Second edition, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  139. Tylor, E.B. (1871). Primitive Culture, John Murray, London.Google Scholar
  140. Ucko, P. (1969). Ethnography and archaeological interpretation of funerary remains. World Archaeology 1: 262–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Ucko, P. (ed.) (1995). Theory in Archaeology: a world perspective, Routledge, London.Google Scholar
  142. Vayson, A. (1921). Le fonds commun aux industries de la pierre. L’anthropologie 31: 345–347.Google Scholar
  143. Vayson, A. (1922). L’étude des outillages en pierre. L’anthropologie 32: 1–38.Google Scholar
  144. Wilson, D. (1851). Archaeology and Prehistoric Annals of Scotland, Sutherland and Knox, Edinburgh.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Archaeology and Ancient HistoryUniversity of LeicesterLeicesterUK

Personalised recommendations