Non-destructive EDXRF Analyses of Archaeological Basalts
Non-destructive energy-dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) analysis measures the interiors and exteriors of samples. We examine the effects of chemical weathering, surface contamination by phosphates, surface morphology, and textural variation on archaeological basalt. Major element data are most affected by these factors, altering both the measured chemical composition and the precision of the analyses. Measured chemical composition of trace elements (Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, and Nb) are less affected. These factors increase the measured variation in sample populations.
KeywordsSurface Irregularity Chemical Weathering Textural Variation Weathered Surface Quarry Site
Acquisition of the EDXRF at the University of Hawai’i-Hilo was supported by a major research instrumentation grant from the National Science Foundation (BCS 0317528). We gratefully acknowledge Randy Cone (ThermoNoran), Craig Skinner (Northwest Research Obsidian Studies Laboratory), and Steven Shackley (UC-Berkeley) for their assistance with EDXRF methods. We also thank Melanie Mintmier and Haleakala National Park for obtaining samples.
- Best, S. B. (1984). Lakeba: The prehistory of a Fijian island. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Aukland.Google Scholar
- Carson, M. T., & Mintmier, M. A. (2006). Archaeological site documentation in front country areas in the summit district of Haleakala National Park, Maui Island, Hawaii. Honolulu: International Archaeological Research Institute.Google Scholar
- Casadevall, T. J., & Dzurisin, D. (1987). Stratigraphy and Petrology of the Uwekahuna Bluff Section, Kilauea Caldera. USGS Professional Paper, 1350, 351–376.Google Scholar
- Casadevall, T. J., & Dzurisin, D. (1987). Intrusive Rocks of Kilauea Caldera. USGS Professional Paper, 1350, 377–394.Google Scholar
- Clague, D. A., & Dalrymple, G. B. (1987). The Hawaiian-Emperor Volcanic Chain Part I: Geologic Evolution. USGS Professional Paper, 1350, 5–54.Google Scholar
- Davis, M. K., Jackson, T. L., Shackley, M. S., Teague, T., & Hampel, J. H. (1998). Factors affecting the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) analysis of archaeological obsidian. In M. S. Shackley (Ed.), Archaeological obsidian studies: method and theory. (pp. 59–80). New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
- Emory, K. P. (1928). Archaeology of Nihoa and Necker Islands, Tanager expedition no. 5. Bishop Museum Bulletin, 53.Google Scholar
- Jackson, R. J., Jackson, T. J., Miksicek, C., Roper, K., & Simons, D. (1994). Framework for archaeological research and management: National Forests of the North-Central Sierra Nevada, Unit III: special studies and research data. Santa Cruz: BioSystems Analysis.Google Scholar
- Kirch, P. V. (1985). Feather gods and fishhooks. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.Google Scholar
- Lass, B. (1994). Hawaiian adze production and distribution: implications for the development of chiefdoms. (UCLA Institute of Archaeology Monograph No. 37). Los Angeles: University of California Los Angeles.Google Scholar
- Lundblad, S. P., Mills, P. R., & Hon, K. (2008). Analysing archaeological basalt using non-destructive energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF): effects of post-depositional chemical weathering and sample size on analytical precision. Archaeometry, 50, 1–11.Google Scholar
- Mills, P. R., & Lundblad, S.P. (2006). Preliminary field report: the geochemistry of the Ko’oko’olau Complex, Mauna Kea Adze Quarry (50-10-23-4136) TMK: 4-4-15:10. Hilo: University of Hawaii at Hilo, Geoarchaeology Laboratory.Google Scholar
- Mills, P. R., Lundblad, S. P., Smith, J. G., McCoy, P. C., & Nalemaile, S. P. (2008). Science and sensitivity: a geochemical characterization of the Mauna Kea Adze Quarry Complex, Hawaii Island, Hawaii. American Antiquity, 73, 743–758.Google Scholar
- Moore, R. B., Clague, D. A., Rubin, M., & Bohrson, W. A. (1987). Hualalai Volcano: A Preliminary Summary of Geologic, Petrologic, and Geophysical Data. USGS Professional Paper, 1350, 571–586.Google Scholar
- Northwest Research Obsidian Studies Laboratory. (2008). Non-Obsidian Geochemical Characterization References. Retrieved Sept 21, 2008, from: http://www.obsidianlab.com/basalt/basalt_universe.html.
- Rhodes, J. M. (1996). Geochemical stratigraphy of lava flows sampled by the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project. Journal of Geophysical Research, 101(B5), 11729–11746.Google Scholar
- Sinton, J. M. & Sinoto, Y. H. (1997). A geochemical database for Polynesian adze studies. In M. I. Weisler (Ed.), Prehistoric long-distance interaction in Oceania: an interdisciplinary approach. (pp. 194–204). Auckland: New Zealand Archaeological Association Monograph 21.Google Scholar
- Tilling, R. I., Wright, T. L., & Millard Jr., H. T. (1987). Track-element chemistry of Kilauea and Mauna Loa lava in space and time: a reconnaissance. USGS Professional Paper 1350,641–689.Google Scholar
- Tuggle H. D. (1976). Windward Kohala-Hamakua archaeological zone, island of Hawaii. Honolulu: University of Hawaii, Manoa, Department of Anthropology.Google Scholar
- United States Department of Agriculture. (2008). Soil and Climate Data. Retrieved Sept 21, 2008, from: http://ortho.ftw.nrcs.usda.gov/osd/dat/O/OOKALA.html.
- Weisler, M. I. (1990). Sources and sourcing of volcanic glass in Hawaii: implications for exchange studies. Archaeology in Oceania, 25, 16–25.Google Scholar
- Weisler, M. I. (1993). Provenance studies of Polynesian Basalt Adze Material: a review and suggestions for improving regional data bases. Asian Perspectives, 32, 61–83.Google Scholar
- Weisler, M. I. (1993b). Chemical characterization and Provenance of Manu’a Adz Material using a non-destructive x-ray fluorescence technique. In P. V. Kirch & T. L. Hunt (Eds.), The To’aga Site: Three millenia of Polynesian occupation in the Manu’a Islands, American Samoa. (pp. 167–187). Berkeley: Contributions of the University of California Archaeological Research Facility 51.Google Scholar
- Weisler, M. I. (Ed.). (1997). Prehistoric long-distance interaction in Oceania: an interdisciplinary approach. New Zealand Archaeological Association Monograph, 21.Google Scholar
- Winterhoff, E. Q. (2003). Ma’a mai Malaeloa: A geochemical investigation of a newly discovered basalt quarry source on Tutuila, American Samoa. Unpublished master’s thesis, University of Oregon.Google Scholar
- Wolfe, E. W., Wise, W. S., & Dalrymple, G. B. (1997). The geology and petrology of Mauna Kea Volcano, Hawaii – a study of Postshield volcanism (U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1557). Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar