The Pelvic Exam and Pap Smear



Although the incidence of cervical cancer has declined in the United States, it remains one of the leading causes of cancer-related death in developing countries. Despite advances in cervical cancer screening, there were an estimated 11,150 cases of invasive cervical cancer in the USA in 2007 with 3,670 women expected to die of the disease. It is important to utilize the screening methods available to detect cervical changes early.


Cervical Cancer Screening Cervical Screening Pelvic Exam Atypical Squamous Cell Cervical Motion Tenderness 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References and Additional Readings

  1. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Cervical cytology screening. ACOG Pract Bullet 2009;109:1–12.Google Scholar
  2. Goldstein M, Goodman A, del Carmen M, Wilbur D. A 23-year-old woman with an abnormal Papanicolaou smear. N Engl J Med 2009;360:1337–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Greydanus DE, Omar H, Patel DR. What’s new: cervical cancer screening in adolescents. Pediatr Rev 2009;30:23–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Wright TC Jr, Massad LS, Dunton CJ et al. 2006 Consensus guidelines for the management of women with abnormal cervical cancer screening tests. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2007;197:346–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Adolescent and Young Adult MedicineMass General Hospital for ChildrenBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations