Mesoporous Phosphate Heterostructures: Synthesis and Application on Adsorption and Catalysis
Porous phosphate heterostructures (PPHs) are solids formed by a layered metal(IV) phosphate expanded with silica galleries obtained by combining the two main strategies for obtaining mesoporous materials [pillared layered structures (PLS’) and MCM-41]. The different synthetic pathways for obtaining mesoporous phosphate structures with silica galleries with Zr- or Ti-doped silica, the study of their structural, textural and acid properties, its functionalisation with different organic substances such as propionitrile, 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane, (3-mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane, vinyltrimethoxysilane, phenyltriethoxysilane and 3-(triethoxysilyl)propionitrile are discussed. The preparation of metal-supported catalysts and their application in gas separation, adsorption and catalysis are reviewed. Specifically, the use of Cu- and Fe-exchanged PPH for the adsorption of benzothiophene and the separation of propane/propene is the main application as adsorbent. The hydrotreating of aromatic hydrocarbons using ruthenium-impregnated catalysts via hydrogenation and hydrogenolysis/hydrocracking for the production of clean diesel fuels, the selective catalytic reduction of NO from stationary and mobile sources by using Cu–PPH with 1, 3 and 7 wt% of Cu and the selective oxidation of hydrogen sulphide to sulphur with vanadium-containing PPH are the three catalytic reactions of environmental interest studied.
KeywordsPhosphates Heterostructures Adsorption Catalysis Pillared Mesoporous
The authors gratefully acknowledge financial support from CICYT, Spain (NAN20004-09267-C01 and NAN2004-09267-C03-02). MDS thanks a fellowship from the Universidad Politécnica of Valencia. D.C.S. RMT would like to thank the Ministry of Science and Innovation (Spain) for the financial support under the Program Ramón y Cajal (RYC-2008-03387). Azevedo thanks CAPES, Brazil, for sponsoring a grant (1145/08-8) for visiting professor at UMA, Spain. AIM would like to thank the Ministry of Science and Innovation (Spain) for the financial support under the Program Juan de la Cierva (JCI-2009-05821).
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