Exudativory and Primate Skull Form
We review comparative and experimental research regarding the musculoskeletal correlates of exudativory in primates, providing novel data on: cranial ontogeny and scaling in galagos, macroscale tests of symphyseal joint performance in platyrrhines, and histology of enamel prism organization in the anterior dentition of callitrichids.
In galagos, derived configurations of jaw-joint position and jaw-muscle mechanical advantage in Otolemur and Euoticus appear to facilitate increased gape during scraping or gouging behaviors. Due to the lack of greater robusticity of load-resisting mandibular elements in Otolemur and Euoticus, there is little evidence to suggest that exudativory in galagos results in higher masticatory stresses. Compared to tamarins such as Saguinus, the marmoset Callithrix has canine enamel with a much higher degree of decussation. However, simulated jaw loading suggests a reduced ability to withstand external forces in the marmoset symphysis. The contrast between increased load-resistance ability in the anterior dentition versus relatively reduced symphyseal strength suggests both a potentially complex loading environment during gouging and a mosaic pattern of craniodental adaptations to this derived feeding behavior.
As primate exudativory involves different behavioral strategies to obtain gums and sap, it is not surprising that there is some discordance among the comparative evidence regarding the impact of anterior dental loading on masticatory elements. This is compounded by the fact that gouging and scraping are critical adaptations in some taxa and only seasonally important for others. Indeed, the ecomorphological significance of seasonality in feeding behaviors remains poorly understood, and this negatively affects analyses of the impact of fallback foods on skull form in living and fossil primates.
KeywordsBite Force Fallback Food Mandibular Corpus Enamel Prism Masticatory Element
Anne Burrows and Leanne Nash are thanked for inviting us to contribute to their volume on primate exudativory. For access to cranial collections, thanks are offered to the following curators and staff: M. Rutzmoser (Harvard Museum of Comparative Zoology); R. MacPhee, E. Westwig, G. Musser, S. Anderson, W. Fuchs (American Museum of Natural History); L. Heaney, B. Patterson, W. Stanley, J. Kerbis (Field Museum of Natural History); R. Thorington, L. Gordon (Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History); P. Jenkins (British Museum of Natural History); M. Tranier, J. Roche, D. Goujet, D. Robineau, J. Cuisin, F. Renoult, F. Petter (Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle); C. Smeenk, M. Hoogmoed, D. Reider (Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie); R. Angermann (Museum für Naturkunde – Humboldt Universität); T. Daeschler (Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia); C. Cicero, B. Stein (University of California Museum of Vertebrate Zoology); A. Friday (University of Cambridge Department of Zoology); S. McLaren, D. Schlitter (Carnegie Museum of Natural History); W. Van Neer (Koninklijk Museum voor Midden-Afrika); C. Grigson (Odontological Museum – Royal College of Surgeons); G. Lenglet (Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique); R. Kraft (Zoologische Staatssammlung München); G. Storch (Forschungsinstitut und Naturmuseum Senckenberg); and D. Howlett, M. Harman (Powell-Cotton Museum of Natural History). For comments, advice, and the gracious use of their facilities, we thank Alfred Rosenberger, Tim Bromage, John Wahlert, Laurie Godfrey, Tara Peburn, Terence Capellini, Barth Wright, the late Gene Lautenschlager, an anonymous reviewer, as well as the Department of Biomaterials and Biomimetics at NYU College of Dentistry. The research herein was supported by the NSF (BCS-0924592 & BCS-0622479), Leakey Foundation, American Philosophical Society, and American Museum of Natural History.
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