Epithelial–Mesenchymal Transition in Development and Diseases
Epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) is critical for appropriate embryo implantation, embryogenesis, wound healing, tissue regeneration, and organ development. During this EMT process, epithelial cells lose the adherent and tight junctions. They gain a mesenchymal cell phenotype that enables them to invade and migrate over long distances and resist apoptosis. A similar process is also detected in tumor metastasis, suggesting that the tumor cells hijack this developmental pathway for tumor progression. Here, we review three different types of EMT in physiological and pathological conditions with special focus on the new development on type 3 EMT in metastasis. We summarize the recent new findings on tumor microenvironment, signaling pathways, and mechanisms underlying the regulation of EMT at metastasis. Understanding the biology of EMT will open new avenues for controlling fibrosis and cancer progression.
KeywordsZinc Migration Estrogen Adenocarcinoma Prostaglandin
We apologize to the many contributors to this field whose works are important while we are unable to cite here. Our study is supported by the grants from NIH (RO1CA125454), the Susan G Komen Foundation (KG081310), and the Mary Kay Ash Foundation (to B.P. Zhou).
- Bruyere F, et al (2009) Snail expression is an independent predictor of tumor recurrence in superficial bladder cancers. Urol Oncol Epub ahead of print.Google Scholar
- Greenburg G, Hay ED (1998) Cytoskeleton and thyroglobulin expression change during transformation of thyroid epithelium to mesenchyme-like cells. Development 102(3):605–622.Google Scholar
- Grivennikov S, et al (2009) IL-6 and Stat3 are required for survival of intestinal epithelial cells and development of colitis-associated cancer. Cancer Cell 15(2):103–113.Google Scholar
- Zhu S, et al (2007) MicroRNA-21 targets the tumor suppressor gene tropomyosin 1 (TPM1). J Biol Chem 282(19):14328–14336.[p7]“However, several … regulation of EMT.” The sentence has been edited for better readability. Please check and approve the edit.[p8]“Second, many … remains unclear.” The meaning of the sentence is not clear. Please clarify.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar