Velocity and Acceleration

  • Jacob Fraden


Acceleration is a dynamic characteristic of an object, because according to Newton’s second law it essentially requires application of a force. A stationary position does not require an application of a force. A change in a position is associated with velocity and it does not require a force either, unless there is an opposing force, like friction. Acceleration always requires a force. In effect, position, velocity, and acceleration are all related – velocity is a first derivative of a position and acceleration is the second derivative. However, in a noisy environment, taking derivatives may result in extremely high errors, even if complex and sophisticated signal conditioning circuits are employed. Therefore, velocity and acceleration are not derived from the position detectors, but rather measured by special sensors. As a rule of thumb, in low-frequency applications (having a bandwidth on orders from 0 to 10 Hz), position and displacement measurements generally provide good accuracy. In the intermediate-frequency applications (less than 1 kHz), velocity measurement is usually favored. In measuring high-frequency motions with appreciable noise levels, acceleration measurement is preferred.


Ring Resonator Spin Axis Inertial Mass Proof Mass Velocity Sensor 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.San DiegoUSA

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