Basic Aspects

  • Nicolaas Westerhof
  • Nikolaos Stergiopulos
  • Mark I. M. Noble


Pressure is the force applied per unit area. In hemodynamics we always think of pressure in terms of a pressure difference. The pressure difference along the axis, or pressure gradient, is the pressure that causes the flow of blood. The pressure difference between the inside and outside of a vessel or the heart, which is often called transmural pressure, causes the wall distension.


Catheter Sine 


  1. 1.
    Munson BR, Young DF, Okiishi TH. Fundamentals of fluid mechanics. 1994, New York, Wiley.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer US 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nicolaas Westerhof
    • 1
  • Nikolaos Stergiopulos
    • 2
  • Mark I. M. Noble
    • 3
  1. 1.Departments of Physiology and Pulmonology ICaR-VUVU University Medical CenterAmsterdamthe Netherlands
  2. 2.Laboratory of Hemodynamics and Cardiovascular TechnologySwiss Federal Institute of TechnologyLausanneSwitzerland
  3. 3.Cardiovascular MedicineAberdeen UniversityAberdeenScotland

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