Implicit Attitudes and Discrimination Against People with Physical Disabilities

  • John F. DovidioEmail author
  • Lisa Pagotto
  • Michelle R. Hebl


Although the study of prejudice, stereotyping, and discrimination has been a traditional focus of social psychology, researchers in this area have devoted only limited attention to the attitudes and behaviors toward people with physical disabilities. Moreover, much of the social psychological research on bias has been guided directly by Allport (1954) classic volume, The Nature of Prejudice, and specifically by his definition of prejudice as “an antipathy… directed toward a group as a whole, or toward an individual because he [sic] is a member of that group” (p. 9). Discrimination, according to Allport represented directly negative behavior, ranging from “antilocution” to violence. In this chapter, we argue that a narrow focus on antipathy toward people with physical disabilities obscures the complexity of contemporary attitudes and discrimination toward these individuals. Rather, appreciating the complexity of orientations toward people with physical disabilities can provide insights into the experience of this form of stigmatization and inform policies and laws for combating bias.


Physical Disability Nonverbal Behavior Implicit Attitude Explicit Measure Implicit Measure 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Adorno, T. W., Frenkel-Brunswik, E., Levinson, D. J., & Sanford, R. N. (1950). The authoritarian personality. New York: Harper.Google Scholar
  2. Allport, G. W. (1954). The nature of prejudice. Cambridge, MA: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  3. Americans with Disabilities Act. (1990). 42 U.S.C. §§ 12101–12213.Google Scholar
  4. Amsel, R., & Fichten, C. S. (1988). Effects of contact on thoughts about interaction with students who have a physical disability. Journal of Rehabilitation, 54, 61–65.Google Scholar
  5. Angermeyer, M. C., & Matschinger, H. (2004). Public attitudes to people with depression: Have there been any changes over the past decade? Journal of Affective Disorders, 83, 177–182.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Antonak, R. F., & Livneh, H. (2000). Measurement of attitudes towards persons with disabilities. Disability and Rehabilitation, 22, 211–224.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bargh, J. A. (1999). The cognitive monster: The case against the controllability of automatic stereotype effects. In S. Chaiken & Y. Trope (Eds.), Dual-process theories in social psychology (pp. 361–382). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  8. Bargh, J. A., & Pietromonaco, P. (1982). Automatic information processing and social perception: The influence of trait information presented outside of awareness on impression formation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 43, 437–449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Benham, P. K. (1988). Attitudes of occupational therapy personnel toward people with disabilities. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 42, 305–311.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Berry, J. O., & Meyer, J. A. (1995). Employing people with disabilities: The impact of attitude and situation. Rehabilitation Psychology, 40, 211–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bessenoff, G. R., & Sherman, J. W. (2000). Automatic and controlled components of prejudice toward fat people: Evaluation versus stereotype activation. Social Cognition, 18, 329–353.Google Scholar
  12. Blair, I. V. (2001). Implicit stereotypes and prejudice. In G. B. Moskowitz (Ed.), Cognitive social psychology: The Princeton symposium on the legacy and future of social cognition (pp. 359–374). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  13. Blascovich, J., Mendes, W. B., Hunter, S. B., Lickel, B., & Kowai-Bell, N. (2001). Perceiver threat in social interactions with stigmatized others. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80, 253–267.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Brodwin, M. G., & Orange, L. M. (2002). Attitudes toward disability. In J. D. Andrew & C. W. Faubion (Eds.), Rehabilitation services: An introduction for the human service professionals (pp. 174–197). Osage Beach, MO: Aspen Professional Services.Google Scholar
  15. Chen, M., & Bargh, J. (1997). Nonconscious behavioral confirmation processes: The self-fulfilling consequences of automatic stereotype activation. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 33, 541–560.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Colella, A., De Nisi, A. S., & Varma, A. (1998). The impact of ratee’s disability on performance judgments and choice as partner. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83, 102–111.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Colella, A., & Varma, A. (1999). Disability-job fit stereotypes and the evaluation of persons with disabilities at work. Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation, 9, 79–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Comer, R. J., & Piliavin, J. A. (1972). The effects of deviance upon face-to-face interaction: The other side. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 55, 33–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Corrigan, P. W., Lurie, B. D., Goldman, H. H., Slopen, N., Medasani, K., & Phelan, S. (2005). How adolescents perceive the stigma of mental illness and alcohol abuse. Psychiatric Services, 56, 544–550.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cottrell, C. A., & Neuberg, S. L. (2005). Different emotional reactions to different groups: A sociofunctional threat-based approach to “prejudice”. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 88, 770–789.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Crocker, J., & Major, B. (1994). Reactions to stigma: The moderating role of justifications. In M. P. Zanna & J. M. Olson (Ed.), The psychology of prejudice: The Ontario Symposium (Vol. 7, pp. 289–314). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  22. Cuddy, A. J. C., Fiske, S. T., & Glick, P. (2007). The BIAS map: Behaviors from intergroup affect and stereotypes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92, 631–648.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Cuenot, R. G., & Fugita, S. S. (1982). Perceived homosexuality: Measuring heterosexual attitudinal and nonverbal reactions. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 8, 100–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Curtis, V., Aunger, R., & Rabie, T. (2004). Evidence that disgust evolved to protect from risk of disease. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 271, 131–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. DePaulo, B. M., & Friedman, H. S. (1998). Nonverbal communication. In D. T. Gilbert, L. Gardner, & S. T. Fiske (Eds.), The handbook of social psychology (Vol. 2, pp. 3–40). New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  26. Deal, M. (2007). Aversive disablism: Subtle prejudice toward disabled people. Disability and Society, 22, 93–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Doob, A. N., & Ecker, B. P. (1979). Stigma and compliance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 14, 302–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Dovidio, J. F. (2001). On the nature of contemporary prejudice: The third wave. Journal of Social Issues, 57, 829–849.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Dovidio, J. F., Evans, N., & Tyler, R. B. (1986). Racial stereotypes: The contents of their cognitive representations. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 22, 22–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Dovidio, J. F., & Fazio, R. H. (1992). New technologies for the direct and indirect assessment of attitudes. In J. Tanur (Ed.), Questions about survey questions: Meaning, memory, attitudes, and social interaction (pp. 204–237). New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  31. Dovidio, J. F., & Gaertner, S. L. (2000). Aversive racism and selection decisions: 1989 and 1999. Psychological Science, 11, 319–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Dovidio, J. F., & Gaertner, S. L. (2004). Aversive racism. In M. P. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 36, pp. 1–51). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  33. Dovidio, J. F., & Gaertner, S. L. (2010). Intergroup bias. In S. T. Fiske, D. Gilbert, & G. Lindzey (Eds.), Handbook of social psychology (Vol. 2, pp. 1084–1121). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  34. Dovidio, J. F., Gaertner, S. L., & Kawakami, K. (2003). The contact hypothesis: The past, present, and the future. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 6, 5–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Dovidio, J. F., Gaertner, S. L., Kawakami, K., & Hodson, G. (2002). Why can’t we just get along? Interpersonal biases and interracial distrust. Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology, 8, 88–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Dovidio, J., Kawakami, K., & Beach, K. (2001). Implicit and explicit attitudes: Examination of the relationship between measures of intergroup bias. In R. Brown & S. L. Gaertner (Eds.), Blackwell handbook of social psychology, Intergroup relations (Vol. 4, pp. 175–197). Oxford, UK: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  37. Dovidio, J. F., Kawakami, K., & Gaertner, S. L. (2002). Implicit and explicit prejudice and interracial interaction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82, 62–68.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Dovidio, J., Kawakami, K., Johnson, C., Johnson, B., & Howard, A. (1997). The nature of prejudice: Automatic and controlled processes. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 33, 510–540.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Dovidio, J. F., Major, B., & Crocker, J. (2000). Stigma: Introduction and overview. In T. F. Heatherton, R. E. Kleck, M. R. Hebl, & J. G. Hull (Eds.), The social psychology of stigma (pp. 1–28). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  40. de Wall, F. (1989). Food sharing and reciprocal obligations among chimpanzees. Journal of Human Evolution, 18, 433–459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Edelmann, R. J., Evans, G., Pegg, I., & Tremain, M. (1983). Responses to physical stigma. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 57, 294.Google Scholar
  42. Faukner, J., Schaller, M., Park, J. H., & Duncan, L. A. (2004). Evolved disease-avoidance mechanisms and contemporary xenophobic attitudes. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 74, 333–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Fazio, R. H. (1990). Multiple processes by which attitudes guide behavior: The MODE Model as an integrative framework. In M. P. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 23, pp. 75–109). Orlando, FL: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  44. Fazio, R. H., Jackson, J. R., Dunton, B. C., & Williams, C. J. (1995). Variability in automatic activation as an unobtrusive measure of racial attitudes: A bona fide pipeline? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 1013–1027.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Fazio, R. H., & Olson, M. A. (2003). Implicit measures in social cognition research: Their meaning and uses. Annual Review of Psychology, 54, 297–327.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Fazio, R. H., Williams, C. J., & Sanbonmatsu, D. M. (1990). Toward an unobtrusive measure of attitude. Unpublished manuscript, Department of Psychology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.Google Scholar
  47. Fein, S., & Spencer, S. J. (1997). Prejudice as self-image maintenance: Affirming the self through derogating others. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73, 31–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Fichten, C. S., & Amsel, R. (1986). Trait attribution about college students with a physical disability: Circumplex analyses and methodological issues. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 16(5), 410–417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Fiske, S. T., Cuddy, A. J. C., Glick, P., & Xu, J. (2002). A model of (often mixed) stereotype content: Competence and warmth respectively follow from perceived status and competition. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82, 878–902.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Florian, V., & Kravetz, S. (1983). Fear of personal death: Attribution, structure, and relation to religious belief. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 44, 600–607.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Frable, D. E. S., Blackstone, T., & Scherbaum, C. (1990). Marginal and mindful deviants in social interactions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59, 140–149.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Gaertner, S. L., & Dovidio, J. F. (1986). The aversive form of racism. In J. F. Dovidio & S. L. Gaertner (Eds.), Prejudice, discrimination, and racism (pp. 61–89). Orlando, FL: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  53. Gaertner, S. L., & McLaughlin, J. P. (1983). Racial stereotypes: Associations and ascriptions of positive and negative characteristics. Social Psychology Quarterly, 46, 23–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Gargiulo, R. M., & Yonker, R. J. (1983). Assessing teachers attitudes toward the handicapped: A methodological investigation. Psychology in the Schools, 20, 229–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Gilbert, D. T., & Hixon, J. G. (1991). The trouble of thinking: Activation and application to stereotypic beliefs. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, 509–517.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Goffman, E. (1963). Stigma: Notes on the management of spoiled identity. New York: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  57. Goodall, J. (1968). Social rejection, exclusion, and shunning among the Gombe chimpanzees. Ethology and Sociobiology, 7, 227–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Gouvier, W. D., Coon, R. C., Todd, M. E., & Fuller, K. H. (1994). Verbal interaction with individuals presenting with or without physical disability. Rehabilitation Psychology, 39, 263–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Greenberg, J., Solomon, S., & Pyszczynski, T. (1997). Terror management theory of self-esteem and cultural worldviews: Empirical assessments and conceptual refinements. In M. P. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 29, pp. 61–141). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  60. Greenwald, A., & Banaji, M. (1995). Implicit social cognition: Attitudes, self-esteem, and stereotypes. Psychological Review, 102, 4–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Greenwald, A., McGhee, D., & Schwartz, J. (1998). Measuring individual differences in implicit cognition: The Implicit Association Test. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 1464–1480.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Greenwald, A. G., Poehlman, T. A., Uhlmann, E. L., & Banaji, M. R. (2009). Understanding and using the Implicit Association Test: III. Meta-analysis of predictive validity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 97, 17–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Griffiths, D. M., & Lunsky, Y. (2000). Changing attitudes towards the nature of socio-sexual assessment and education for persons with developmental disabilities: A twenty year comparison. Journal on Developmental Disabilities, 71, 16–33.Google Scholar
  64. Guglielmi, R. S. (1999). Psychophysiological assessment of prejudice: Past research, current status, and future directions. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 3, 123–157.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Harris, L. T., & Fiske, S. T. (2007). Social groups that elicit disgust are differentially processed in mPFC. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 2, 45–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Harris, M. J., Milich, R., Corbitt, E. M., Hoover, D. W., & Brady, M. (1992). Self-fulfilling effects of stigmatizing information on children’s social interactions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 63, 41–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Hastorf, A. H., Northcraft, G. B., & Picciotto, S. R. (1979). Helping the handicapped: How realistic is the performance feedback received by the physically handicapped. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 5, 373–376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Hebl, M. R., & Dovidio, J. F. (2005). Promoting the “social” in the examination of social stigmas. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 9, 156–182.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Hebl, M. R., Foster, J., Mannix, L. M., & Dovidio, J. F. (2002). Formal and interpersonal discrimination: A field study understanding of applicant bias. Personality and Social Psychological Bulletin, 28, 815–825.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Hebl, M., & Kleck, R. E. (2000). The social consequences of physical disability. In T. F., Heatherton, Kleck, R. E., Hebl, M. R., & Hull, J. G. (Eds.), Stigma: Social psychological perspectives (pp. 419–440). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  71. Heinemann, W., Pellander, F., Vogelbusch, A., & Wojtek, B. (1981). Meeting a deviant person: Participative norms and affective reactions. European Journal of Social Psychology, 11, 1–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Hirschberger, G., Florian, V., & Mikulincer, M. (2005). Fear and compassion: A terror management analysis of emotional reactions to physical disability. Rehabilitation Psychology, 50, 246–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Hodson, G., Dovidio, J. F., & Gaertner, S. L. (2002). Processes in racial discrimination: Differential weighting of conflicting information. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 460–471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Hofmann, W., Gawronski, B., Gschwendner, T., Le, H., & Schmitt, M. (2005). A meta-analysis on the correlation between the Implicit Association Test and explicit self-report measures. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31, 1369–1385.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Hunt, C. S., & Hunt, B. (2004). Changing attitudes toward people with disabilities: Experimenting with an educational intervention. Journal of Managerial Issues, 16, 266–280.Google Scholar
  76. Ickes, W. (1984). Compositions in black and white: Determinants of interaction in interracial dyads. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 47, 330–341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Jaeger, P. T., & Bowman, C. A. (Eds.). (2005). Understanding disability: Inclusion, access, diversity and civil rights. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.Google Scholar
  78. Jones, E. E., Farina, A., Hastorf, A. H., Markus, H., Miller, D. T., & Scott, R. A. (1984). Social stigma: The psychology of marked relationships. New York: W.H. Freeman and Company.Google Scholar
  79. Kahn, A. (1984). Psychology in the public forum: Perspectives on persons with disabilities. American Psychologist, 39, 516–517.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Katz, I. (1981). Stigma: A social psychological analysis. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  81. Katz, I., Farber, J., Glass, D. C., Lucido, D., & Emswiller, T. (1978). When courtesy offends: Effects of positive and negative behavior by the physically disabled on altruism and anger in normals. Journal of Personality, 46, 506–518.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Katz, I., Glass, D. C., & Cohen, S. (1973). Ambivalence, guilt, and scapegoating of minority group victims. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 9, 423–436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Katz, I., Glass, D. C., Lucido, D., & Farber, J. (1977). Ambivalence, guilt, and the denigration of a physically handicapped victim. Journal of Personality, 45, 419–429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Katz, I., Glass, D. C., Lucido, D., & Farber, J. (1979). Harm-doing and victim’s racial or orthopedic stigma as determinants of helping behavior. Journal of Personality, 47, 340–364.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Katz, I., Wackenhut, J., & Hass, R. G. (1986). Racial ambivalence, value duality, and behavior. In J. F. Dovidio & S. L. Gaertner (Eds.), Prejudice, discrimination, and racism (pp. 35–59). Orlando, FL: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  86. Kawakami, K., Phills, C. E., Steele, J. R., & Dovidio, J. F. (2007). (Close) Distance makes the heart grow fonder: Improving implicit racial attitudes and interracial interactions through approach behaviors. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92, 957–971.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. King, E. B., Shapiro, J. R., Hebl, M. R., Singletary, S. L., & Turner, S. (2006). The stigma of obesity in customer service: A mechanism for remediation and bottom-line consequences of interpersonal discrimination. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91, 579–593.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Kite, M. E., & Deaux, K. (1986). Attitudes toward homosexuality: Assessment and behavioral consequences. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 7, 137–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Kleck, R. E. (1968). Physical stigma and nonverbal cues emitted in face-to-face interaction. Human Relations, 21, 119–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Kleck, R. E. (1969). Emotional arousal in interactions with stigmatized persons. Psychological Reports, 19, 1126.Google Scholar
  91. Kleck, R. E., Ono, H., & Hastorf, A. H. (1966). The effects of physical deviance upon face-to-face interaction. Human Relations, 19, 425–436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Klink, A., & Wagner, U. (1999). Discrimination against ethnic minorities in Germany: Going back to the field. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 29, 402–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Kolodziej, M. E., & Johnson, B. T. (1996). Interpersonal contact and acceptance of persons with psychiatric disorders: A research synthesis. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64, 1387–1396.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Krahe, B., & Altwasser, C. (2006). Changing negative attitudes toward person with physical disabilities: An experimental intervention. Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, 16, 59–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Kurzban, R., & Leary, M. R. (2001). Evolutionary origins of stigmatization: The functions of social exclusion. Psychological Bulletin, 127, 187–208.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Langer, E. J., Fiske, S., Taylor, S. E., & Chanowitz, B. (1976). Stigma, staring, and discomfort: A novel-stimulus hypothesis. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 12, 451–463.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Lerner, M. J., & Simmons, C. H. (1966). Observer’s reaction to the “innocent victim”: Compassion or rejection? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 4, 203–210.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Livneh, H. (1988). A dimensional perspective on the origin of negative attitudes towards persons with disabilities. In H. E. Yuker (Ed.), Attitudes towards persons with disabilities (pp. 35–46). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  99. Louvet, E. (2007). Social judgment toward job applicants with disabilities: Perception of personal qualities and competences. Rehabilitation Psychology, 52, 297–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Lowman, D. K., West, S. L., & McMahon, B. T. (2005). Workplace discrimination and Americans with cerebral palsy: The national EEOC ADA research project. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 23, 171–177.Google Scholar
  101. Maras, P., & Brown, R. (1996). Effects of contact on children’s attitudes toward disability: A longitudinal study. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 26, 2113–2134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Maras, P., & Brown, R. (2000). Effects of different forms of school contact on children’s attitudes toward disabled and non-disabled peers. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 70, 337–351.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Marinelli, R. P. (1974). State anxiety in interactions with visibly disabled persons. Rehabilitation Counselling Bulletin, 18, 72–77.Google Scholar
  104. Martens, A., Greenberg, J., Schimmel, J., & Landau, M. J. (2004). Ageism and death: Effects of mortality salience and similarity to elders on distancing from and derogation of elderly people. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 30, 1524–1536.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. McConnell, A. R., & Leibold, J. M. (2001). Relations among the Implicit Association Test, discriminatory behavior, and explicit measures of racial attitudes. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 37, 435–442.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Monteith, M. J., Arthur, S. A., & Flynn, S. M. (2010). Self-regulation and bias. In J. F. Dovidio, M. Hewstone, P. Glick, & V. M. Esses (Eds.), Handbook of prejudice, stereotyping, and discrimination (pp. 493–507). CA: Sage Los Angeles.Google Scholar
  107. Mpofu, E. (2003). Enhancing social acceptance of early adolescents with physical disabilities: Effects of role salience, peer interaction, and academic support interventions. International Journal of Disability, Development & Education, 50, 435–454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Mullen, B., & Dovidio, J. F. (1992). Are evaluations of minorities more extreme? A meta-analytic integration. Unpublished manuscript, Department of Psychology, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY.Google Scholar
  109. Nadler, A. (2002). Inter-group helping relations as power relations: Helping relations as affirming or challenging inter-group hierarchy. Journal of Social Issues, 58, 487–502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Neuberg, S. L., & Cottrell, C. A. (2008). Managing the threats and opportunities afforded by human sociality. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 12, 63–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Nosek, B. A., & Banaji, M. R. (2001). The go/no go association task. Social Cognition, 19, 625–666.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Nosek, B. A., Banaji, M. R., & Greenwald, A. G. (2002). Harvesting implicit group attitudes and beliefs from a demonstration web site. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 6, 101–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. O’Hara, B. (2004). Twice penalized: Employment discrimination against women with disabilities. Journal of Disability Policy Studies, 15, 27–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Park, J. H., Faulkner, J., & Schaller, M. (2003). Evolved disease-avoidance processes and contemporary anti-social behavior: Prejudicial attitudes and avoidance of people with physical disabilities. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 27, 65–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Pearson, A. R., West, T. V., Dovidio, J. F., Powers, S. R., Buck, R., & Henning, R. (2008). The fragility of intergroup relations. Psychological Science, 19, 1272–1279.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Perlman, J. L., & Routh, D. K. (1980). Stigmatizing effects of a child’s wheelchair in successive and simultaneous interactions. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 5, 43–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Pettigrew, T. F. (1998). Intergroup contact theory. Annual Review of Psychology, 49, 65–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Pettigrew, T. F., & Tropp, L. (2006). A meta-analytic test of intergroup contact theory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 90, 751–783.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Plant, E. A. (2004). Responses to interracial interactions over time. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 30, 1458–1471.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Plant, E. A., & Devine, P. G. (2003). The antecedents and implications of interracial anxiety. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 29, 790–801.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Pruett, S. R., & Chan, F. (2006). The development and psychometric validation of the Disability Attitude Implicit Association Test. Rehabilitation Psychology, 51, 202–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Pryor, J. B., Reeder, G. D., Yeadon, C., & Hesson-McInnis, M. (2004). A dual-process model of reactions to perceived stigma. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 87, 436–452.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Pyszczynski, T., Greenberg, J., & Solomon, S. (1997). Why do we need what we need? A terror management perspective on the roots of human social motivation. Psychological Inquiry, 8, 1–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Quadflieg, S., Mason, M. F., & Macrae, C. N. (2010). Social cognitive neural processes. In J. F. Dovidio, M. Hewstone, P. Glick, & V. M. Esses (Eds.), Handbook of prejudice, stereotyping, and discrimination (pp. 65–80). CA: Sage Los Angeles.Google Scholar
  125. Reeve, D. (2000). Oppression within the counseling room. Disability and Society, 15, 669–682.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Robey, K. L., Beckley, L., & Kirschner, M. (2006). Implicit infantilizing attitudes about disability. Journal of Developmental & Physical Disabilities, 18, 441–453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Rojahn, J., Komelasky, K. G., & Man, M. (2008). Implicit attitudes and explicit ratings of romantic attraction of college students toward opposite-sex peers with physical disabilities. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, 20, 389–397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Salvatore, J., & Shelton, J. N. (2007). Cognitive costs of exposure to racial prejudice. Psychological Science, 18, 810–815.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Saucier, D. A., Miller, C. T., & Doucet, N. (2005). Differences in helping whites and blacks: A meta-analysis. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 9, 2–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Schaller, M., & Duncan, L. A. (2007). The behavioral immune system: Its evolution and social psychological implications. In J. P. Forgas, M. G. Haselton, & W. von Hippel (Eds.), Evolution and the social mind: Evolutionary psychology and social cognition (pp. 293–307). New York: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  131. Shelton, J. N. (2003). Interpersonal concerns in social encounters between majority and minority group members. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 6, 171–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Shelton, J. N., & Richeson, J. A. (2006). Interracial interactions: A relational approach. In M. P. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 38, pp. 121–181). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  133. Sigelman, C. K., Adams, R. M., Meeks, S. R., & Purcell, M. A. (1986). Children’s nonverbal responses to a physically disabled person. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 10, 173–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Siperstein, G. N., Romano, N., Mohler, A., & Parker, R. (2005). A national survey of consumer attitudes towards companies that hire people with disabilities. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 22, 1–7.Google Scholar
  135. Sloman, S. A. (1996). The empirical case for two systems of reasoning. Psychological Bulletin, 119, 3–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Smith, E. R. (1984). Model of social inference processes. Psychological Review, 91, 392–413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Smith, E. R., & Mackie, D. M. (2005). Aggression, hared, and other emotions. In J. F. Dovidio, P. Glick, & L. A. Rudman (Eds.), On the nature of prejudice: Fifty years after Allport (pp. 361–376). Malden, MA: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  138. Snyder, M., Kleck, R. E., Strenta, A., & Mentzer, S. J. (1979). Avoidance of the handicapped: An attributional ambiguity analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37, 2297– 2306.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Solomon, S., Greenberg, J., & Pyszczynski, T. (1991). A terror management theory of social behavior: The psychological functions of self-esteem and cultural worldviews. In M. P. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 24, pp. 93–159). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  140. Solomon, S., Greenberg, J., & Pyszczynski, T. (2004). The cultural animal: Twenty years of terror management theory and research. In J. Greenberg, S. L., Koole, & T. Pyszczynski (Eds.), Handbook of experimental existential psychology (pp. 13–34). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  141. Son Hing, L. S., Chung-Yan, G. A., Hamilton, L. K., & Zanna, M. P. (2008). A two-dimensional model that employs explicit and implicit attitudes to characterize prejudice. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 94, 971–987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Stone, D., & Colella, A. (1996). A model of factors affecting the treatment of disabled individuals in organizations. Academy of Management Review, 90, 352–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Swain, J., French, S., & Cameron, C. (Eds.). (2003). Controversial issues in a disabling society. Philadelphia, PA: Open University Press.Google Scholar
  144. Tagalakis, V., Amsel, R., & Fichten, C. S. (1988). Job interview strategies for people with a visible disability. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 18, 520–532.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Tiedens, L. Z., & Fragale, A. R. (2003). Power moves: Complementarity in dominant and submissive nonverbal behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84, 558–568.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Vorauer, J. D. (2006). An information search model of evaluative concerns in intergroup interaction. Psychological Review, 113, 862–886.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Weiner, B. (1995). Judgments of responsibility: A theory of social conduct. New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  148. Weiner, B., Perry, R. P., & Magnusson, J. (1988). An attributional analysis of reactions to stigmas. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 55, 738–748.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Williams, R. M., Jr. (1947). The reduction of intergroup tensions. New York: Social Science Research Council.Google Scholar
  150. Wilson, T. D., Lindsey, S., & Schooler, T. Y. (2000). A model of dual attitudes. Psychological Review, 107, 101–126.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Wittenbrink, B., Judd, C., & Park, B. (1997). Evidence for racial prejudice at the implicit level and its relationship with questionnaire measures. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72, 262–274.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Word, C. O., Zanna, M. P., & Cooper, J. (1974). The nonverbal mediation of self-fulfilling prophecies in interracial interaction. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 10, 109–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Wright, S. C., & Lubensky, M. E. (2009). The struggle for social equality: Collective action versus prejudice reduction. In S. Demoulin, J. -P. Leyens, & J. F. Dovidio (Eds.), Intergroup misunderstandings: Impact of divergent social realities (pp. 291–310). New York,: Psychology Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • John F. Dovidio
    • 1
    Email author
  • Lisa Pagotto
    • 2
  • Michelle R. Hebl
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyYale UniversityNew HavenUSA
  2. 2.Dipartimento di Psicologia ApplicataUniversità degli Studi di PadovaPadovaItaly
  3. 3.Department of PsychologyRice University – MS 205HoustonUSA

Personalised recommendations