Advertisement

Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Stigma

  • Cynthia Willis EsquedaEmail author
Chapter
  • 1.5k Downloads

Abstract

When I was asked to write a commentary chapter for the work by Stewart Schwab and Garth Glissman (Chapter 8 on Disability) and John Dovidio, Lisa Pagotto, and Michelle R. Hebl (Chapter 9, on Race), I was flummoxed. What could I contribute to the fine work of eminent scholars on the topic of stigma, particularly as it relates to discrimination and public policy? Chapter 8 focuses on the similarities and differences between disability definitions, discrimination, and legal protections and other forms of stigma, such as age, sex, and race definitions and discrimination. The review of the legal issues inherent in defining and responding to treatment, based on stigma, by Glissman, Schwab, and Willborn provides a foundation for future research on the psychological processes attending legal decision making on these issues.

Keywords

Mental Illness Dominant Culture Evil Spirit Outgroup Member Social Touch 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967. (1967). 29 U.S.C. §§ 621–634.Google Scholar
  2. American Indian Religious Freedom Act Amendments of 1994. (1994). (Public Law 103–344).Google Scholar
  3. American Indian Religious Freedom Act of 1978. (1978). (Public Law 95–341).Google Scholar
  4. Anderson, K. J., & Smith, G. (2005). Students’ preconceptions of professors: Benefits and barriers according to ethnicity and gender. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 27, 184–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bache, R. M. (1895). Reaction time with reference to race. Psychological Review, 2, 475–486.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barnes, R. H. (1984). Two Crows denies it. A history of controversy in omaha sociology. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.Google Scholar
  7. Bordeaux, K. (2009, April 14). Lakota elder and relative, personal communication.Google Scholar
  8. Bragdon, K. J. (1981). Crime and punishment among the Indians of Massachusetts: 1675–1750. Ethnohistory, 28, 23–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bryant-Davis, T., & Ocampo, C. (2005). The trauma of racism: implications for counseling, research, and education. The Counseling Psychologist, 33, 574–578.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Byrd, J. F. (1971). Modern indian psychology. Institute of Indian Studies. Vermillion, SD: The University of South Dakota.Google Scholar
  11. Chamberlain, A. F. (1903). Primitive taste words. American Journal of Psychology, 14, 146–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cherokee Nation v. Georgia, 30 U.S. (5 Pet.) 1 (1831).Google Scholar
  13. Coe, K., & Palmer, C. T. (2009). How elders guided the evolution of the modern human brain, social behavior, and culture. American Indian Culture and Research Journal, 33, 5–21.Google Scholar
  14. Cross, S. L. (2005, March). American Indian grandparents parenting their grandchildren in Michigan: A qualitative study report. School of Social Work. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University.Google Scholar
  15. Cuddy, A. J., et al. (2009). Stereotype content model across cultures: Towards universal similarities and some differences. British Journal of Social Psychology, 48, 1–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. DeMallie, R. J. (1993). “These have no ears”: Narrative and ethnohistorical method. Ethnohistory, 40, 515–538.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Deboe, A. (1970). A history of the Indians of the United States. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press.Google Scholar
  18. Deutsch, A. (1949). The mentally ill in America: A history of their care and treatment from colonial times. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  19. Diefenbach, D. L., & West, M. D. (2007). Television and attitudes towards mental health issues: Cultivation analysis and the third person effect. Journal of Community Psychology, 35, 181–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. DSM IV. (2009). Retrieved October 30, 2009, from http://allpsych.com/disorders/psychotic/index.html.
  21. Eldridge, L. D. (1996). Crazy brained”: Mental illness in colonial America. Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 70, 361–386.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Espinoza, R. K. E., & Willis Esqueda, C. (2008). Defendant and defense attorney characteristics and their effects on juror decision making and prejudice against Mexican Americans. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 14, 364–371.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ferino, A., Holland, C. H., & Ring, K. (1966). Role of stigma and set in interpersonal interaction. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 71, 421–428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Fink, P. J., & Tasman, A. (1992). Stigma and mental illness. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.Google Scholar
  25. Fletcher, M. L. M. (2006). American Indian religious freedom act of 1978. In P. Finkelman (Ed.), Encyclopedia of American civil liberties (Vol. 1, pp. 51–52). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  26. Furnham, A., & Baguma, P. (1994). Cross-cultural differences in the evaluation of male and female body shapes. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 15, 81–89.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Garrett, J. T., & Walkingstick Garrett, M. (1994). Path of good medicine: Understanding and counseling native Americans. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 22, 134–144.Google Scholar
  28. Gelo, D. J. (1999). Powwow patter: Indian emcee discourse on power and identity. The Journal of American Folklore, 112, 40–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Goffman, E. (1963). Stigma: Notes on the management of spoiled identity. New York: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  30. Gone, J. P. (2008a). Introduction: Mental health discourse as western cultural proselytization. Ethos, 36, 310–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gone, J. P. (2008b). ‘So I can be like a Whiteman’: The cultural psychology of space and place in American Indian mental health. Culture Psychology, 14, 369–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Gone, J. P. (2009). Psychotherapy and traditional healing for American Indians exploring the prospects for therapeutic integration. The Counseling Psychologist. Retrieved on August 10, 2009, from Sage Publications online first at http://0-tcp.sagepub.com.library.unl.edu/cgi/rapidpdf/0011000008330831v1.
  33. Gordon, R. A., & Arvey, R. D. (2004). Age bias in laboratory and field settings: A meta-analytic investigation. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 34, 468–492.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Grenville, G. (1938). White Mountain Apache religion. American Anthropologist, 40, 24–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Grinnel, G. B. (1962). Blackfoot lodge tales. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.Google Scholar
  36. Hall, C. I. (2004). Mixed-race women: One more mountain to climb. Women and Therapy, 27, 237–246.Google Scholar
  37. Hall, G. N., & Barongan, C. (2002). Multi-cultural psychology. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  38. Hamill, J. F. (2003). Show me your CDIB: Blood quantum and Indian identity among Indian people of Oklahoma. American Behavioral Scientist, 47, 267–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hardaway, C. R., & McLoyd, V. C. (2009). Escaping poverty and securing middle class status: How race and socioeconomic status shape mobility prospects for African Americans during the transition to adulthood. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 38, 242–256.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Harper, D. C. (1999). Social psychology of difference: Stigma, spread, and stereotypes in childhood. Rehabilitation Psychology, 44, 131–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hebl, M., & Skorinko, J. L. (2005). Acknowledging one’s physical disability in the interview: Does “when” make a difference?. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 35, 2477–2492.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hedge, J. W., Borman, W. C., & Lammlein, S. E. (2006). Age stereotyping and age discrimination. In J. W. Hedge, W. C. Borman, & S. E. Lammlein (Eds.), The aging workforce: Realities, myths, and implications for organizations ( pp. 27–48). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hummert, M. L. (1994). Physiognomic cues to age and the activation of stereotypes of the elderly in interaction. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 39, 5–19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hummert, M. L., Garstka, T. A., & Shaner, J. L. (1997). Stereotyping of older adults: The role of target facial cues and perceiver characteristics. Psychology and Aging, 12, 107–114.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Ide, B. A., Dahlen, B., Gargert, M., & Eagleshield, J. (2006). Needs assessment of Standing Rock elders. Journal of Cultural Diversity, 13, 186–189.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Iijima., Ha. ll,C. (2004). Mixed-race women: One more mountain to climb. Women and Therapy, 27, 237–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Indian Civil Rights Act of 1968. (1968). 82 Stat. 77, 25 U.S.C §§ 1301–1303.Google Scholar
  48. Jacobs, M. (1964). Indications of mental illness among pre-contact Indians of the Northwest states. Pacific Northwest Quarterly, 55, 49–54.Google Scholar
  49. James, F. E. (1991). Some observations on the writings of Felix Platter (1539–1614) in relation to mental handicap. History of Psychiatry, ii, 103–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Jimenez, M. A. (1986). Madness in early American history: Insanity in Massachusetts from 1700 to 1820. Journal of Social History, 20, 25–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Johnson, J. D., & Lecci, L. (2003). Assessing anti-white attitudes and predicting perceived racism: The Johnson-Lecci scale. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 29, 299–312.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Jost, J. T., Pelham, B. W., & Carvallo, M. R. (2002). Non-conscious forms of system justification: Implicit and behavioral preferences for higher status groups. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 38, 586–602.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Kaiser, C. R., & Pratt-Hyatt, J. S. (2009). Distributing prejudice unequally: Do whites direct their prejudice toward strongly identified minorities? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 96, 432–445.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kirkpatrick, J. F. Y., & Kirkpatrick, A. G. (1967). Run toward the nightland: Magic of the Oklahoma Cherokees. Dallas, TX: Southern Methodist University Press.Google Scholar
  55. Kite, M. E., Stockdale, G. D., Whitley, B. E., Jr., & Johnson, B. T. (2005). Attitudes toward younger and older adults: An updated meta-analytic review. Journal of Social Issues, 61, 241–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Klonoff, E. A., Landrine, H., & Ullman, J. B. (1999). Racial discrimination and psychiatric symptoms among blacks. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 5, 329–339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kroll, J. (1982). Visions and psychopathology in the Middle Ages. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 170, 41–49.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. LaBarre, W. (1947). Primitive psychotherapy in Native American cultures: Peyotism and confession. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 42, 294–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. LaFrance, M., & Mayo, C. (1978). Cultural aspects of nonverbal behavior. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 2, 71–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. LaFromboise, T. D. (1988). American Indian mental health policy. American Psychologist, 43, 388–397.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Latrofa, M., Vaes, J., Pastore, M., & Cadinu, M. (2009). “United we stand, divided we fall”! The protective function of self stereotyping for stigmatized members’ psychological well-being. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 58, 84–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Levy, B. (2009). Stereotype embodiment: A psychosocial approach to aging. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 18, 332–336.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Levy, B. R., Zonderman, A., Slade, M. D., & Ferrucci, L. (2009). Negative age stereotypes held earlier in life predict cardiovascular events in later life. Psychological Science, 20, 296–298.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Link, B. G., & Phelan, J. C. (2001). Conceptualizing stigma. Annual Review of Sociology, 27, 363–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Mails, T. E. (1990). Fools crow. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.Google Scholar
  66. Major, B., & O’Brien, L. T. (2005). The social psychology of stigma. Annual Review of Psychology, 56, 393–421.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Malthus, T. R. (1804/1890). Of the checks to population among the American Indians. An essay on the principle of population, or a view of its past and present effects on human happiness, with an inquiry into our prospects respecting the future removal or mitigation of the evils which it occasions (pp. 20–37). London: Ward, Lock & Co.Google Scholar
  68. Mandell, D. R. (2004). The Indians’ pedigree (1794): Indians, folklore, and race in southern New England. William and Mary Quarterly, 61, 521–538.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Manning, K. L., Carroll, B. A., & Carp, R. A. (2004). Does age matter? Judicial decision making in age discrimination cases. Social Science Quarterly, 85, 1–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Manson, S., Beals, J., Suzell, A., Klein, M. A., & Croy, C. D. (2005). Social epidemiology of trauma among 2 American Indian reservation populations. American Journal of Public Health, 95, 851–859.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Martinez, D. (2004). The soul of the Indian: Lakota philosophy and the vision quest. Wicazo Sa Review, 19, 79–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Masco, J. (1995). “It is a strict law that bids us dance”: Cosmologies, colonialism, death, and ritual authority in the Kwakwaka’wakw potlatch, 1849 to 1922. Comparative Studies in Society and History, 37, 41–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. McWilliams, J. (1996). Indian John and the Northern Tawnies. The New England Quarterly, 69, 580–604.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Medicine, B. (1985). Child socialization among native Americans: The Lakota (Sioux) in cultural context. Wicazo Sa Review, 1, 23–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Mehrabian, A. (1968). Relationship of attitude to seated posture, orientation, and distance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 10, 26–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Mehrabian, A. (1969). Significance of posture and position in the communication of attitude and status relationships. Psychological Bulletin, 71, 359–372.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Mooney, J. (1991). The ghost dance religion and the Sioux outbreak of 1890. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.Google Scholar
  78. Mueller-Johnson, K., Toglia, M. P., Sweeney, C. D., & Ceci, S. J. (2007). The perceived credibility of older adults as witnesses and its relation to ageism. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 25, 355–375.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Mulia, N., Ye, Y., Zemore, S. E., & Greenfield, T. K. (2008). Social disadvantage, stress, and alcohol use among black, hispanic, and white Americans: Findings from the 2005 US National Alcohol Survey. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 69, 824–833.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Neumark, D. (2009). The Age Discrimination in Employment Act and the challenge of population aging. Research on Aging, 31, 41–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Neville, H. A., Coleman, M. N., Falconer, W., & Holmes, D. (2005). Color-blind racial ideology and psychological false consciousness among African Americans. Journal of Black Psychology, 31, 27–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. O’Shea, J. M., & Ludwickson, J. (1992). Omaha chieftainship in the nineteenth century. Ethnohistory, 39, 316–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Payne, J. H. (2002). Indian justice: A Cherokee murder trial at Tahlequah in 1840. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press.Google Scholar
  84. Perdue, T. (1998). Cherokee women: Gender and culture change, 1700–1835. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.Google Scholar
  85. Peris, T. S., Teachman, B. A., & Nosek, B. A. (2008). Implicit and explicit stigma of mental illness: Links to clinical care. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 196, 752–760.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Pickering, K. (2004). Decolonizing time regimes: Lakota conceptions of work, economy, and society. American Anthropologist, 106, 85–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Pinel, P. (1806a). Section I: Periodical or intermittent insanity. In A treatise on insanity (pp. 7–47). London: Messers Cadell & Davies, Strand.Google Scholar
  88. Pinel, P. (1806b). Section II: The moral treatment of insanity. In A treatise on Insanity, pp. 48–109. London : Messers Cadell & Davies, Strand.Google Scholar
  89. Pinel, P. (1806c). Section VI: Of the medical treatment of insanity. In A Treatise on Insanity (pp. 219–288). London: Messers Cadell & Davies, Strand.Google Scholar
  90. Plant, E. A., & Butz, D. A. (2006). The causes and consequences of an avoidance-focus for interracial interactions. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 32, 833–846.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Poor Bear, O. (2009, November 1). Lincoln Indian Center, Inc. Personal communication.Google Scholar
  92. Powell, P. J. (1998). Sweet medicine (Vol. 1). Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press.Google Scholar
  93. Prucha, F. P. (2000). Documents of United States Indian policy. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.Google Scholar
  94. Raguram, R., Weiss, M., G; Channabasavanna, S. M., & Devins, G. M. (1996). Stigma, depression, and somatization in South India. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 153, 1043–1049.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Red Horse, J. G. (1980). Family structure and value orientation in American Indians. Social Casework, 60, 462–467.Google Scholar
  96. Red Horse, J. G. (1997). Traditional American Indian family systems. Families, Systems and Health, 1, 243–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Rege, M. (2005). Why do people care about social status?. Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 66, 233–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Reid, P. T. (1988). Racism and sexism: Comparisons and conflicts. In P. A. Katz & D. A. Taylor (Eds.), Eliminating racism (pp. 203–221). New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  99. Reid, P. T. (2002). Multicultural psychology: Bringing together gender and ethnicity. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 6, 103–114.Google Scholar
  100. Religious Freedom Restoration Act of 1993. (2009). 42 U.S.C. § 200066 to 200066-4.Google Scholar
  101. Reupert, A., & Maybery, D. (2007). Families affected by parental mental illness: A multiperspective account of issues and interventions. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 77, 362–369.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Riley, C. L. (1974). Mesoamerican Indians in the early southwest. Ethnohistory, 21, 25–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Ringel, G. (1979). The Kawkiutl potlatch: History, economics and symbols. Ethnohistory, 26, 347–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Rosman, A., & Rubel, P. G. (1972). The potlatch: A structural analysis. American Anthropologist, 74, 658–671.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Rupp, D. E., Vodanovich, S. J., & Crede, M. (2006). Age bias in the workplace: The impact of ageism and causal attributions. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 36, 1337–1364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Sanders Thompson, V. L., Noel, J. G., & Campbell, J. (2004). Stigmatization, discrimination, and mental health: The impact of multiple identity status. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 74, 529–544.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Sargeant, M. (2005). Age discrimination: Equal treatment with exceptions. International Journal of Discrimination and the Law, 6, 251–266.Google Scholar
  108. Saxman, M. C. (1999). The Canton Asylum for insane Indians. Cultural Resource Management, 22, 40–42. National Park Service. Retrieved September 29, 2009, from httpcrm.cr.nps.govindex.htm.Google Scholar
  109. Sibicky, M., & Dovidio, J. F. (1986). Stigma of psychological therapy: Stereotypes, interpersonal reactions, and the self-fulfilling prophecy. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 33, 148–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Simmons, W. S. (1981). Cultural bias in the New England Puritans’ perception of Indians. The William and Mary Quarterly, 38, 56–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Soule, B., & Soule, J. (2003). Death at the Hiawatha Asylum for insane Indians. South Dakota Journal of Medicine, 21, 15–19.Google Scholar
  112. Spaulding, J. M. (1986). The Canton Asylum for Insane Indians: An example of institutional neglect. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 37, 1007–1011.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Standing Bear, L. (1928). My people the Sioux. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.Google Scholar
  114. Standing Bear, L. (1933). Land of the spotted eagle. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.Google Scholar
  115. Stawicki, E. (1997, December 7). A haunting legacy: Canton Insane Asylum for American Indians. Minnesota Public Radio. Retrieved August 30, 2008, from http://news.minnesota.publicradio.org/features/199712/09_stawickie_asylum/.
  116. Strickland, R. (1975). Fire and the spirits: Cherokee law from clan to court. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press.Google Scholar
  117. Strout, L. N. (1995). Politics and mental illness: The campaigns of Thomas Eagleton and Lawton Chiles. The Journal of American Culture, 18, 67–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Sue, D., & Sue, S. (1987). Cultural factors in the clinical assessment of Asian Americans. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55, 479–487.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Takaki, R. T. (1993). A different mirror: A history of multicultural America. Boston: Little, Brown and Company.Google Scholar
  120. Talbot, S. (2006). Spiritual genocide: The denial of American Indian religious freedom, from conquest to 1934. Wicazo Sa Review, 21, 7–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Tehee, M., & Willis Esqueda, C. (2008). American Indian and European American womens perceptions of domestic violence. Journal of Family Violence, 23, 25–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Tjaden, P., & Thoennes, N. (1998). Prevalence, incidence and consequences of violence against women: Findings from the National violence against women survey. (NCJ No. 172837). Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, National Institute of Justice.Google Scholar
  123. Towler, A. J., & Schneider, D. J. (2005). Distinctions among stigmatized groups. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 35, 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. US Census Bureau. (2004). US Interim projections by age, sex, race and hispanic origin. Retrieved November 1, 2009, from http://www.census.gov/population/www/projections/usinterimproj/natprojtab02a.pdf
  125. US Department of Health and Human Services. (1995). HHS Reports on access to health care for medicare beneficiaries; Invites HBCU help in approaching minority access problems. Retrieved November 1, 2009, from http://www.hhs.gov/news/press/1995pres/951018.html
  126. US Department of Health and Human Services (2007, January). Key themes and highlights from the National Healthcare Disparities Report. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Retrieved November 1, 2009, from http://www.ahrq.gov/qual/nhdr06/highlights/nhdr06high.htm.
  127. US Department of the Interior (2009). Bureau of Indian Affairs. Indian entities recognized and eligible to receive services from the United States Bureau of Indian Affairs. Retrieved November 1, 2009, from http://www.bia.gov/idc/groups/public/documents/text/idc002655.pdf.
  128. US Equal Opportunity Employment Commission. (2009). Age Discrimination in Employment Act (includes concurrent charges with Title VII, ADA and EPA) FY 1997 – FY 2008. Retrieved July 31, 2009, from http://www.eeoc.gov/stats/adea.html
  129. Uhlmann, E., Dasgupta, N., Elgueta, A., Greenwald, A. G., & Swanson, J. (2002). Subgroup prejudice based on skin color among Hispanics in the United States and Latin America. Social Cognition, 20, 198–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Vicenti, C. N., Long, D., & Looking Horse, A. (2004). Religious freedom and native sovereignty-protecting native religions through tribal, federal, and state law. Wicazo Sa Review, 19, 185–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Walker, J. R. (1991). Lakota belief and ritual. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.Google Scholar
  132. Walker, D. (2006). ADHD as the new “feeblemindedness” of American Indian children. In G. Lloyd, J. Stead, & D. Cohen (Eds.), Critical new perspectives on ADHD (pp. 66–82). New York: Routledge Press.Google Scholar
  133. Weeks, M., & Lupfer, M. B. (2004). Complicating race: The relationship between prejudice, race, and social class categorizations. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 30, 972–984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Weibel-Orlando, J. (1997). Grandparenting styles: The contemporary American Indian experience. In Sokolovsky, J. (Ed.), The cultural context of aging: Worldwide perspectives (pp. 139–155). Westport, CT: Bergin & Garvey.Google Scholar
  135. Weissman, D. M. (2002). Law as largess: Shifting paradigms of law for the poor. William and Mary Law Review, 44, 737–828.Google Scholar
  136. Whitbeck, L. B., McMorris, B. J., Hoyt, D. R., Stubben, J. D., & LaFromboise, T. (2002). Perceived discrimination, traditional practices, and depressive symptoms among American Indians in the Upper Midwest. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 43, 400–418.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Williams, R. A. (1990). The American Indian in western legal thought. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  138. Williams, W. R. (2009). Struggling with poverty: Implications for theory and policy of increasing research on social class-based stigma. Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy, 9, 37–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Willis Esqueda, C., Espinoza, R. K. E., & Culhane, S. (2008). Effects of race, ses of defendant, and ses of crime on culpability decision making: A cross-cultural examination of European American and Mexican American mock jurors. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 30, 181–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Willis Esqueda, C., & Tehee, M. (2006). Legal and psychological approaches to understanding domestic violence for American Indigenous women. In B. Brooks-Gordon & M. Freeman (Eds.), Current legal problems: Law and psychology (pp. 257–273). London: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  141. Willis, C. E., Hallinan, M. N., & Melby, J. (1996). Effects of sex role stereotyping among European American students on domestic violence culpability attributions. Sex Roles, 34, 475–491.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Winnick, T. A., & Bodkin, M. (2009). Stigma, secrecy and race: An empirical examination of black and white incarcerated men. American Journal of Criminal Justice, 34, 131–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Winston, A. S. (2002). Defining difference: Race and racism in the history of psychology. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  144. Woolf, A. (2000). Witchcraft or mycotoxin? The Salem Witch Trials. Clinical Toxicology, 38, 457–460.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Word, C. O., Zanna, M. P., & Cooper, J. (1974). The nonverbal mediation of self-fulfilling prophecies in interracial interaction. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 10, 109–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Wunder, J. (1994). Retained by the people: American Indians and the bill of rights. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  147. Wunder, J. (1999). Native American cultural and religious freedoms. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  148. Yeats, D. E., Crow, T., & Folts, E. (1992). Service use among low-income minority elderly: Strategies for overcoming barriers. The Gerontologist, 32, 24–32.Google Scholar
  149. Yellow Bird, P. (2002). Wild Indians: Native perspectives on the Hiawatha Insane Asylum. Retrieved August 10, 2002, from http://www.mindfreedom.org/kb/mental-health-abuse/Racism/wild-indians.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyInstitute of Ethnic Studies, University of Nebraska-LincolnLincolnUSA

Personalised recommendations