Advertisement

Ellis A. Johnson

  • Saul I. Gass
Chapter
Part of the International Series in Operations Research & Management Science book series (ISOR, volume 147)

Abstract

When World WarII (WWII) began, the U.S. was able to call on scientists from many disciplines to apply their expertise to a wide range of military combat problems. A key contributor was the physicist Ellis A. Johnson. In the early days of the war, he and his Naval Ordnance Laboratory (NOL) embryonic Operations Research (OR) staff made seminal contributions to the design and utilization of mines, including degaussing procedures and mine-laying patterns. Later, as a naval officer, Ellis coordinated the Army Air Force’s major mine-laying operation of the Inland Sea between Japan and the Asian mainland—Operation Starvation—a spectacularly successful campaign that was conceived, planned, and directed by the use of OR techniques. For his wartime contributions, Ellis receiving The Navy’s Distinguished Civilian Citation and the Army’s Distinguished Civilian Service Medal, and Legion of Merit awards from both the Navy and the Air Force.

Keywords

Operation Research Pearl Harbor Ground Force Guerilla Warfare Merit Award 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Hausrath AH (1954) Utilization of Negro manpower in the Army. Oper Res 2(1):18–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Johnson EA (1954) The executive, the organization, and operations research. In: McCloskey JF, Trefethen FN (eds) Operations research for management, vol 1. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD, pp xi–xxivGoogle Scholar
  3. Johnson EA (1960) The long-range future of operational research. Oper Res 8(1):1–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Johnson EA (1961) Toward establishment of a role for operations research in economic development programs. Oper Res 9(5):743–747CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Johnson EA, Katcher DA (1973) Mines against Japan. Naval Ordnance Laboratory, White Oak, MD; U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  6. Operations Research Office (1961) A survey of ORO accomplishments. The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MDGoogle Scholar
  7. Page T, Pettee GS, Wallace WA (1974) Ellis A. Johnson, 1906–1973. Oper Res 22(6):1141–1155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Reed LJ (1954) The Johns Hopkins University Lanchester Prize: letter from the president of Johns Hopkins University to the president of ORSA. Oper Res 2(4):362Google Scholar
  9. Shortley G (1967) Operations research in wartime naval mining. Oper Res 15(1):1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Shrader CR (2006) History of operations research in the U.S. Army, vol I: 1942–1962. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  11. Visco EP (2004) Ellis A. Johnson and Wilbur B. Payne FS: two unsung (relatively) pioneers. Mil Oper Res 9(4):67–72Google Scholar
  12. Whitson WL (1960) The growth of the operations research office in the U.S. Army. Oper Res 8(6):809–824CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Zimmerman RE (1956) A Monte Carlo model for military analysis. In: McCloskey JF, Coppinger JM (eds) Operations research for management, vol 2. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD, pp 376–400Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Robert H. Smith School of BusinessUniversity of MarylandCollege ParkUSA

Personalised recommendations