Occupational Risk in the Tanning Industry

Chapter

Abstract

In this chapter, the aim was to discuss and determine the inherent occupational risks and hazards (closely ascertaining the kinetic and dynamic principles of toxicity) related to the tanning industry. The study demonstrated that biosensors can be used to assess toxicity of dust in both solid and liquid phase, and to compare and complement the biosensor assay with analytical methods to identify the likely toxic agent(s) in the tannery dust. Solid phase study of the tannery dust using bacterial biosensors required close contact between the bacterial cells and the particulate matter (achieved through centrifugation), while retaining the ability to ‘recover’ the bacterial cells to measure the luminescence-based toxicity response. However, when using luminescent bacteria for solid phase toxicity testing certain problems can be encountered where light output (luminescence) is affected by coloured supernatant and differing numbers of cells in the sample; loss of bacteria due to adhesion to suspended sediment/dust particles and optical interference of suspended sediment particles.

Keywords

Nickel Formaldehyde Hydrolysis Toxicity Dust 

References

  1. Adams TK, Sadam N, Steiner F, Schaffner W, Freedman JH (2002) Activation of gene expression by metal-responsive signal transduction pathways. Environmental Health Perspect 110: 813–817.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Al-Rajhi MA, Al-Sayeb SM, Seaward MRD, Edwards HMG (1996) Particle size effect for metal pollution analysis of atmospherically deposited dust. Atmos Environ 30: 145–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anonymous (1979) National research council, air borne particles, Baltimore: University Park Press, pp. 979.Google Scholar
  4. Anonymous (2001a) State of Knowledge Report: Air toxics and indoor air quality in door air quality in Australia. Environment Australia, ISBN 0642547394, Chapter 1, pp. 1–49.Google Scholar
  5. Anonymous (2002) Chrome tan powder (CAS No 12336-95-7, EC No235-595-8, Document No SDS-21 Issue 005 (30/06/2002) http://www.elementischromium.com/ pdf/045105sds-021.pdf. accessed 4th May 2005
  6. Anonymous (2003) Unione Nazionale Industria Conciaria. Environmental report 2003, www.unic.it accessed 4th May 2005
  7. Benton MJ, Malott ML, Knight SS, Cooper CM, Benson WH (1995) Influence of sediment composition on apparent toxicity in a solid-phase test using bioluminescent bacteria. Environ Toxicol Chem 14: 411–414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Boyd EM, Meharg AA, Wright J, Killham K (1997) Assessment of toxicological interactions of benzene and its primary degradation products (catechol and phenols) using a lux-modified bacterial bioassay. Environ Toxicol Chem 16: 849–856.Google Scholar
  9. Brown JS, Rattray EAS, Paton GI, Reid G, Caffoor I, Killham K (1996) Comparative assessment of the toxicity of a paper mill effluent by respiratory and luminescence based bacteria assay Chemosphere 32:1553–1561.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brower H, Murphy T, McArdle L (1990) Sediment-contact bioassay contact with Photobacterium phosphoreum. Environ Toxicol Chem 9:1353–1358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Brusseau ML, Bohn HL (1996) Chemical processes affecting contaminant fate and transport in soil and water, chapter 6. p. 73. In: Pepper LI, Gerba PC, Brusseau ML (eds.) Pollution science, Academic Press (Elsevier Science, USA), San Diego, California, USA.Google Scholar
  12. Burton GA Jr, Stemmer BL, Winks KL, Ross PE, Burnet LC (1989). A multitrophic level evaluation of sediment toxicity in Waukegan and Indiana harbors. Environ Toxicol Chem 8: 783–798.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cerulli J, Grabe DW, Gauthier I, Malone M, McGoldrick MD (1998) Chromium picolinate toxicity. Ann Pharmacother 32: 428–431.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cohen MD, Karagacin B, Klein CB, Costa M (1993) Mechanisms of chromium carcinogenicity and toxicity. Crit Rev Toxicol. 27: 431– 442.Google Scholar
  15. Costa M (1997) Toxicity and carcinogenicity of Cr(VI) in animal models and humans: Crit Rev Toxicol 27: 431–442.Google Scholar
  16. Costa M (2003) Potential hazards of hexavalent chromate in our drinking water. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 188: 1–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dombroski EC, Gaudet ID, Florence LZ (1996) A comparison of techniques used to extract solid samples prior to acute toxicity analysis using the microtox test. Environ Toxicol Water Qual 11: 121–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Elkhatib EA, Ennett OL, Baligar VC, Wright RJ (1986) A centrifuge method for obtaining soil solution using an immiscible liquid. Soil Sci Soc Am J 50: 297–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Elkhatib EA, Hern JL, Staley TE (1987) A rapid centrifugation method for obtaining soil solution. Soil Sci Soc Am J 51: 587–583.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Fergusson FE, Ryan DE (1984) The elemental composition of street dust from large and small urban areas related to city type, source and particle size. Sci of the Total Environ 34: 101–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Friess SL (1989) Carcinogenic risk assessment criteria associated with inhalation of air borne particles containing chromium (VI/III). Sci Total Environ 86: 109–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Giesy JP, Hoke RA (1990) Freshwater sediment quality criteria: toxicity bioassesssment. pp 265–348. In: Baudo R, Giesy JP, Muntau H (eds.) Sediments: chemistry and toxicology of in-place pollutants. Lewis publishers Inc. Ann Arbor, Michigan.Google Scholar
  23. Goicolea A, Barrio RJ, Balugera ZG, Gorostiza I, San Vicente A, Diaz AI (1998) Study of the toxicity in industrial soils by the luminescence assay. J Environ Sci Health A33: 863–875.Google Scholar
  24. Handa BK, Kumar A, Goel DK, Sondhi TN (1985) Pollution of ground water by Chromium in Utter Pradesh (India). Health Effects Environ Pollut 14: 38–49.Google Scholar
  25. Hafez AI, El-Manharawy MS, Khedr MA (2002) RO membrane removal of untreated chromium from spent tanning effluent. A pilot scale study, part 2., Desalination 144: 237–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hertel RF (1986) Sources of exposure and biological effects of chromium. IARC Science Publications 71: 63–77.Google Scholar
  27. Huang C, Zhang Q, Li J, Shi X, Castronova V, Ju G, Costa M, Dong Z, (2001) Involvement of Erks activation in cadmium-induced AP- 1 transactivation in vitro and in vivo. Mol Cell Biochem 222: 141–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. IARC (1989) Monograph of Chromium, Nickel, and Welding, Vol. 49, International Agency of Cancer, Lyon, France.Google Scholar
  29. Isenberg DL (1993) The Microtox toxicity test: a developer’s commentary. In: Richardson M, (ed), Ecotoxicology Monitoring. Weinheim, Germany: VCH, 3–15.Google Scholar
  30. Jensen J (1996) Chlorophenols in the terrestrial environment. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 146: 25–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kane JW, Sternheim MM (1978) Life science physics. pp. 257–259. New York, USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.Google Scholar
  32. Kendorf H, Schnitzer M (1980). Sorption of metals to humic acid. Geochim Cosmochim Acta Geochim Cosmochim Acta 44: 1701- 1708.Google Scholar
  33. Khwaja AR (1998) Studies on pollution abatement of wastes from leather Industries, PhD thesis, University of Roorkee, India.Google Scholar
  34. King RP (1984) Measurement of particle size distribution by image analyser Powder Tech 39: 279–289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kittrick JA (1983) Accuracy of several immiscible displacement liquids. Soil Sci Soc Am J 47: 1045–1047.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kornhauser C, Wrobel Katarzyna., Worbel Kazimierz., Malacara JM, Nava LE, Gomez L, Gonzalez R (2002) Possible adverse effect of chromium in occupation exposure of the tannery workers. Ind health 40 (2): 207–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kotaś J, Stasicka Z (2000) Chromium occurrence in the environment and methods of its speciation. Environ Pollut 107: 263 - 283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kowalski Z (1994) Treatment of chromic tannery wastes. J Hazard Mater 37: 134–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Linton RW, Natusch DFS, Solomon RL, Evans CA (1980) Physicochemical characterisation of lead in urban dusts. A microanalytical approach to lead tracing J Environ Sci Tech 14: 159–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Michaud D, Baril M, Dion C, Perrault GJ (1996) Characterisation of airborne dust from two non-ferrous foundries by physico-chemical methods and multivariate statistical analysis. J Air Waste Manag Assoc 46: 450–457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Murti KCR (1989) Health implications of hazardous wastes disposal. pp.191–196. In: Maltezou SP, Biswas AK, Sutter H (eds.) Hazardous Waste Management, Tycooly, London.Google Scholar
  42. Mwinyihija M, Strachan NJC, Dawson J, Meharg A, Killham K (2006) An ecotoxicological approach to assessing the impact of tanning industry effluent on river health. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 50, 316–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Mwinyihija M, Strachan NJC, Meharg A, Killham K (2005a) Biosensor based toxicity dissection of tannery and associated environmental samples. J Am Leather Chem Assoc 100: 381–490.Google Scholar
  44. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) (2002) Pocket guide to chemical hazards, March 21st, 2002. www.cdc.gov/niosh/npg/npgd.html Accessed on the 22nd May 2005.
  45. Niklas L, Osmo A, Jouko Y (2002) Does powder surface contain all necessary information for particle size distribution analysis? Eur J Pharmaceut Sci 17: 217–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Paton GI, Campbell CD, Glover LA, Killham K (1995) Assessment of bioavailability of heavy metals using lux modified constructs of Pseudomonas fluorescens. Lett Appl Microbiol 20: 52–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Paton GI, Rattary EAS, Campbell CD, Cressor MS, Glover LA, Meeussen JCL, Killham K (1997b) Use of genetically modified biosensors for soil ecotoxicity testing. pp. 397–418. In: Pankhurst C, Doube B, Gupta V. (eds.) Biological indicators of soil health and sustainable productivity. CAB International, Oxford. Google Scholar
  48. Park J, Dec J, Kim J, Bollag J (1999) Effect of humic constituents in the transformation of chlorinated phenols and anilines in the presence of oxidoreductase enzymes or birnessite. Environ Sci Tech 33: 2028–2034.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Permuter NM, Lieber M (1970) Dispersal of plating waste and sewage contaminants in ground water and surface water. Washington DC: US Government printing office, pp. 1–67.Google Scholar
  50. Ramasami T, Rajaram R, Nair BU (1995) Chromium(III) induced abnormalities in human lymphocyte cell proliferation: evidence for apoptosis. Biochem Biophys Res Comm 210: 434–440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Reid BJ, Jones KT, Semple KT (2000) Bioavailability of persistent organic pollutants in soils and sediments – a perspective on mechanisms, consequences and assessment. Environ Pollut 108: 103–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Ringwood AH, Delorenzo ME, Ross PE, Holland AF (1997) Interpretation of Microtox solid-phase toxicity tests: the effects of sediment composition. Environ Toxicol Chem 16: 1135–1140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Rönnpagel K, Liß W, Ahlf W (1995) Microbial bioassays to assess the toxicity of solid-associated contaminants. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 31: 99–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Ross PE (1993) The use of bacterial luminescence systems in aquatic toxicity testing. pp. 384. In: Richardson ML (ed.) Ecotoxicity Monitoring, VCH Publishers, Weinheim.Google Scholar
  55. Ross DL, Bartlett RJ (1990) Effects of extraction methods and sample storage on properties of solutions obtained from forested spodosols. J Environ Qual 19: 108–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Ross PE, Henebry MS (1989) Use of four microbial tests to assess the ecotoxicological hazard of contaminated sediments. Tox Assess Int J 4: 1–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Rotariu O, Strachan NJC, Badescu VA (2002a) Modeling of microorganisms capture on magnetic carriers microcapsules, 9th International Conference of Magnetic Fluids, Bremen, 23–27 July (2001), Germany. J Magn Magn Mater 252: 390–392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Rotariu O, Strachan NJC, Badescu VA (2004) Stochastic model simulating the capture of pathogenic microorganisms by superparamagnetic particles in an isodynamic magnetic field. Phys Med Biol 49: 3971–3978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Semple KT, Morriss AW, Paton GI (2003) Bioavailability of hydrophobic organic contaminants in soils: fundamental concepts and techniques for analysis. Eur J Soil Sci 54: 809–818.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Sinclair MG (1999) Soil toxicity assessment of 2,4-DCP using lux microbial biosensors. PhD thesis, University of Aberdeen, U.K.Google Scholar
  61. Shmitova LA (1978) The course of pregnancy in women engaged in the production of chromium and its compound. Vliy Prof Fakt Spet Funk Zhensk Organ, Sverdlovsk 108–111 (Rusian).Google Scholar
  62. Shmitova LA (1980) Content of hexavalent chromium in the biological substrates of pregnant women and women in the immediate postnatal period engaged in the manufacture of chromium compounds. Gig Trud. Prof. Zabol. 2: 33–35 (Russian).Google Scholar
  63. Shrivastava R, Upreti RK, Seth PK, Chaturvedi UC (2002) The effects of chromium on the immune system. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 34: 1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Sobanska S, Ricq N, Laboudigue A, Guillermo R, Bremard C, Laureyns J, Merlin CJ, Wignacourt JP (1999) Micro chemical investigations of dust emitted by a lead smelter. J Environ Sci Technol 33: 1334–1339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Sousa S, Duffy C, Weitz H, Glover AL, Bar E, Henkler R, Killham K (1998) Use of a lux-modified bacterial biosensor to identify constraints to bioremediation of BTEX-contaminated sites. Environ Toxicol Chem 17: 1039–1045.Google Scholar
  66. Statutory Instrument UK No 2677 (2002) The control of substances hazardous to health regulations 2002, ISBN 0 11 042919 2.Google Scholar
  67. Steinberg SM, Poziomek EJ, Engelman WH, Rogers KR (1995) A review of environmental applications of bioluminescence measurements. Chemosphere 30: 2155–2195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Stuhlfauth T (1995) Ecotoxicological monitoring of industrial effluents, chapter 14. pp. 187. In: Richardson M (ed.) Environmental toxicology assessment. Taylor & Francis, Hertfordshire, United Kingdom.Google Scholar
  69. Thibault DH, Sheppard MI (1982) A disposable system for pore water extraction by centrifugation. Comm Soil Sci Plant Anal 23: 1638–1642.Google Scholar
  70. Tiensing T (2002) Novel Techniques in Assessing Bioavailability of pollutants in Soils. PhD thesis, University of Aberdeen, U.K.Google Scholar
  71. United Nations (1979) Fine Particulate Pollution, Pergamon Press, New York.Google Scholar
  72. UNEP IE/PAC (1994) Tanneries and the Environment – A Technical Guide, Technical Report (2nd Print) Series No 4, ISBN 92 807 1276 4.Google Scholar
  73. Vasant C, Balamurugan K, Rajaram R, Ramasami T (2001) Apoptosis of lymphocytes in the presence of Cr(V) complex: role in Cr(VI) induced toxicity. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 285: 1354–1360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Vedy JC, Brucket S (1992) Soil solution: composition and pedagonic significance. In: Constituents and properties of soil. Academic Press Inc., New York.Google Scholar
  75. Walker CH, Hopkins SP, Sibly RM, Peakall DB (1996) Principles of Ecotoxicology. Taylor and Francis, London.Google Scholar
  76. Welp G, BrÜmmer GW (1997) Toxicity of increased amounts of chemicals and the dose-response curves for heterogeneous microbial populations in soil. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 37: 37–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Ye J, Shi I. (2001) Gene expression profile in response to chromium induced cell stress in A549 cells. Mol Cell Biochem 222: 189–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Zhang Q, Kluz T, Salnikow K, Costa M (2002) Comparison of the cytotoxicity, cellular uptake, and DNA-protein crosslinks induced by potassium chromate in lymphoblast cell lines derived from three individuals. Biologic Trace Element Res 86: 11–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Zhitkovich A, Voitkun V, Costa M (1995) Glutathione and free amino acids form stable complexes with DNA following exposure of intact mammalian cells to chromate. Carcinogenesis 16: 907–913.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Zhitkovich A, Voitkun V, Costa M (1996) Formation of amino acids – DNA complexes by hexavalent and trivalent chromium and phosphate group. Biochemistry 35: 7275–7282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Zingerman JP, Metha SC, Slalter JM, Radebaugh GW (1992) Validation of computerised image analysis system for particle size determination: Pharmaceutical applications. Int J Pharm 88: 303–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer New York 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Leather Development CouncilNairobiKenya

Personalised recommendations