Advertisement

Head and Neck

  • John D. Henley
  • Don-John Summerlin
Chapter

Abstract

Given the complex anatomy of the head and neck, the diversity of the pathology affecting this region is not surprising. As the primary portal of entry to the human body, the upper aerodigestive tract is subjected to environmental exposures that can result in a variety of neoplasms and infections. While ubiquitous squamous cell carcinoma is the most common malignancy of the upper aerodigestive tract, the jaws and nasal passages are host to many unique, site-specific tumors (i.e., odontogenic neoplasms, olfactory neuroblastoma). Infections play a major role in the pathology of this region with many bacteria, fungi, and viruses serving as significant pathogens. Moreover, primary or secondary manifestations of various autoimmune diseases not uncommonly affect the head and neck. The larynx hosts mucosal-based pathology that parallels that encountered more proximally in the oropharynx and oral cavity. Furthermore, the unique anatomy and functional mechanics of the glottis give rise to its own unique lesions.

Keywords

Mouth Oral cancer Squamous cell carcinoma Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma Verrucous carcinoma Minor salivary glands Odontogenic neoplasms Ameloblastoma Oropharynx Nasal cavity Paranasal sinuses Sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma Olfactory neuroblastoma Rhinosinusitis Allergic fungal sinusitis Nasopharynx Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma Larynx Glottis Vocal cord polyp 

SUGGESTED READINGS

Nasal Cavity, Paranasal Sinuses, and Nasopharynx

  1. Banks ER, Frierson HF Jr, Mills SE, Swanson PE, et al. Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. A clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 40 cases. Am J Surg Pathol 1992;16:939–946.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Barnes L. Schneiderian papillomas and nonsalivary glandular neoplasms of the head and neck. Mod Pathol 2002;15:279–297.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bourne TD, Bellizzi AM, Stelow EB, et al. p63 Expression in olfactory neuroblastoma and other small cell tumors of the sinonasal tract. Am J Clin Pathol 2008;130:213–218.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Devaney K. Wenig BM. Abbondanzo SL. Olfactory neuroblastoma and other round cell lesions of the sinonasal region. Mod Pathol 1996;9:658–663.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Devaney KO, Travis WD, Hoffman G, et al. Interpretation of head and neck biopsies in Wegener’s granulomatosis. A pathologic study of 126 biopsies in 70 patients. Am J Surg Pathol 1990;14:555–564.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Fletcher CD. Distinctive soft tissue tumors of the head and neck. Mod Pathol 2002;15:324–330.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Friedman GC, Hartwick RW, Ro JY, et al. Allergic fungal sinusitis. Report of three cases associated with dematiaceous fungi. Am J Clin Pathol 1991;96:368–372.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Frierson HF Jr, Mills SE, Fechner RE, et al. Sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma. An aggressive neoplasm derived from schneiderian epithelium and distinct from olfactory neuroblastoma. Am J Surg Pathol 1986;10:771–779.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Heffner DK, Hyams VJ. Teratocarcinosarcoma (malignant teratoma?) of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses a clinicopathologic study of 20 cases. Cancer 1984;53:2140–2154.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Iezzoni JC, Mills SE. “Undifferentiated” small round cell tumors of the sinonasal tract: differential diagnosis update. Am J Clin Pathol 2005;124 Suppl:S110–121.Google Scholar
  11. Ohshima K, Suzumiya J, Shimazaki K, et al. Nasal T/NK cell lymphomas commonly express perforin and Fas ligand: important mediators of tissue damage. Histopathology 1997;31:444–450.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ridolfi RL, Lieberman PH, Erlandson RA, et al. Schneiderian papillomas: a clinicopathologic study of 30 cases. Am J Surg Pathol 1977;1:43–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Seethala RR, Hunt JL, Baloch ZW, LiVolsi VA, et al. Adenoid cystic carcinoma with high-grade transformation: a report of 11 cases and a review of the literature. Am J Surg Pathol 2007;31:1683–1694.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Thompson LD, Miettinen M, Wenig BM. Sinonasal-type hemangiopericytoma: a clinicopathologic and immunophenotypic analysis of 104 cases showing perivascular myoid differentiation. Am J Surg Pathol 2003;27:737–749.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Thompson LD, Wieneke JA, Miettinen M. Sinonasal tract and nasopharyngeal melanomas: a clinicopathologic study of 115 cases with a proposed staging system. Am J Surg Pathol 2003;27:594–611.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Larynx and Trachea

  1. Banks ER, Frierson HF Jr, Mills SE, et al. Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. A clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 40 cases. Am J Surg Pathol 1992;16:939–946.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baumann JL, Cohen S, Evjen AN, et al. Human papillomavirus in early laryngeal carcinoma. Laryngoscope 2009;119:1531–1537.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cook JR, Hill DA, Humphrey PA, Pfeifer JD, et al. Squamous cell carcinoma arising in recurrent respiratory papillomatosis with pulmonary involvement: emerging common pattern of clinical features and human papillomavirus serotype association. Mod Pathol 2000;13:914–918.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Derkay CS, Wiatrak B. Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis: a review. Laryngoscope 2008;118:1236–1247.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ferlito A, Devaney KO, Rinaldo A. Neuroendocrine neoplasms of the ­larynx: advances in identification, understanding, and management. Oral Oncol 2006;42:770–778.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Mills SE. Neuroectodermal neoplasms of the head and neck with emphasis on neuroendocrine carcinomas. Mod Pathol 2002;15:264–278.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Thompson LD, Gannon FH. Chondrosarcoma of the larynx: a clinicopathologic study of 111 cases with a review of the literature. Am J Surg Pathol 2002;26:836–851.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Thompson LD, Wieneke JA, Miettinen M, et al. Spindle cell (sarcomatoid) carcinomas of the larynx: a clinicopathologic study of 187 cases. Am J Surg Pathol 2002;26:153–170.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Wenig BM. Necrotizing sialometaplasia of the larynx. A report of two cases and a review of the literature. Am J Clin Pathol 1995;103:609–613.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Wiernik G, Millard PR, Haybittle JL. The predictive value of histological classification into degrees of differentiation of squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx and hypopharynx compared with the survival of patients. Histopathology 1991;19:411–417.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • John D. Henley
    • 1
  • Don-John Summerlin
    • 2
  1. 1.Columbus Regional HospitalColumbusUSA
  2. 2.Indiana University School of MedicineIndianapolisUSA

Personalised recommendations