• Eyas M. Hattab
  • Matthew C. Hagen
  • Bernd W. Scheithauer
  • Arie Perry


This chapter presents a concise yet comprehensive overview of neuropathology covering a broad range of topics starting with general neurohistology and reaction to injury. A generous section is devoted for the discussion of various CNS neoplasms (glial, neuronal, glioneuronal, meningeal, and nonglial) with a summary of the clinical, radiographic, gross, and microscopic pathology and differential diagnosis of each entity. Other topics discussed include trauma, ischemic/anoxic injury, vascular disorders, neurodegenerative diseases, inflammatory and infectious diseases, pediatric and seizure-associated neuropathology, toxic and metabolic disorders, and sellar and suprasellar pathology including diseases of the pituitary gland. The text is oriented towards the general anatomic pathology resident for use during rotation in neuropathology, autopsy pathology, and preparation for anatomic pathology boards and in-service examinations. It may also be of use for practicing pathologists, neurosurgery and neurology residents, and faculty as a quick reference and preparation for various exams. The chapter has been updated to include changes present in the 2007 World Health Organization (WHO) classification system.


Neuropathology CNS Brain Glioma Glioblastoma Astrocytoma Oligodendroglioma Ependymoma Alzheimer’s Parkinson’s Creutzfeldt–Jakob Multiple sclerosis Hydrocephaly Seizure Malformation Pituitary 

Suggested Reading


  1. Brat DJ, Scheithauer BW, Staugaitis SM, Cortez SC, Brecher K, Burger PC. Third ventricular chordoid glioma: a distinct clinicopathologic entity. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 1998;57:283–290.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Burger PC. Pathology of brain stem astrocytomas. Pediatr Neurosurg 1996;24:35–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Burger PC, Pearl DK, Aldape K, et al. Small cell architecture – a ­histological equivalent of EGFR amplification in glioblastoma ­multiforme? J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 2001;60:1099–1104.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Choi YE, Chi JG, Suh YL. CD99 immunoreactivity in ependymoma. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol 2001;9:125–129.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Emestus RI, Schroder R, Stutzer H, et al. The clinical and prognostic relevance of grading in intracranial ependymomas. Br J Neurosurg 1997;11:421–428.Google Scholar
  6. Fernandez C, Figarella-Branger D, Girard N, et al. Pilocytic astrocytomas in children: prognostic factors – a retrospective study of 80 cases. Neurosurgery 2003;53:544–555.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Giannini C, Scheithauer BW, Burger PC, et al. Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma. What do we really know about it? Cancer 1999;85:2033–2045.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Hirose T, Scheithauer BW, Lopes MBS, et al. Tuber and sub-ependymal giant cell astrocytoma associated with tuberous sclerosis: an immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, and immunoelectron microscopic study. Acta Neuropathol 1995;90:387–399.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Kepes JJ. Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma: the birth of a diagnosis and a concept. Brain Pathol 1993;3:269–274.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Komotar RJ, Burger PC, Carson BS, et al. Pilocytic and pilomyxoid hypothalamic/chiasmatic astrocytomas. Neurosurgery 2004;54:72–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Louis DN, Ohgaki H, Wiestler OD, Cavenee WK, (eds.). WHO Classification of Tumours of the Central Nervous System. WHO Classification of Tumours (4th Edition). Lyon: IARC Press; 2007.Google Scholar
  12. Min KW, Scheithauer BW. Clear cell ependymoma: a mimic of oligodendroglioma: clinicopathologic and ultrastructural considerations. Am J Surg Pathol 1997;21:820–826.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Morales H, Gaskill-Shipley M. Imaging of common adult and pediatric primary brain tumors. Semin Roentgenol 2010;45:92–106.Google Scholar
  14. Perry A. Oligodendroglial neoplasms: current concepts, misconceptions, and folklore. Adv Anatomic Pathol 2001;8:183–199.Google Scholar
  15. Perry A. Pathology of low-grade gliomas. An update of emerging concepts. Neuro-Oncology 2003;5: 168–178.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Pfister S, Hartmann C, Korshunov A. Histology and molecular pathology of pediatric brain tumors. J Child Neurol 2009;24:1375–1386.Google Scholar
  17. Reifenberger G, Kaulich K, Wiestler OD, Blumcke I. Expression of the CD34 antigen in pleomorphic xanthoastrocytomas. Acta Neuropathol 2003;105:358–364.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Rosenblum MK. Ependymal tumors: a review of their diagnostic surgical pathology. Pediatr Neurosurg 1998;28:160–165.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Sato K, Kubota T, Ishida M, Yoshida K, Takeuchi H, Handa Y. Immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study of chordoid glioma of the third ventricle: its tanycytic differentiation. Acta Neuropathol 2003;106:176–180.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Scheithauer BW, Fuller GN, VandenBerg SR. The 2007 WHO ­classification of tumors of the nervous system: controversies in surgical neuropathology. Brain Pathol 2008;18:307–316.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Sonneland PR, Scheithauer BW, Onofrio BM. Myxopapillary ependymoma. A clinicopathologic and immunocytochemical study of 77 cases. Cancer 1985;56:883–893.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Trembath D, Miller CR, Perry A. Gray zones in brain tumor classification: evolving concepts. Adv Anat Pathol 2008;15:287–297.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Vege KDS, Giannini C, Scheithauer BW. The immunophenotype of ependymomas. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol 2000;8:25–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Neuronal/Glioneuronal Neoplasms

  1. Behdad A, Perry A. Central nervous system primitive neuroectodermal tumors: a clinicopathologic and genetic study of 33 cases. Brain Pathol2010;20:441–450.Google Scholar
  2. Daumas-Duport C, Scheithauer BW, Chodkiewicz JP, et al. Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor: a surgically curable tumor of young patients with intractable partial seizures. Report of thirty-nine cases. Neurosurgery 1988;23:545–556.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Eberhart CG, Burger PC. Anaplasia and grading in medulloblastomas. Brain Pathol 2003;13:376–385.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Edgar MA, Rosenblum MK. Mixed glioneuronal tumors: recently described entities. Arch Pathol Lab Med 2007;131:228–233.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Fuller CE, Pfeifer J, Humphrey P, Bruch LA, Dehner LP, Perry A. Chromosome 22q dosage in composite extrarenal rhabdoid tumors: clonal evolution or a phenotypic mimic? Hum Pathol 2001;32: 1102–1108.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Giangaspero F, Perilongo G, Fondelli MP, et al. Medulloblastoma with extensive nodularity: a variant with favorable prognosis. J Neurosurg 1999;91:971–977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Hassoun J, Söylemezoglu F, Gambarelli D, et al. Central neurocytoma: a synopsis of clinical and histological features. Brain Pathol 1993; 3:297–306.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Hirose T, Scheithauer BW, Lopes MBS, et al. Olfactory neuroblastoma. As immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, and flow cytometric study. Cancer 1995;76:4–19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Ho DMT, Hsu CY, Wong TT, Ting LT, Chiang H. Atypical teratoid/­rhabdoid tumor of the central nervous system: a comparative study with primitive neuroectodermal tumor/medulloblastoma. Acta Neuropathol 2000;99:482–488.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Honavar M, Janota I, Polkey CE. Histological heterogeneity of ­dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumour: identification and differential diagnosis in a series of 74 cases. Histopathology 1999;34:342–356.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Luyken C, Blumcke I, Fimmers R, Urbach H, Wiestler OD, Schramm J. Supratentorial gangliogliomas: histopathologic grading and tumor recurrence in 184 patients with a median follow-up of 8 years. Cancer 2004;101:146–155.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. McManamy CS, Lamont JM, Taylor RE, et al. Morphophenotypic ­variation predicts clinical behavior in childhood non-desmoplastic medulloblastomas. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 2003;62:627–632.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Perry A. Medulloblastomas with favorable vs. unfavorable histology. How many small blue cell tumor types are there in the brain? Adv Anat Pathol 2002;9:345–350.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Rorke LB, Packer RJ, Biegel JA. Central nervous system atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors of infancy and childhood: definition of an entity. J Neurosurg 1996;85:56–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Schmidt MH, Gottfried ON, von Koch CS, Chang SM, McDermott MW. Central neurocytoma: a review. J Neurooncol 2004;66:377–383.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Tamburrini G, Colosimo C, Giangaspero F, Riccardi R, Di Rocco C. Desmoplastic infantile ganglioglioma. Childs Nerv Syst 2003;19:292–297.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. VandenBerg SR. Desmoplastic infantile ganglioglioma and desmoplastic cerebral astrocytoma of infancy. Brain Pathol 1993;3:275–281.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Meningeal Neoplasms

  1. Couce ME, Aker FV, Scheithauer BW. Chordoid meningioma. A clinicopathologic study of 42 cases. Am J Surg Pathol 2000;24:899–905.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Ecker RD, Marsh WR, Pollock BE, et al. Hemangiopericytoma in the central nervous system: treatment, pathological features, and long-term follow up in 38 patients. J Neurosurg 2003;98:1182–1187.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Ludwin SK, Rubinstein LJ, Russell DS. Papillary meningiomas: a ­malignant variant of meningioma. Cancer 1975;36:1363–1373.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Mena H, Ribas JL, Pezeshkpour GH, et al. Hemangiopericytoma of the central nervous system: a review of 94 cases. Hum Pathol 1991;22:84–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Perry A, Gutmann DH, Reifenberger G. Molecular pathogenesis of ­meningiomas. J Neurooncol 2004;70: 183–202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Perry A, Scheithauer BW, Stafford SE, et al. “Rhabdoid” meningioma: an aggressive variant. Am J Surg Pathol 1998;22:1482–1490.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Perry A, Stafford SE, Scheithauer BW, et al. “Malignancy” in meningiomas: a clinicopathologic study of 116 patients. Cancer 1999;85:2046–2056.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Rajaram V, Brat DJ, Perry A. Anaplastic meningioma vs. meningeal hemangiopericytoma: immunohistochemical and genetic markers. Hum Pathol 2004;135:1413–1418.Google Scholar
  9. Riemenschneider MJ, Perry A, Reifenberger G. Histological classification and molecular genetics of meningiomas. Lancet Neurol 2006;5:1045–1054.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Tihan T, Viglione M, Rosenblum MC, Olivi A, Burger PC. Solitary fibrous tumors in the central nervous system. A clinicopathologic review of 18 cases and comparison to meningeal hemangiopericytomas. Arch Pathol Lab Med 2003;127:432–439.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Zorludemir S, Scheithauer BW, Hirose T, et al. Clear cell meningioma. A clinicopathologic study of a potentially aggressive variant of ­meningioma. Am J Surg Pathol 1995;19:493–505.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Other Nonglial Neoplasms

  1. Bataille B, Delwail V, Menet E, et al. Primary intracerebral malignant ­lymphoma: report of 248 cases. J Neurosurg 2000;92:261–266.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Conway JE, Chou D, Clatterbuck RE, Brem H, Long DM, Rigamonti D. Hemangioblastomas of the central nervous system in von ­Hippel–Lindau syndrome and sporadic disease. Neurosurgery 2001;48:55–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Crotty TB, Scheithauer BW, Youn WF Jr., et al. Papillary craniopharyngioma: a clinicopathological study of 48 canes. J Neurosurg 1995;83: 206–214.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Hoang MP, Amirkhan RH. Inhibin alpha distinguishes hemangioblastoma from clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Am J Surg Pathol 2003;27:1152–1156.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Matsutani M, Sano K, Takakura K, et al. Primary intracranial germ cell tumors: a clinical analysis of 153 histologically verified cases. J Neurosurg 1997;86:446–455.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Paulus W. Classification, pathogenesis and molecular pathology of primary CNS lymphomas. J Neurooncol 1999;43:203–208.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Perry A, Parisi JE, Kurtin PJ. Metastatic adenocarcinoma to the brain. An immunohistochemical approach. Hum Pathol 1997;28:938–943.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Schild SE, Scheithauer BW, Haddock MG, et al. Histologically ­confirmed pineal tumors and other germ cell tumors of the brain. Cancer 1996;78:2564–2571.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Srodon M, Westra WH. Immunohistochemical staining for thyroid ­transcription factor-1: a helpful aid in discerning primary site of tumor origin in patients with brain metastases. Hum Pathol 2002;33:642–645.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Wolff JEA, Sajedi M, Brant R, Coppes MJ, Egeler RM. Choroid plexus tumours. Br J Cancer 2002;87:1086–1091.PubMedGoogle Scholar


  1. Crout SE, Flanders AE. Neuropathology of human spinal cord injury. Adv Neurol 1997;72:317–323.Google Scholar
  2. Geddes JF, Whitwell HE, Graham DI. Traumatic axonal injury: practical issues for diagnosis in medicolegal cases. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 2000;26:105–116.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Graham DI, Adams JH, Nicoll JAR, et al. The nature, distribution and causes of traumatic brain injury. Brain Pathol 1995;5:397–406.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Hardman JM, Manoukian A. Pathology of head trauma. Neuroimaging Clin North Am 2002;12:175–187.Google Scholar
  5. Pearl GS. Traumatic neuropathology. Clin Lab Med 1998;18:39–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Ischemic/Anoxic/Vascular Disorders

  1. Black M, Graham DI. Sudden unexplained death in adults caused by intracranial pathology. J Clin Pathol 2002;55:44–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Kalimo H, Ruchoux MM, Vitanen M, Kalaria RN. CADASIL: a ­common form of hereditary arteriopathy causing brain infarcts and dementia. Brain Pathol 2002;12:371–384.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Lammie GA. Hypertensive cerebral small vessel disease and stroke. Brain Pathol 2002;12:358–370.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Pantoni L, Garcia JH. Cognitive impairment and cellular/vascular changes in the cerebral white matter. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1997;826:92–102.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Parisi JE, Moore PM. The role of biopsy in vasculitis of the central ­nervous system. Semin Neurol 1994;14:341–348.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Reevesz T, Holton JL, Lashley T, et al. Sporadic and familial cerebral amyloid angiopathies. Brain Pathol 2002;12:343–357.Google Scholar
  7. Ruchoux MM, Maurage CA. CADASIL: cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 1997;56:947–964.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Neurodegenerative Disorders

  1. Budka H, Aguzzi A, Brown P, et al. Neuropathological diagnostic criteria for Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD) and other human spongiform encephalopathies (prion diseases). Brain Pathol 1995;5:459–466.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Chen-Plotkin AS, Lee VM, Trojanowski JQ. TAR DNA-binding protein 43 in neurodegenerative disease. Nat Rev Neurol 2010;6:211–220.Google Scholar
  3. Dickson DW. Neuropathology of Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias. Clin Geriatric Med 2001;17:209–228.Google Scholar
  4. Forno LS. Neuropathology of Parkinson’s disease. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 1996;55:259–272.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Hansen LA, Cram BJ. Making the diagnosis of mixed and non-Alzheimer’s dementias. Arch Pathol Lab Med 1995;119:1023–1031.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Ironside JW. Prion diseases in man. J Pathol 1998;186:227–234.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Jellinger KA. Neuropathology of movement disorders. Neurosurg Clin N Am 1998;9:237–262.Google Scholar
  8. Li SH, Li XJ. Huntingtin-protein interactions and the pathogenesis of Huntington’s disease. Trends Genet 2004;20:146–154.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Liscic RM, Grinberg LT, Zidar J, Gitcho MA, Cairns NJ. ALS and FTLD: two faces of TDP-43 proteinopathy. Eur J Neurol 2008;15:772–780.Google Scholar
  10. Mirra SS, Hart MN, Terry RD. Making the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease. A primer for practicing pathologists. Arch Pathol Lab Med 1993;117:132–144.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Nance MA. Clinical aspects of CAG repeat diseases. Brain Pathol 1997;7:881–900.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Trojanowski JQ, Dickson D. Update on the neuropathological diagnosis of frontotemporal dementias. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 2001;60:l 123–1 126.Google Scholar
  13. Vinters HV, Ellis WG, Zarow C, et al. Neuropathologic substrates of ­ischemic vascular dementia. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 2000;59:931–945.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Yoshida M. Multiple system atrophy α-synuclein and neuronal degeneration. Neuropathol 2007;27:484–493.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Inflammatory/Infectious/Demyelinating Diseases

  1. Botero D, Tanowitz HB, Weiss LM, Wittner M. Taeniasis and ­cysticercosis. Infect Dis Clin North Am 1993;7:683–697.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Burns DK, Risser RC, White CL. The neuropathology of human ­immunodeficiency virus infection. The Dallas, Texas experience. Arch Pathol Lab Med 1991;115:1112–1124.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Chimelli L, Mahler-Araujo MB. Fungal infections. Brain Pathol 1997;7:613–627.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Gray F. Bacterial Infections. Brain Pathol 1997:7:629–647.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Kepes JJ. Large focal tumor-like demyelinating lesions of the brain: ­intermediate entity between multiple sclerosis and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis? A study of 31 patients. Ann Neurol 1993;33:18–27.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Kleinschmidt-DeMasters BK. Central nervous system aspergillosis: a 20- year retrospective series. Hum Pathol 2002;33:116–124.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Kleinschmidt-DeMasters BK, Gilden DH. The expanding spectrum of herpesvirus infections of the nervous system. Brain Pathol 2001;11:440–451.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Kuhlmann T, Lassmann H, Brück W. Diagnosis of inflammatory demyelination in biopsy specimens: a practical approach. Acta Neuropathol 2008;115:275–287.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Nowak DA, Widenka DC. Neurosarcoidosis: a review of its intracranial manifestation. J Neurol 2001;248:363–372.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Omalu BI, Shakir AA, Wang G, Lipkin WI, Wiley CA. Fatal fulminant pan-meningopolioencephalitis due to West Nile virus. Brain Pathol 2003;13:465–472.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Thomas G, Murphy S, Staunton H, O’Neill S, Farrell MA, Brett FM. Pathogen-free granulomatous diseases of the central nervous system. Hum Pathol 1998;29:1110–1115.Google Scholar
  12. Zagzag D, Miller DC, Kleinman GM, et al. Demyelinating disease versus tumor in surgical neuropathology. Am J Surg Pathol 1993;17:537–545.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Pediatric and Seizure Neuropathology

  1. Arid Y, Edwards V, Becker LE. A comparison of cell phenotypes in hemimegalencephaly and tuberous sclerosis. Acta Neuropathol 1999;98:407–413.Google Scholar
  2. Black M, Graham DI. Sudden unexplained death in adults caused by intracranial pathology. J Clin Pathol 2002;55:44–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Frater JL, Prayson RA, Morris HH, III, Bingaman WE. Surgical pathologic findings of extratemporal-based intractable epilepsy. A study of 133 consecutive resections. Arch Pathol Lab Med 2000;124:545–549.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Golden JA. Holoprosencephaly: a defect in brain patterning. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 1998;57:991–999.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Luyken C, Blumcke I, Fimmers R, et al. The spectrum of long-term ­epilepsy-associated tumors: long-term seizure and tumor outcome and neurosurgical aspects. Epilepsia 2003;44:822–830.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Marcorelles P, Laquerriere A. Neuropathology of Holoprosencephaly. Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet 2010;154C:109–119.Google Scholar
  7. Mizuguchi M, Takashima S. Neuropathology of tuberous sclerosis. Brain Dev 2001;23:508–515.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Norman MG. Malformations of the brain. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 1996;55:133–143.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Pilz D, Stoodley N, Golden JA. Neuronal migration, cerebral cortical development, and cerebral cortical anomalies. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 2002;61:1–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Prayson RA. Diagnostic challenges in the evaluation of chronic epilepsy-related surgical neuropathology. Am J Surg Pathol 2010;34:e1–e13.Google Scholar
  11. Volpe JJ. Neurologic outcome of prematurity. Arch Neurol 1998;55:297–300.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Toxic/Metabolic Disorders

  1. Harper C. The neuropathology of alcohol-related brain damage. Alcohol Alcohol 2009;44:136–140.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Kolodny EH, Cable WJ. Inborn errors of metabolism. Ann Neurol 1982;11:221–232.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Krill JJ. Neuropathology of thiamine deficiency disorders. Metab Brain Dis 1996;11:9–17.Google Scholar
  4. Moser HW, Powers JM, Smith KD. Adrenoleukodystrophy: molecular genetics, pathology, and Lorenzo’s oil. Brain Pathol 1995;5:259–266.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Sellar/Suprasellar/Pituitary Pathology

  1. Gaffey TA, Scheithauer BW, Lloyd RV, et al. Corticotroph carcinoma of the pituitary: a clinicopathological study. Report of four cases. J Neurosurg 2002;96:352–360.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Kovacs K, Scheithauer BW, Horvath E, et al. The World Health Organization classification of adenohypophyseal neoplasms. A proposed five-tier scheme. Cancer 1996;78:502–510.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Lloyd RV, Scheithauer BW, Kovacs K, Roche PC. The immunophenotype of pituitary adenomas. Endocr Pathol 1996;7:145–150.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Pernicone PJ, Scheithauer BW, Horvath E, Kovacs K. Pituitary and sellar region. In: Sternberg SS (ed) Diagnostic Surgical Pathology, 2nd Ed, Philadelphia, PA, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 1997:1053–1107.Google Scholar
  5. Perry A, Scheithauer BW. Commentary: classification and grading of pituitary tumors. Observations of two working neuropathologists. Acta Neuropathol 2006;111:68–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Saeger W, Lüdecke DK, Buchfelder M, Fahlbusch R, Quabbe HJ, Petersenn S. Pathohistological classification of pituitary tumors: 10 years of experience with the German Pituitary Tumor Registry. Eur J Endocrinol 2007;156:203–216.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eyas M. Hattab
    • 1
  • Matthew C. Hagen
    • 1
  • Bernd W. Scheithauer
    • 2
  • Arie Perry
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Pathology and Laboratory MedicineIndiana University School of MedicineIndianapolisUSA
  2. 2.Department of Laboratory Medicine and PathologyMayo Clinic, Mayo College of MedicineRochesterUSA
  3. 3.Department of PathologyUniversity of California San FranciscoSan FranciscoUSA

Personalised recommendations