Robotic devices have been used in the industrial field for over 40 years, while their introduction has been slower into the medical field with many requirements driven by the nature of human tissue and safety. These surgical assistance systems provide intelligent, versatile tools that augment a physician’s ability to treat patients. Steerable robotic catheters may overcome many of the limitations of standard catheter technology, enhance target vessel cannulation, and reduce instrumentation, while improving overall physician performance. External robotics allows access to a body cavity through percutaneous ports with a high precision, high magnification manipulation of tissue. Robotics-driven imaging systems enhance dynamic data acquisition and provide high speed integration, facilitating image-guided navigation and augmenting other robotic systems. A lack of haptics remains a significant safety issue.
Computer-assisted interventional systems Flexible robotics Minimally invasive surgery Surgical robotics 3-D imaging
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