Antiphospholipid Syndrome in the Older Population

  • Silvia S. PierangeliEmail author
  • Alan M. Seif
  • Emilio B. González


The syndrome of the black swan was first described following a unique case of recurrent venous thrombosis, fetal loss, and the presence of anticardiolipin (aCL) antibodies more than 20 years ago. The diagnosis of the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is based on the presence of clinical criteria, including vascular thrombosis and/or pregnancy morbidity and laboratory findings of lupus anticoagulant (LAC) and/or aCL antibodies. APS is a multisystem disease and much has been elucidated on its pathogenesis over the last quarter century. APS is classified as primary or secondary based on the presence or absence of an autoimmune disease, of which systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is the most common. Since most patients with APS are diagnosed in young or middle age, there are few published cases of APS in the elderly. In this chapter, we summarize the classification criteria of APS, discuss the morbidity and mortality, and review the prevalence of antibodies in this disease, focusing on the elderly. Further information on the treatment of APS will also be described but not emphasized.


Antiphospholipid antibodies Anticardiolipin antibodies Antiphospholipid syndrome Lupus anticoagulant Elderly 



A.M.S. received salary support from an NIH grant # T32AR052283T32. S.S.P. is funded by an American Heart Association and Arthritis Foundation (Texas chapter grant) and NIH R01-grant.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Silvia S. Pierangeli
    • 1
    Email author
  • Alan M. Seif
  • Emilio B. González
  1. 1.UT Medical BranchGalvestonUSA

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