Where These Contaminants Are Found

Chapter
Part of the Food Microbiology and Food Safety book series (FMFS)

Abstract

The potential for in-factory environmental contamination exists for any food not biocidally treated in its end-use container. Microbes enter the factory environment from a variety of sources including worker’s skin, garments, air, and ingredients, among others. Air, water, tools, workers, traffic, and other means transfer microbes in the non-sterile factory environment into niches that are inaccessible for cleaning and sanitation. Within these niches many bacteria can attach themselves to underlying surfaces using cell wall-bound structures given enough time. Bacteria that attach and are allowed to form biofilms can be protected from cleaners and sanitizers. This chapter contains many examples of operating practices and structures that may create growth niches or transmit microbes in the factory environment. Over 30 photographs illustrate these practices.

Keywords

Migration Dust Manifold Polysaccharide Pseudomonas 

References

  1. DeBeer D, Srinivasan R, Stewart PS (1994) Direct measurement of chlorine penetration into biofilms during disinfection. Appl Environ Microbiol 6:4339–4344Google Scholar
  2. Dhir VK, Dodd CER (1995) Susceptibility of suspended and surface-attached Salmonella to biocides and elevated temperatures. Appl Environ Microbiol 61:1731–1738Google Scholar
  3. Eblen DR, Annous BA, Sapers GM (2005) Studies to select appropriate nonpathogenic surrogate Escherichia coli strains for potential use in place of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella in pilot plant studies. J Food Prot 68(2):282–291Google Scholar
  4. Engeljohn D (2004) Regulatory Perspective of Validation and Verification Activities. Presented in Symposium S03, Validation and verification of pathogen interactions in meat and poultry processing, International Association for Food Protection Annual Meeting, Phoenix, 8–11 August 2004Google Scholar
  5. Gabis DA, Faust RE (1988) Controlling microbial growth in the food-processing environment. Food Technol 42(12):81–82, 89Google Scholar
  6. Hugenholtz P, Fuerst JA (1992) Heterotrophic bacteria in an air-handling system. Appl Environ Microbiol 58(12):3914–3920Google Scholar
  7. International Commission for the Microbiological Specifications of Foods (ICMSF) (2002) Microorganisms in Foods 7: Microbiological Testing in Food Safety Management. Kluwer Academic Plenum Publishers, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  8. Ma L, Kornacki JL, Zhang G, Lin CM, Doyle MP (2007) Development of thermal surrogate microorganisms in ground beef for in-plant critical control point validation studies. J Food Prot 70(4):952–957Google Scholar
  9. Mitscherlich E, Marth EH (1984) Units and Commentaries on Behavior of Bacteria. In: Microbial Survival in the Environment: Bacteria and Rickettsiae Important in Human and Animal Health. Springer-Verlag, NY, pp. 725–728Google Scholar
  10. USFDA Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (2000) Kinetics of Microbial Inactivation for Alternative Food Processing Technologies–Overarching Principles: Kinetics and Pathogens of Concern for All Technologies. June 2.http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/∼comm/ift-over.html. Accessed 17 July 2008

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Kornacki Microbiology Solutions, Inc.McFarlandUSA

Personalised recommendations