Advertisement

Women: Better White than Male

Chapter
  • 1.2k Downloads

Absract

America is a patriarchal culture, wherein women have been traditional second-class citizens. As a result, all women regardless of race, class, or immigrant status are members of an oppressed victim-group population. That membership defines women as a victimized out-group minority, whose quality of life is contingent upon and directed for the most part by men. In the development of policy, law, and overall behavior, men act foremost in the best interest of other men, generally at the expense of women. However, the implications of victim-group discrimination regarding race by skin color are no less dramatic for women than within the so-called races. As a nation dominated by European.

Keywords

White Woman Black Woman Skin Color Light Skin White Supremacy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Blee, K. (1991). Women of the Klan: racism and gender in the 1920s. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Newman, L. (1999). White women’s rights: the racial origins of feminism in the United States. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hodes, M. (1997). White women, black men. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Soule, S. (1992). Populism and black lynching in Georgia, 1890–1900. Social Forces, 71(2), 431–449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Phillips, C. (1987). Exploring relations among forms of social control: the lynching and execution of blacks in North Carolina, 1889–1918. Law and Society Review, 21(3), 361–374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Potocky, M., & Rodgers, F. (1998). Social work research with minority and oppressed populations: methodological issues and innovations. Journal of Social Service Research, entire issue, 23(3/4), xiii-xiv.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Staples, R. (1976). Introduction to black sociology. New York: McGraw Hill.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Du Bois, W. (1976). The Philadelphia Negro: a social study. New York: Schocken Books.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Davis, A. (1973). American heroine: the life and legend of Jane Addams. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Du Bois, W. (1961). The souls of black folk. Greenwich, CT: Fawcett.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lundblad, K. (1995). Jane Addams and social reform: a role model for the 1990s. Social Work, 40(5), 661–669.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hall, R. (2003). Eurocentric bias in women’s psychology journals: resistance to issues significant to people of color. European Psychologist, 8(2), 117–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Arenson, K. (2005, March 1). Little advance is seen at ivies in the hiring of minorities and women. New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9B0DE3DA123DF932A35750C0A9639C8B63. Accessed 26 June 2009.
  14. 14.
    Luecek, T. (2005, February 13). 3 presidents criticize Harvard chief’s comments. New York Times, A35, col. 5. 4Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Michigan State University. (2003). Integrated postsecondary Education Data System. Office of Institutional Research [now Office of Planning and Budgets], Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan. http://opbweb.msu.edu/. Accessed 26 June 2009.
  16. 16.
    Riley, A. (1996). Murder and social work. Australian Social Work, 49(2), 37–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Jordan, E. (1994). Sleeping with the enemy: sex, black women and the civil war. Western Journal of Black Studies, 18(2), 55–63.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Leuba, R. (1974). Individualized instruction and the letter grade system. National Conference on Behavior Research and Technology in Higher Education, Atlanta, Georgia, November 14–16.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Daufin, E. (1995, March 9). Confessions of a womanist professor. Black Issues in Higher Education, 12(1), 34–35.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Gronlund, N., & Linn, R. (1990). Measurement and evaluation in teaching (6th ed.). New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Paglia, C. (1992). Sex, art, and American culture. New York: Vintage.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Barak, A., Pitterman, Y., & Yitzhadi, R. (1995). An empirical test of the role of power differential in originating sexual harassment. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 17(4), 497–517.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Van Ausdale, D. (1997). Portraits of white racism. Journal of American Ethnic History, 16(2), 64–68.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Soule, S. (1992). Populism and black lynching in Georgia. Social Forces, 71(2), 431–449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Levin, M. (1987). Feminism and freedom. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    McIntosh, P. (1989, July/August). White privilege: unpacking the invisible knapsack. Peace and Freedom, 2, 10–12.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kilty, K., & Swank, E. (1997). Institutional racism and the media: depictions of violent criminals and welfare recipients. Sociological Imagination, 34(2–3), 105–128.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Makkar, J., & Strube, M. (1995). Black women’s self perception of attractiveness following exposure to white versus black beauty standards: the moderating role of racial identity and self esteem. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 25(17), 1547–1566.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Barik, B., Katare, P., & Seth, S. (2001). National seminar on rural development and human rights violation in western India. Indian Journal of Social Work, 62(2), 249–257.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kebede, M. (2001). The rehabilitation of violence and the violence of rehabilitation: fanon and colonialism. Journal of Black Studies, 31(5), 539–562.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Cox, E. (2001). Community practice issues in the 21st century: questions and challenges for power-oriented practitioners. Journal of Community Practice, 9(1), 37–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Monteiro, A. (2000). Being an African in the world: the Du Boisian epistemology. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences, 568, 220–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Minnick, M. (2000, January). Breck girls. Smithsonian, 30(10), 96.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Hall, R. (2000). A descriptive analysis of skin color psychopathology in Puerto Rico: ecological applications to practice. Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare, 27(4), 171–183.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Hall, R. (2006). The bleaching syndrome among people of color: implications of skin color for human behavior in the social environment. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 13(3), 19–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Obaahemaa Network (2002). Effects of skin bleaching. http://www.obaahemaa.net/Channels/feature/edit.cfm. Accessed 26 June 2009.
  37. 37.
    Chisholm, N.J. (2002). Fade to white: skin bleaching and the rejection of blackness. Village Voice January: 22–28. Available at http://www.villagevoice.com/2002-01-22/news/fade-to-white/. Accessed 26 June 2009.
  38. 38.
    Opala, K. (2001, May 30). Cosmetics ban: did standards body err? Nation (Nairobi). http://allafrica.com/stories/200105290458.html. Accessed 12 April 2009.
  39. 39.
    Hall, R. E. (1992). Bias among African Americans regarding skin color: implications for social work practice. Research on Social Work Practice, 2, 479–486.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Social work abstracts. http://www.columbia.edu/cgi-bin/cul/resolve?AMT0865. Accessed 10 August 2009.
  41. 41.
    Zastrow, C., & Kirst-Ashman, K. (2001). Understanding human behavior and the social environment. (5th Ed.). Stamford, CT: Brooks/Cole.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Barber, B. (1961). Resistance by scientists to scientific discovery. Science, 134, 596–602.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Biestek, F. (1957). The casework relationship. Chicago: Loyola University Press.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Christensen, K. (1997). “With whom do you believe your lot is cast?”: white feminists and racism. Signs, 22(3), 617–648.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Mootry, M. (1994). Africana womanism: reclaiming ourselves. Western Journal of Black Studies, 18(4), 244–245.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Kolawole, M. (1997). Womanism and African consciousness. Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Ramey, F. (1995). Obstacles faced by African American women administrators in higher education: how they cope. Western Journal of Black Studies, 19(2), 113–119.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Harrison, F. (1993). Writing against the grain: cultural politics of difference in the work of Alice Walker. Critique of Anthropology, 13(4), 401–427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Brown, E. (1989). Womanist consciousness: Maggie Lena Walker and the independent order of St. Luke. Signs, 14(3), 610–633.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Social WorkMichigan State UniversityEast LansingUSA

Personalised recommendations