Advertisement

Update on Sperm Banking

  • Pankaj Talwar
Chapter

Abstract

Sperm banking has become a widely accepted compendium of infertility treatment and in recent times mooted as having a new role as fertility insurance. Once looked upon with improbability, this practice has established time and time again to be a successful technique of keeping the anticipation of a family alive for countless families. The motives for storage are as diverse as humans themselves. So far, no limit has been established for how long human semen can be frozen when maintained and stored in appropriate liquid nitrogen storage. Scientific literature shows, conclusively, that the sperm motility, viability, and morphology are not affected by proper long-term cryopreservation. Cryo thaw semen pregnancies have been reported after 2–3 decades of semen banking. Appropriate screening should be carried out before semen banking, till standard guidelines are available. However, the current recommendations being followed for sperm banking are guidelines by the British Andrology Society and the Practice Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine.

Keywords

Sperm banking Cryopreservation of semen Male gamete banking Donor screening in sperm banking Legislation related to sperm banking 

References

  1. 1.
    Parkes AS. Preservation of human spermatozoa at low temperatures. Br Med J. 1945;2:212–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Sherman JK, Buge RG. Observations on preservation of human spermatozoa at low temperatures. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1953;82:686–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hammerstedt RH, Graham JK, Nolan JP. Cryopreservation of mammalian sperm; what we ask them to survive. J Androl. 1990;11:73–88.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Spallanzani L, Opuscoli di Fisca, Amimale, e Vegetgabile, Opuscolo II. Osservazioni, e Speriencze inotrno ai Vermicelli Spermatici dell’Uomo e degli Amimali. Modena; 1776.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Montegazza J. Fisologia sullo sperma umano. Rendic reale Instit Lomb. 1866;3:183–5.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Shettels LB. The respiration of human spermatozoa and their response to various gases and low temperatures. Am J Physiol. 1940;128:404–15.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hoagland H, Pincus G. Revival of mammalisan sperm after immersion in liquid nitrogen. J Gen Physiol. 1942;25:337–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Polge C, Smith AU, Parkes AS. Revival of spermatozoa after vitrification and dehydration at low temperatures. Nature. 1949;164:666–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sherman JK. Research on frozen human semen. Past, present, and future. Fertil Steril. 1964;15:485–99.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Meryman HT. Mechanics of freezing in living cell and tissues. Science. 1956;124:515–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Quinn PH. Principles of membrane stability and phase behaviour under extreme conditions. J Bioenerg Biomemb. 1989;21:3–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Carruthers A, Melchior DL. Role of bilayer lipids in governing membrane transport processes. In: Aloia RC, Curtin CC, Gordon LM, editors. Lipid domains and the relationship to membrane function. New York: Liss; 1988. p. 201–25.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Smith AU, Ploge C, Smiles J. Microscopic observation of living cell during freezing and thawing. J Roy Microsc Soc. 1951;71:186–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Drobnis EZ, Crowe LM, Berger T, Anchordoguy TJ, Overstreet JW, Crowe JH. Cold shock damage is due to lipid phase transitions in cell membranes: a demonstration using sperm as a model. J Exp Zool. 1993;265:432–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Holt WV, North RD. Effects of temperature and restoration of osmotic equilibrium during thawing on the induction of plasma membrane damage in cryopreserved ram spermatozoa. Biol Reprod. 1992;46:1086–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Farrant J. Mechanism of cell damage during freezing and thawing and its prevention. Nature. 1965;205:1284–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Shapiro SS. Strategies to improve efficiency of therapeutic donor insemination. In: Diamond MP, DeCherney AH, editors. Infertility and reproductive medicine clinics in North America. Male infertility. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 1992. p. 469–85.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bordson BL, Ricci E, Dicky RP, Dunway H, Taylor SN, Curole DW. Comparison of fecundability with fresh and frozen semen in therapeutic donor insemination. Fertil Steril. 1986;46:466–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Barthelemy D, Royere D, Hammahah S, Lebos C, Tharanne MJ, Lansac J. Ultrastructural changes in membrane and acrosome of human sperm during cryopreservation. Arch Androl. 1990;25:29–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lasso JL, Noiles EE, Alvaraz JG, Storey BT. Mechanism of superoxide dismutase loss from human sperm cell during cryopreservation. J Androl. 1994;15:255–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Van den Berg L, Soliman FS. Composition and pH changes during freezing of solutions containing calcium and magnesium phosphate. Cryobiology. 1969;6:10–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Mortimer D. Semen cryopreservation. In: Mortimer D, editor. Practical laboratory andrology. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 1994.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hammit DG, Walker DL, Willamson RA. Concentration of glycerol required for optimal survival and in vitro fertilization capacity of frozen sperm is dependent on cryopreservation medium. Fertil Steril. 1988;49:680–7.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Zimmerman SJ, Maude MB, Modldawer M. Freezing and storage of human semen in 50 healthy medical students. A comparative study of glycerol and dimethylsulfoxide as a preservative. Fertil Steril. 1964;15:505–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Mahadevan M, Trounson A. Effects of cryopreservation media and dilution methods on the preservation of human spermatozoa. Andrologia. 1983;15:355–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Prins GS, Weidel L. A comparative study of buffer systems as cryoprotectants for human spermatozoa. Fertil Steril. 1986;46:147–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ramirez JP, Carreras A, Mendoza C. Sperm plasma membrane integrity in fertile and infertile men. Andrologia. 1992;24:141–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Jeyendran RS, Van der Ven HH, Kennedy W, Perez-Pelaez M, Zanelveld LJD. Comparison of glycerol and a zwitterions buffer system as cryoprotective media for human spermatozoa: effect on motility, penetration of zona-free hamster oocytes, and acrosin/proacrosin. J Androl. 1984;5:7.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Richardson DW, Sadlier RM. The toxicity of various non-electrolytes to human spermatozoa and their protective effects during freezing. J Reprod Fertil. 1967;14:439–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Mazur P. Freezing of living cells: mechanisms and implications. Am J Physiol. 1974;247:C125–42.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Tyler JPP, Kime L, Cooke S, Driscoll GL. Temperature change in cryo-containers during short exposure to ambient temperatures. Hum Reprod. 1996;11:1510–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Graham EF, Crabo BG. Some methods of freezing and evaluating human spermatozoa. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1978;4:274–304.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Bunge RG, Keetel WC, Sherman JL. Fertilization capacity of frozen human spermatozoa. Nature. 1953;172:767–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Mclaughlin EA, Ford WCL, Hull MGR. The contribution of the toxicity of a glycerol-egg yolk-citrate cryopreservative to the decline in human sperm ­motility during cryopreservation. J Repord Fertil. 1992;95:749–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Human Fertilization and Embryology Act. Schedule 3 para 2(2)(b). London: HMSO; 1990.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Oates RD, Lobel SM, Harris D, et al. Efficacy of intracytoplasmic sperm injection using intentionally cryopreserved epididymal sperm. Hum Reprod. 1996;11:133–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Elnaser TA, Rashwan H. Testicular sperm extraction and cryopreservation in patients with non-obstructive azoospermia prior to ovarian stimulation for ICSI. Middle East Fertil Soc J. 2004;9(2):128–35.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Oates RD, Mulhall J, Burges C, Cunniingham D, Carson R. Fertilization and pregnancy using intentionally cryopreserved testicular tissue as the sperm source for intracytoplasmic sperm injection in 10 men with non-obstructive azoospermia. Hum Reprod. 1997;12:734–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Gil-Salom M, Romero J, Minguez Y, et al. Pregnancies after intracytoplasmic sperm injection with cryopreserved testicular tissue. Hum Reprod. 1996;11:1309–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Cohen J, Garrisi GJ, Congedo-Ferrara TA, Kieck KA, Schimmel TW, Scott RT. Cryopreservation of single human spermatozoa. Hum Reprod. 1997;12:994–1001.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Isachenko V, Isachenko E, Katkov II, Montag M, Dessole S, Nawroth F, et al. Cryoprotectant-free cryopreservation of human spermatozoa by vitrification and freezing in vapor: effect on motility, DNA ­integrity, and fertilization ability. Biol Reprod. 2004;71(4):1167–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Isachenko E, Isachenko V, Katkov II, et al. DNA integrity and motility of human spermatozoa after standard slow freezing versus cryoprotectant-free vitrification. Hum Reprod. 2004;9(4):932–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Tomlinson MJ, Pacey AA. Practical aspects of sperm banking for cancer patients. Hum Fertil. 2003;6(3):100–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Wallace WH, Anderson RA, Irvine DS. Fertility preservation for young patients with cancer: who is at risk and what can be offered? Lancet Oncol. 2005;6(4):209–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Saito K, Suzuki K, Iwasaki A, Yumura Y, Kubota Y. Sperm cryopreservation before cancer chemotherapy helps in the emotional battle against cancer. Cancer. 2005;104(3):521–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Schmidt KL, Carlsen E, Andersen AN. Fertility treatment in male cancer survivors. Int J Androl. 2007;30(4):413–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Horne G, Atkinson AD, Pease EH, et al. Live birth with sperm cryopreserved for 21 years prior to cancer treatment: case report. Hum Reprod. 2004;19(6):1448–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Feldschuh J, Brassel J, Durso N, Levine A. Textbook of assisted reproductive technologies. Successful sperm storage for 28 years. Fertil Steril. 2005;84(4):1017.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    British Andrology Society. British Andrology Society guidelines for the screening of semen donors for donor insemination. Hum Reprod. 1999;14(7):1823–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Guidelines for Gamete and Embryo Donation. The American society for reproductive medicine. Fertil Steril. 1998;70(4 Suppl 3):1S–3.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.ART CentreArmy Hospital Research and ReferralNew DelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations