Eppendorf Micromanipulator: Setup and Operation of Electronic Micromanipulators

Chapter

Abstract

Eppendorf AG, Hamburg, Germany, has created many devices and tools that are now considered breakthroughs in the field of laboratory applications. The importance of micromanipulators appeared before assisted reproductive technology (ART) proved its effectiveness. In the 1960s, different groups were experimenting with fertility in animal models. Hiramoto found that microinjection of spermatozoa into unfertilized sea urchin oocytes did not induce activation of the oocyte or condensation of the sperm nucleus, whereas others demonstrated the opposite in frog oocytes. Ryuzo Yanagimachi and his group later demonstrated that isolated hamster nuclei could develop into pronuclei after microinjection into homologous eggs, and a similar result was obtained when freeze-dried human spermatozoa were injected into a hamster egg. After the amazing success of ART, scientists began thinking about how to overcome the difficulties faced in fertilizing oocytes.

Keywords

Eppendorf micromanipulator Intracytoplasmic sperm injection Sperm swim-up technique ICSI procedure Male infertility Oligozoospermia Cryptozoospermia Asthenozoospermia Teratozoospermia Globozoospermia Azoospermia 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.IVF Unit, Department of Obstetrics and GynecologyUniversity of Schleswig-HolsteinLübeckGermany
  2. 2.IVF UnitFrauenklinikLübeckGermany

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