Eppendorf Micromanipulator: Setup and Operation of Electronic Micromanipulators

  • Ehab Abu-Marar
  • Safa Al-Hasani


Eppendorf AG, Hamburg, Germany, has created many devices and tools that are now considered breakthroughs in the field of laboratory applications. The importance of micromanipulators appeared before assisted reproductive technology (ART) proved its effectiveness. In the 1960s, different groups were experimenting with fertility in animal models. Hiramoto found that microinjection of spermatozoa into unfertilized sea urchin oocytes did not induce activation of the oocyte or condensation of the sperm nucleus, whereas others demonstrated the opposite in frog oocytes. Ryuzo Yanagimachi and his group later demonstrated that isolated hamster nuclei could develop into pronuclei after microinjection into homologous eggs, and a similar result was obtained when freeze-dried human spermatozoa were injected into a hamster egg. After the amazing success of ART, scientists began thinking about how to overcome the difficulties faced in fertilizing oocytes.


Eppendorf micromanipulator Intracytoplasmic sperm injection Sperm swim-up technique ICSI procedure Male infertility Oligozoospermia Cryptozoospermia Asthenozoospermia Teratozoospermia Globozoospermia Azoospermia 


  1. 1.
    Elder K, Dale B. In vitro fertilization. 2nd ed. Oxford: Cambridge University Press; 2000. p. 228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Cohen J, Alikani M, Adler A, Berkely A, Davis O, Farrara TA, Graf M, Grifo J, Liu HC, Malter HE, Reing AM, Suzman M, Talansky BE, Trowbridge J, Rosenwaks Z. Microsurgical fertilization procedures: the absence of stringent criteria for patient selection. J Assist Reprod Genet. 1992;9:197–206.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Fishel S, Timson J, Lisi F, Rinaldi L. Evaluation of 225 patients undergoing subzonal insemination for the procurement of fertilization in vitro. Fertil Steril. 1992;57:840–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ng SC, Bongso A, Ratnam SS. Microinjection of human oocytes: a technique for severe oligoasthenoteratozoospermia. Fertil Steril. 1991;56:1117–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Palermo G, Joris H, Devroey P, Van Steirteghem AC. Pregnancies after intracytoplasmic injection of single spermatozoon into an oocyte. Lancet. 1992;340:17–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Al-Hasani S, Kupker W, Baschat A, Sturm R, Bauer O, Diedrich Ch, Diedrich K. Mini-swim up: a new technique of sperm preparation for intracytoplasmic sperm injection. J Assist Reprod Genet. 1995;12(7):428–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Liu J, Nagy Z, Joris H, Tournaye H, Devroey P, Van Steirteghem AC. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection does not require special treatment of the spermatozoa. Hum Reprod. 1994;9:1127–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Van Steirteghem AC, Joris H, Nagy Z, Bocken G, Vankelecom A, Desmet B, et al. Protocol for intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Hum Reprod Update 1995;1(3):CD-ROM.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Silber SJ, Nagy ZP, Liu J, Godoy H, Devroey P, Van Steirteghem AC. Conventional in-vitro fertilization versus intracytoplasmic sperm injection for patients requiring microsurgical sperm aspiration. Hum Reprod. 1994;9:1705–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Tournaye H, Devroey P, Liu J, Nagy Z, Lissens W, Van Steirteghem AC. Microsurgical epididymal sperm aspiration and intracytoplasmic sperm injection: a new effective approach to infertility as a result of congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens. Fertil Steril. 1994;61:1045–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Devroey P, Silber SJ, Nagy Z, Liu J, Tournaye H, Joris H, Verheyen G, Van Steirteghem AC. Ongoing pregnancies and birth after intracytoplasmic sperm injection with frozen-thawed epididymal spermatozoa. Hum Reprod. 1995;10:903–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Rabe T, Diedrich K, Runnebaum B, editors. Manual on assisted reproduction. Heidelberg: Springer; 1997. p. 312–22.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Devroey P, Liu J, Nagy Z, Tournaye H, Silber SJ, Van Steirteghem AC. Normal fertilization of human oocytes after testicular sperm extraction and intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Fertil Steril. 1994;62:639–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Nagy Z, Liu J, Janssenswillen C, Silber S, Devroey P, Van Steirteghem AC. Using ejaculated, fresh and frozen-thawed epididymal and testicular spermatozoa gives rise to comparable results after intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Fertil Steril. 1995;63:808–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Silber SJ, Van Steirteghem AC, Liu J, Nagy Z, Tournaye H, Devroey P. High fertilization and pregnancy rate after intracytoplasmic sperm injection with spermatozoa obtained from testicle biopsy. Hum Reprod. 1995;10:148–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Nagy ZP, Liu J, Joris H, Bocken G, Desmet B, Van Ranst H, Vankelecom A, Devroey P, Van Steirteghem AC. The influence of the site of sperm deposition and mode of oolemma breakage at intracytoplasmic sperm injection on fertilization and embryo development rates. Hum Reprod. 1995;10:3171–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Al-Hasani S, Ludwig M, Karabulut O, Al-Dimassi F, Bauer O, Sturm R, Kahle D, Diedrich K. Results of intracytoplasmic sperm injection using the microprocessor controlled TransferMan Eppendorf manipulator sytem. Middle East Fertil Soc J. 1999;4(1):41–4.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.IVF Unit, Department of Obstetrics and GynecologyUniversity of Schleswig-HolsteinLübeckGermany
  2. 2.IVF UnitFrauenklinikLübeckGermany

Personalised recommendations