In Vitro Maturation of Human Oocytes

  • Baris Ata
  • Jack Huang
  • Ri-Cheng ChianEmail author


Although the initial live birth resulting from human in vitro fertilization (IVF) was achieved by natural-cycle IVF, this procedure was gradually replaced by ovarian stimulation IVF because it was found that the number of oocytes retrieved related to the embryos available for transfer which, in turn, directly affected successful pregnancy. However, repeated ovarian stimulation by gonadotropins has certain drawbacks including a higher risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome and the concerns about a possible increased risk of ovarian, endometrial, and breast cancers. Therefore, there is a growing interest in natural-cycle IVF and in vitro maturation (IVM) treatment. Recovery of immature oocytes followed by IVM is a potentially useful treatment for women with infertility. The method is particularly effective for infertile women who have numerous antral follicles due to polycystic ovaries or polycystic ovarian syndrome. Today, given the efficiency of IVF and improvements in the culture system, natural-cycle IVF is more suitable for women undergoing infertility treatment. One very attractive possibility for enhancing the successful outcome of natural-cycle IVF treatment is combining it with immature egg retrieval and IVM. The use of IVM technology can thus be broadened to treat women suffering from all causes of infertility. The aim of this chapter is to share our experience and protocols with the assisted reproductive technology fraternity.


Immature oocytes IVM Fertilization Pregnancy Natural-cycle IVF/M 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Assisted Reproduction Unit, Department of Obstetrics and GynecologyUludag UniversityBursaTurkey
  2. 2.Center for Reproductive MedicineWeill Cornell Medical College, New York Presbyterian HospitalNew YorkUSA
  3. 3.Department of Obstetrics and GynecologyRoyal Victoria HospitalMontrealCanada

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