Maintaining Abstinence in College: Temptations and Tactics

  • Richard P. Wiebe
  • H. Harrington Cleveland
  • Lukas R. Dean
Part of the Advancing Responsible Adolescent Development book series (ARAD)


As the previous chapter notes, the Collegiate Recovery Community (CRC) at Texas Tech University maintains an impressive relapse rate of only 4.4% per semester, which means that more than 95% of the community members continue their successful recovery each semester. Although one of bedrock beliefs of the Center for Study of Addiction and Recovery is that young men and women who are part of the Collegiate Recovery Community that the center supports should be striving for a “recovery” that goes far beyond day-to-day sobriety, it is important to recognize that in the midst of building a higher level of recovery, members must sometimes draw upon various strategies, ranging from the psychological to the physical to make it through their day, and their hard-won states of sobriety have to be defended against temptations that differ from member to member.


Cocaine Ibuprofen Defend Heroin 


  1. Annis, H. M., & Martin, G. (1985). The drug-taking confidence questionnaire. Toronto, Ontario, Canada: Addiction Research Foundation of Ontario.Google Scholar
  2. Anthony, W., Rogers, E. S., & Farkas, M. (2003). Research on evidence-based practices: Future directions in an era of recovery. Community Mental Health Journal, 39, 101–114.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Baumeister, R. F., Smart, L., & Boden, J. M. (1996). Relation of threatened egotism to violence and aggression: The dark side of high self-esteem. Psychological Review, 103, 5–33.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bogenschutz, M. P., Tonigan, S., & Miller, W. P. (2006). Examining the effects of alcoholism typology and AA attendance on self-efficacy as a mechanism of change. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 67, 562–567.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Bruning, J. L., & Kintz, B. L. (1987). Computational handbook of statistics. Glenview, Illinois: Scott Foresman & Co.Google Scholar
  6. Callaghan, R. C., Hathaway, A., Cunningham, J. A., Vettese, L. C., Wyatt, S., & Taylor, L. (2005). Does stage-of-change predict dropout in a culturally diverse sample of adolescents admitted to inpatient substance-abuse treatment? A test of the Transtheoretical Model. Addictive Behaviors, 30, 1834–1847.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Cancer Prevention Research Center (2003). Alcohol: Processes of change.
  8. Cohen, P. J., Glaser, B. A., Calhoun, G. B., Bradshaw, C. P., & Petrocelli, J. V. (2005). Examining readiness for change: A preliminary evaluation of the University of Rhode Island Change Assessment with incarcerated adolescents. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 38, 45–62.Google Scholar
  9. Cohen, S., & Wills, T. A. (1985). Stress, social support and the buffering hypothesis. Psychological Bulletin, 95, 310–357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Demmel, R., Nicolal, J., & Jenko, D. M. (2006). Self-efficacy and alcohol relapse: Concurrent validity of confidence measures, self-other discrepancies, and prediction of treatment outcome. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 67, 637–641.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. DiClemente, C., Carbonari, J., Montgomery, R., & Hughes, S. (1994). The alcohol abstinence self-efficacy scale. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 55, 141–148.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. DiClemente, C. C., & Hughes, S. O. (1990). Stages of change profiles in outpatient alcoholism treatment. Journal of Substance Abuse, 2, 217–235.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. DiClemente, C. C., & Prochaska, J. O. (1982). Self-change and therapy change of smoking behavior: A comparison of processes of change in cessation and maintenance. Addictive Behaviors, 7, 133–142.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. DiClemente, C. C., & Prochaska, J. O. (1985). Processes and stages of self-change: Coping and competence in smoking behavior change. In S. Shiffman & T. A. Wills (Eds.), Coping behavior and drug use. San Diego, CA: Academic.Google Scholar
  15. Greenstein, D. K., Franklin, M. E., & McGuffin, P. (1999). Measuring motivation to change: An examination of the University of Rhode Island Change Assessment questionnaire (URICA) in an adolescent sample. Psychotherapy, 36, 47–55.Google Scholar
  16. Henderson, M. J., Saules, K. K., & Galen, L. W. (2004). The predictive validity of the University of Rhode Island Change Assessment Questionnaire in a heroin-addicted polysubstance use sample. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 18, 106–112.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Humphreys, K. (2004). Circles of recovery: Self-help organizations for addictions. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  18. Maruna, S. (2001). Making good: How ex-convicts reform and rebuild their lives. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. McConnaughy, E. A., DiClemente, C. C., Prochaska, J. O., & Velicer, W. F. (1989). Stages of change in psychotherapy: A follow-up report. Psychotherapy, 26, 494–503.Google Scholar
  20. McConnaughy, E. A., Prochaska, J. O., & Velicer, W. F. (1983). Stages of change in psychotherapy: Measurement and sample profiles. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, & Practice, 20, 368–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (2000). University of Rhode Island change assessment scale (URICA). NIAAA Publications.
  22. Prochaska, J. O., & DiClemente, C. C. (1982). Transtheoretical therapy: Toward a more integrative model of change. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, & Practice, 19, 276–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Prochaska, J. O., & DiClemente, C. C. (1986a). Toward a comprehensive model of change. In W. R. Miller & N. Heather (Eds.), Treating addictive behaviors (pp. 3–27). New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  24. Prochaska, J. O., & DiClemente, C. C. (1986b). The transtheoretical approach: Towards a systematic eclectic framework. In J. C. Norcross (Ed.), Handbook of eclectic psychotherapy. New York: Brunner/Mazel.Google Scholar
  25. Rogers, C. R. (1951). Client-centered therapy. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
  26. Sklar, S. M., Annis, H. M., & Turner, N. E. (1999). Group comparisons of coping self-efficacy between alcohol and cocaine abusers seeking treatment. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 13, 122–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Sutton, S. (2001). Back to the drawing board? A review of applications of the transtheoretical model to substance use. Addiction, 96, 175–186.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Yeh, M., Che, H., Lee, L., & Horng, F. (2008). An empowerment process: Successful recovery from alcohol dependence. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 17, 921–929.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard P. Wiebe
    • 1
  • H. Harrington Cleveland
    • 2
  • Lukas R. Dean
    • 3
  1. 1.Fitchburg State CollegeFitchburgUSA
  2. 2.The Pennsylvania State UniversityUniversity ParkUSA
  3. 3.The William Paterson UniversityWayneUSA

Personalised recommendations