Other Hepatitis Viruses and HIV Infection

Chapter

Abstract

Although hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are the most frequent agents of liver disease in HIV-infected individuals, infection with other hepatitis viruses may lead to either acute episodes of liver damage (i.e., A and E) or chronic hepatic disease (i.e., Delta). Hepatotropic viruses other than B and C are often forgotten in the setting of HIV infection, and awareness and knowledge about their potential role as the cause of disease are important.

Keywords

Placebo Hepatitis Europe Polypeptide Interferon 

References

  1. 1.
    Feinstone S, Kapikian A, Purcell R. Hepatitis A: detection by immune electron microscopy of a virus-like antigen associated with acute illness. Science. 1973;182:1026–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lemon S, Jansen R, Brown E. Genetic, antigenic and biological differences between strains of hepatitis A virus. Vaccine. 1992;10 suppl 1:40–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Taylor R, Davern T, Munoz S. Fulminant hepatitis A virus infection in the United States: incidence, prognosis, and outcomes. Hepatology. 2006;44:1589–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Vento S, Garofano T, Renzini C, et al. Fulminant hepatitis associated with hepatitis A virus superinfection in patients with chronic hepatitis C. N Engl J Med. 1998;338:286–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fonquernie L, Meynard JL, Charrois A, et al. Occurrence of acute hepatitis A in patients infected with HIV. Clin Infect Dis. 2001;32:297–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ida S, Tachikawa N, Nakajima A, et al. Influence of HIV type 1 infection on acute hepatitis A virus infection. Clin Infect Dis. 2002;34:379–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Richardson M, Elliman D, Maguire H, et al. Evidence base of incubation periods, periods of infectiousness and exclusion policies for the control of communicable diseases in schools and preschools. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2001;20:380–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Mbithi J, Springthorpe V, Boulet J, et al. Survival of hepatitis A virus on human hands and its transfer on contact with animate and inanimate surfaces. J Clin Microbiol. 1992;30:757–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    D’Hondt E. Possible approaches to develop vaccines against hepatitis A. Vaccine. 1992;10 suppl 1:48–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). Prevention of hepatitis A through active or passive immunization: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Recomm Rep. 2006;55(7):1–23.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Geretti AM, British HIV. Association guidelines for immunization of HIV-infected adults 2008. HIV Med. 2008;9:795–848.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Shire N, Welge J, Sherman K. Efficacy of inactivated hepatitis A vaccine in HIV-infected patients: a hierarchical Bayesian meta-analysis. Vaccine. 2006;24:272–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Valdez H, Smith K, Landay A, et al. Response to immunization with recall and neoantigens after prolonged administration of an HIV-1 protease inhibitor-containing regimen. ACTG 375 team. AIDS. 2000;14:11–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kemper C, Haubrich R, Frank I, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of hepatitis A vaccine in HIV-infected patients: a double-blind, ­randomized, placebo-controlled trial. J Infect Dis. 2003;187: 1327–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Launay O, Grabar S, Gordien E, et al. Immunological efficacy of a three-dose schedule of hepatitis A vaccine in HIV-infected adults: HEPAVAC Study. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2008;49:272–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Valdez H, Mitsuyasu R, Landay A, et al. Interleukin-2 increases CD4+ lymphocyte numbers but does not enhance responses to immunization: results of A5046s. Infect Dis. 2003;187:320–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Wallace M, Brandt C, Earhart K, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of an inactivated hepatitis A vaccine among HIV-infected subjects. Clin Infect Dis. 2004;39:1207–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Rizzetto M, Canese M, Aricó S, et al. Immunofluorescence detection of a new antigen-antibody system (delta/anti-delta) associated with hepatitis B virus in liver and in serum of HBsAg carriers. Gut. 1977;18:997–1003.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Rizzetto M. Hepatitis D: thirty years after. J Hepatol. 2009;50: 1043–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bichko V, Netter H, Wu T. Pathogenesis associated with replication of hepatitis delta virus. Infect Agents Dis. 1994;3:94–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Wedemeyer H, Manns M. Epidemiology, pathogenesis and management of hepatitis D: update and challenges ahead. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2010;7:31–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hadziyannis S. Review: hepatitis delta. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 1997;12:289–98.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Farci P. Delta hepatitis: an update. J Hepatol. 2003;39 suppl 1:212–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Gaeta G, Stroffolini T, Chiaramonte M, et al. Chronic hepatitis D: a vanishing Disease? An Italian multicenter study. Hepatology. 2000;32:824–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Makuwa M, Mintsa-Ndong A, Souquière S, et al. Prevalence and molecular diversity of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis delta virus in urban and rural populations in northern Gabon in central Africa. J Clin Microbiol. 2009;47:2265–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Manock S, Kelley P, Hyams K, et al. An outbreak of fulminant hepatitis delta in the Waorani, an indigenous people of the Amazon basin of Ecuador. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2000;63:209–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Børresen M, Olsen O, Ladefoged K, et al. Hepatitis D outbreak among children in a hepatitis B hyper-endemic settlement in Greenland. J Viral Hepat. 2010;17:162–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Jardi R, Rodriguez F, Buti M. Role of hepatitis B, C, and D viruses in dual and triple infection: influence of viral genotypes and hepatitis B precore and basal core promoter mutations on viral replicative interference. Hepatology. 2001;34:404–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Romeo R, Del Ninno E, Rumi M, et al. A 28 year study of the course of hepatitis delta infection: a risk factor for cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Gastroenterology. 2009;136:1629–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Su C, Huang Y, Huo T, et al. Genotypes and viremia of hepatitis B and D viruses are associated with outcomes of chronic hepatitis D patients. Gastroenterology. 2006;130:1625–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Dény P. Hepatitis delta virus genetic variability: from genotypes I, II, III to eight major clades? Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2006;307:151–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Wu J. Functional and clinical significance of hepatitis D virus genotype 2 infection. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2006;307:173–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Watanabe H, Nagayama K, Enomoto N, et al. Chronic hepatitis delta virus infection with genotype II b variant is correlated with progressive liver disease. J Gen Virol. 2003;84:3275–89.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Smedile A, Rizzetto M, Gerin J. Advances in Hepatitis D virus biology and disease. In: Boyer JL, Ockner RK, editors. Progressin liver disease, vol. XII. Philadelphia: Saunders Company; 1994. p. 157–75.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Shih H, Jeng K, Syu W, et al. Hepatitis B surface antigen levels and sequences of natural hepatitis B virus variants influence the assembly and secretion of hepatitis D virus. J Virol. 2008;82:2250–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Brook G, Main J, Nelson M, et al. British HIV Association guidelines for the management of coinfection with HIV-1 and hepatitis B or C virus 2010. HIV Med. 2010;11:1–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Buti M, Esteban R, Roggendorf M, et al. Hepatitis D virus RNA in acute delta infection: serological profile and correlation with other markers of hepatitis D virus infection. Hepatology. 1988;8: 1125–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Madejon A, Castillo I, Bartolome J, et al. Detection of HDV-RNA by PCR in serum of patients with chronic HDV infection. J Hepatol. 1990;11:381–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Dinolfo L, Abate ML, Bertolo P, et al. Detection of hepatitis D virus RNA in serum by a reverse transcription, polymerase chain reaction-based assay. Int J Clin Lab Res. 1995;25:35–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Niro G, Casey J, Gravinese E, et al. Intrafamilial transmission of hepatitis delta virus: molecular evidence. J Hepatol. 1999;30: 564–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Schaper M, Rodríguez-Frías F, Jardi R, et al. Quantitative longitudinal evaluations of hepatitis delta virus RNA and hepatitis B virus DNA shows a dynamic, complex replicative profile in chronic hepatitis B and D. J Hepatol. 2010;52:658–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Aragona M, Macagno S, Caredda F, et al. Serological response to the hepatitis delta virus in hepatitis D. Lancet. 1987;1:478–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Smedile A, Lavarini C, Crivelli O, et al. Radioimmunoassay detection of IgM antibodies to the HBV-associated delta antigen: clinical significance in delta infection. J Med Virol. 1982;9:131–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Wu J, Chen T, Huang Y, et al. Natural history of hepatitis D viral superinfection: significance of viremia detected by polymerase chain reaction. Gastroenterology. 1995;108:796–802.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Zachou K, Yurdaydin C, Drebber U, et al. Quantitative HBsAg and HDV-RNA levels in chronic delta hepatitis. Liver Int. 2010;30: 430–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Kirk G, Astemborski J, Mehta S, et al. Assessment of liver fibrosis by transient elastography in persons with hepatitis C virus infection or HIV-hepatitis C virus coinfection. Clin Infect Dis. 2009;48: 963–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Zachou K, Yurdaydin C, Drebber U, et al. Quantitative HBsAg and HDV-RNA levels in chronic delta hepatitis. Liver Int. 2010;30:430–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Yurdaydin C, Bozkaya H, Gurel S, et al. Famciclovir treatment of chronic delta hepatitis. J Hepatol. 2002;37:266–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Niro GA, Ciancio A, Tillman H, et al. Lamivudine therapy in chronic delta hepatitis: a multicentre randomized-controlled pilot study. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2005;22:227–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Yurdaydin C, Bozkaya H, Onder F, et al. Treatment of chronic delta hepatitis with lamivudine vs lamivudine  +  interferon vs interferon. J Viral Hepat. 2008;15:314–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Garripoli A, Di Marco V, Cozzolongo R, et al. Ribavirin treatment for chronic hepatitis D: a pilot study. Liver. 1994;14:154–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Niro G, Ciancio A, Gaeta G, et al. Pegylated interferon alpha-2b as monotherapy or in combination with ribavirin in chronic hepatitis delta. Hepatology. 2006;44:713–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Sheldon J, Ramos B, Toro C, et al. Does treatment of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection reduce hepatitis delta virus (HDV) replication in HIV-HB-VHDV coinfected patients? Antivir Ther. 2008;13:97–102.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Martin-Carbonero L, Teixeira T, Poveda E, et al. Clinical and virological outcomes in HIV-infected patients with chronic hepatitis B on long-term nucleos(t)ide analogues. AIDS. 2011;25(1):73–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    McNair A, Cheng D, Monjardino J, et al. Hepatitis delta virus replication in vitro is not affected by interferon-alpha or -gamma despite intact cellular responses to interferon and dsRNA. J Gen Virol. 1994;75:1371–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Rosina F, Pintus C, Meschievitz C, et al. A randomized controlled trial of a 12-month course of recombinant human interferon-alpha in chronic delta (type D) hepatitis: a multicenter Italian study. Hepatology. 1991;13:1052–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Farci P, Mandas A, Coiana A, et al. Treatment of chronic hepatitis D with interferon alfa-2a. N Engl J Med. 1994;330:88–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Yurdaydin C, Wedemeyer H, Dalekos G, et al. A multicenter randomised study comparing the efficacy of pegylated interferon alfa-2A plus adefovir dipivoxil vs. pegylated interferon alfa-2A plus placebo vs. adefovir dipovoxil for the treatment of chronic delta hepatiticbrr: the intervention trial (HID-IT) (abstract). Hepatology. 2006;41(1):230.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Einav S, Glenn J. Prenylation inhibitors: a novel class of antiviral agents. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2003;52:883–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Meng X. Recent advances in hepatitis E virus. J Viral Hepat. 2010;17(8):598–9.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Ropp S, Tam A, Beames B, et al. Expression of the hepatitis E virus ORF1. Arch Virol. 2000;145:1321–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Graff J, Zhou Y, Torian U, et al. Mutations within potential glycosylation sites in the capsid protein of hepatitis E virus prevent the formation of infectious virus particles. J Virol. 2008;82:1185–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Zafrullah M, Ozdener M, Panda S, Jameel S. The ORF3 protein of hepatitis E virus is a phosphoprotein that associates with the cytoskeleton. J Virol. 1997;71:9045–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Graff J, Nguyen H, Yu C, et al. The open reading frame 3 gene of hepatitis E virus contains a cis-reactive element and encodes a protein required for infection of macaques. J Virol. 2005;79: 6680–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Emerson S, Nguyen H, Torian U, et al. ORF3 protein of hepatitis E virus is not required for replication, virion assembly or infection of hepatoma cells in vitro. J Virol. 2006;80:10457–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    WHO. Viral hepatitis statement A62/22. http://apps.who.int/gb/ebwha/pdf_files/A62/A62_22-en.pdf. Accessed 9 Sept 2010.
  67. 67.
    Meng X. Hepatitis E virus: animal reservoirs and zoonotic risk. Vet Microbiol. 2010;140:256–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Purcell R, Emerson S. Hepatitis E: an emerging awareness of an old disease. J Hepatol. 2008;48:494–503.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Pavio N, Meng XJ, Renou C. Zoonotic hepatitis E: animal reservoirs and emerging risks. Vet Res. 2010;41:46–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Gomatos P, Monier M, Arthur R, et al. Sporadic acute hepatitis caused by hepatitis E virus in Egyptian adults. Clin Infect Dis. 1996;23:195–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Clemente-Casares P, Pina S, Buti M, et al. Hepatitis E virus epidemiology in industrialized countries. Emerg Infect Dis. 2003;9:448–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Faramawi MF, Johnson E, Chen S, Pannala P. The incidence of hepatitis E virus infection in the general population of the USA. Epidemiol Infect. 2010;72:1–6.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Krawczynski K, Hepatitis E. Hepatology. 1993;17:932–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Teshale E, Grytdal S, Howard C, et al. Evidence of person-to-­person transmission of hepatitis E virus during a large outbreak in Northern Uganda. Clin Infect Dis. 2010;50:1006–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Bihl F, Negro F. Chronic hepatitis E in the immunosuppressed: a new source of trouble? J Hepatol. 2009;50:435–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Peron JM, Bureau C, Poirson H, et al. Fulminant liver failure from acute autochthonous hepatitis E in France: description of seven patients with acute hepatitis E and encephalopathy. J Viral Hepat. 2007;14:298–303.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Pavio N, Mansuy J. Hepatitis E in high-income countries. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2010;23:521–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Ohnishi S, Kang J, Maekubo H, et al. Comparison of clinical ­features of acute hepatitis caused by hepatitis E virus (HEV) ­genotypes 3 and 4 in Sapporo, Japan. Hepatol Res. 2006;36: 301–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Kamar N, Selves J, Mansuy JM, et al. Hepatitis E virus and chronic hepatitis in organ-transplant recipients. N Engl J Med. 2008;358: 811–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Dalton H, Bendall R, Keane F, et al. Persistent carriage of hepatitis E virus in patients with HIV infection. N Engl J Med. 2009;361: 1025–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Madejón A, Vispo E, Bottecchia M, et al. Lack of hepatitis E virus infection in HIV patients with advanced immunodeficiency or idiopathic liver enzyme elevations. J Viral Hepat. 2009;16:895–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Renou C, Lafeuillade A, Cadranel J, et al. Hepatitis E virus in HIV-infected patients. AIDS. 2010;24:1493–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Asher L, Innis B, Shrestha M, et al. Virus-like particles in the liver of a patient with fulminant hepatitis and antibody to hepatitis E virus. J Med Virol. 1990;31:229–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Patra S, Kumar A, Trivedi S, et al. Maternal and fetal outcomes in pregnant women with acute hepatitis E virus infection. Ann Intern Med. 2007;147:28–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Navaneethan U, Shata M. Hepatitis E and pregnancy: understanding the pathogenesis. Liver Int. 2008;28:1190–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Bhatia V, Singhal A, Panda S, et al. A 20-year single-center experience with acute liver failure during pregnancy: is the prognosis really worse? Hepatology. 2008;48:1577–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Renou C, Pariente A, Nicand E, et al. Pathogenesis of Hepatitis E in pregnancy. Liver Int. 2008;28:1465.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Takahashi M, Kusakai S, Mizuo H, et al. Simultaneous detection of immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgM antibodies against hepatitis E virus (HEV) is highly specific for diagnosis of acute HEV infection. J Clin Microbiol. 2005;43:49–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Zaki Mel S, Foud M, Mohamed A. Value of hepatitis E virus detection by cell culture compared with nested PCR and serological studies by IgM and IgG. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2009;56:73–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Clayson E, Myint K, Snitbhan R, et al. Viremia, fecal shedding, and IgM and IgG responses in patients with hepatitis E. J Infect Dis. 1995;172:927–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Favorov M, Fields H, Purdy M, et al. Serologic identification of hepatitis E virus infections in epidemic and endemic settings. J Med Virol. 1992;36:246–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Favorov M, Khudyakov Y, Mast E, et al. IgM and IgG antibodies to hepatitis E virus (HEV) detected by an enzyme immunoassay based on an HEV-specific artificial recombinant mosaic protein. J Med Virol. 1996;50:50–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Gyarmati P, Mohammed N, Norder H, et al. Universal detection of hepatitis E virus by two real-time PCR assays: TaqMan and Primer-Probe Energy Transfer. J Virol Methods. 2007;14:226–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Kamar N, Rostaing L, Abravanel F, et al. Ribavirin therapy inhibits viral replication in patients with chronic hepatitis E virus infection. Gastroenterology. 2010;139(5):1612–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Alric L, Bonnet D, Laurent G, Kamar N, Izopet J. Chronic hepatitis E virus infection: successful virologic response to pegylated interferon-alpha therapy. Ann Intern Med. 2010;153:135–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Shrestha M, Scott R, Joshi D, et al. Safety and efficacy of a recombinant hepatitis E vaccine. N Engl J Med. 2007;356:895–903.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Zhu F, Zhang J, Zhang X, et al. Efficacy and safety of a recombinant hepatitis E vaccine in healthy adults: a large-scale, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial. Lancet. 2010; 376(9744):895–902.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Castelnau C, Le Gal F, Ripault MP, Gordien E, Martinot-Peignoux M, Boyer N, et al. Efficacy of peginterferon alpha-2b in chronic hepatitis delta: relevance of quantitative RT-PCR for follow up. Hepatology. 2006;44(3):728–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Infectious DiseasesCarlos III HospitalMadridSpain
  2. 2.Department of Infectious DiseasesCarlos III HospitalMadridSpain

Personalised recommendations